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in  2011  with  funding  from 

California  State  Library  Califa/LSTA  Grant 





Biographical  Sketches 


The  Leading  Men  and  Women   of  the  Counties  Who  Have  Been 

Identified    with     Their    Growth    and    Development 

from  the  Early  Days  to  the  Present 








Portrait,  Peter  J.  Delay page     34 

D  Street,  Marysville,  in  1923 page     48 

Marysville's  First  Fire,  18S1 page  132 

Marysville   in   1854 page  132 

Portrait,   Mary   Murphy   Covillaud page  136 

Company  C,  Champion  Marksmen page  196 

Benny  Lynch  and  General  Sutter's  Gun page  218 

Sutter  Buttes,  Sutter  County page  226 

Sutter  County  Court  House,  Yuba  City page  270 

Yuba  County  Heroes pages  286  and  292 

Sutter   Count}'    Heroes page  300 



(Numbers  refer  to  pages.) 

List  of  Illustration's 2 

Table  of   Contents 3 

Index  of  Names 1 1 

Introductory 35 

"Tierra  de  las  Uvas!" — Origin  of  the  name  Yuba — Location  and  area  of 
Yuba  County — Boundaries — Climate — Products  and  natural  resources — Marys- 
ville.  "The  God-made  Home  of  Tree  and  Vine" — Fertility  of  Sutter  County's 
soil  (p.  36) — The  Sutter  Buttes — Gen.  John  A.  Sutter  and  Hock  Farm — Viti- 
cultural  and  horticultural  importance  of  Sutter  County.  Author's  acknowledg- 
ments  (p.  37). 



The  Days  of  the  Indian  and  the  Trapper.. 39 

Yuba  County's  place  in  the  history  of  the  State — Condition  prior  to 
Sutter's  arrival — Gen.  John  A.  Sutter  and  the  founding  of  New  Helvetia — Sutter 
and  Bidwell's  relations  with  Governor  Micheltorena  (p.  40) — Fremont's  rela- 
tions with  Castro  and  De  Arce  (p.  42) — Fremont's  camp  in  the  Buttes — The 
"Bear  Flag  Party."  Early  Settlers  and  Early  Grants  (p.  43) :  John  Sinclair, 
1841 — Hock  Farm,  1842 — Cordua's  Ranch,  1842 — The  Flugge  Grant — Sicard's 
Grant,  1844 — Johnson's  Grant,  1844 — Theodore  Sicard  (p.  44) — Don  Pablo 
Gutierrez — William  Johnson  and  Sebastian  Kyser — George  Patterson,  1845,  and 
"Sutter's  Garden" — Charles  Roether,  1845  (p.  45) — Jack  Smith,  1845 — Michael 
Nye.   1847 — Claude   Chana — Baptiste  Rouelle — Nicolaus  Allgeier   (p.  46). 


The  "Tragedy  of  the  Sierras" _ 49 

William  G.  Murphy,  survivor  of  the  Donner  Party — Reminiscences  of  the 
sufferings  of  the  Donner  Party,  as  related  by  Mr.  Murphy  to  C.  G.  McGlashan, 
and  recounted  by  the  latter  in  his  history  of  the  tragedy — Tuthill's  account — 
Vicissitudes  of  the  Donner  Party  as  related  by  James  F.  Reed,  a  member  of  the 
party,  who  was  instrumental  in  procuring  relief   (p.  51). 


The  Story  of  Joseph  Brown 53 

Diary  of  a  Forty-niner — The  Brown  family — Organization  of  the  train — 
"Larbert"  ox  and  "starbert"  ox — Dissatisfaction,  and  division  of  the  train  (p. 
54) — A  second  division  at  the  Lassen  Cut-off — Trouble  with  Indians  (p.  55) — A 
feast  at  Lassen  Ranch — Help  and  advice  from  Bidwell  (p.  56) — Life  in  the 
mining  camps — Murder  of  Mrs.  Bader — Floods  of  1852  and  1853  (p.  57) — 
Marysville  in  the  early  fifties  (p.  58) — Indian  raids,  and  the  killing  of  the 
Heacock  children — Prospecting  in  Nevada  (p.  59) — Trouble  with  the  Indians 
(p.  60) — In  the  cattle  business  in  Nevada  (p.  62) — Return  of  the  Brown  family 
to   Yuba   County — Early   settlers   in   Marysville    (p.  63). 


Yuba  County  in  the  Late  Forties 63 

Discovery  of  gold  in  Yuba  County — Realty  transactions  and  changes  made 
by  the  early  settlers — Credit  for  first  discover}-  of  gold  north  of  the  American 
River  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Marysville  (p.  64) — Discoveries  by  Michael  Nye 
and  Jonas  Spect — Camp  Far  West — Realty  transactions  in  1849  (p.  65) — Board 
of  commissioners  elected  at  Sacramento  to  frame  a  code  of  laws  for  the  dis- 
trict— First  election  under  the  code — Town  of  Vernon  founded — Changes  in  pro- 
prietorship of  "Nye's  Ranch  (p.  66) — The  Kennebec  Company — Survey  of  the 
town  of  "Yubaville."  later  named  Marysville  (p.  67) — A  lively  real-estate 
market — Settlements  on   Bear  River — A  counterfeiter  of  1849. 


Yuba  County  in  the  Fifties 68 

An  era  of  growth  and  progress — Advantages  in  Marysville's  situation — 
Quieting  of  the  title  to  Marysville  lands  (p.  69) — Choice  of  tribunal,  and  dealing 
with  the  criminal  element — Nicolaus  Allgeier  and  the  town  of  Nicolaus  (p.  70) — 
Appearance  and  population  of  Marysville  in  1850 — Early  public  religious  ser- 
vices— Business  firms  (p.  71) — Eliza,  Linda,  Featherton,  and  other  early  settle- 
ments— First  white  child  born  in  the  county  (p.  72) — First  election  of  county 
officers,  April,  1850 — First  session  of  district  court  in  Marysville,  June  3.  1850 
(p.  73)— The  Squatter  movement  in  Marysville — First  issue  of  the  Marysville 
Herald,  August  6,  1850 — State  election,  October,  1850 — Epidemic  of  cholera — 
City  charter  drafted  for  Marysville  (p.  74) — Settlers  in  the  early  fifties — Bound- 
aries of  Yuba  County,  as  established  on  February  18,  1850 — Marysville  the 
county-seat  (p.  75) — Division  of  county  into  fifteen  townships,  August  24, 
1850 — Legislative  bill  incorporating  Marysville  passed  February  5,  1851 — Elec- 
tion of  city  officers — Boundaries  of  the  city,  as  laid  down  in  original  charter — 
Boundaries  of  Yuba  County  changed,  April  25,  1851 — Farming  at  Hock  Farm  in 
1851 — Prospecting  at  Marysville  landing — County  divided  into  eleven  townships, 
August  9.  1851  (p.  76) — Rents  in  1851 — A  Marriage  at  Hock  Farm — Repeal  of 
the  city  charter,  April  10,  1852 — Reincorporation  of  Marysville,  March  7,  1876, 
and  new  boundaries — Comparison  of  county's  population,  1852,  1860,  1870  and 
1877 — Marysville  Township — Gray's  City  Hospital  (p.  77) — Practicing  attor- 
neys— Newspapers — Business  firms  and  real-estate  projects — Literary  and 
musical  talent  (p.  78) — Gold  shipments — Depressing  effect  of  Fraser  River 
and  Washoe  excitements — State  Fair. 

Navigation  on  the  Rivers 79 

Status  of  navigation  previous  to  1849 — Arrival  of  the  Linda  at  Rose's 
Ranch  (p.  80) — The  Lawrence  and  the  Governor  Dana — Steamboat  fares  and 
traffic — The  channel  cleared — Fate  of  the  Fawn — California  Steam  Navigation 
Company  and  Citizens'  Steam  Navigation  Company — The  C.  M.  Small  and  the 
D.  E.  Knight — Filling  of  the  channels  by  hydraulic  mining,  and  cessation  of 
navigation — The  move  to  reestablish  navigation  on  the  Feather  River. 


Transportation  in  Early  and  Later  Days.. 81 

Pack  Trains  and  Wagon  Trains:  W.  H.  Parks,  J.  B.  Whitcomb,  and 
Charles  Daniels;  pack  train  from  Marysville  to  Foster's  Bar — John  Seaward; 
pack  train  from  Downieville  to  Foster's  Bar — Extent  of  the  traffic  to  the 
mines — The  wagon  trains.  Stage  Lines  (p.  82) :  Growth  of  the  traffic — The 
California  Stage  Company — An  old  landmark.  The  Pony  Express:  Bronze 
marker  at  site  of  Western  terminal  of  pony  express,  Sacramento — Significance 
of  the  pony  express — Organization  and  methods  (p.  83) — The  arrival  of  the  first 
rider — Regulations  and  service  (p.  84) — Suspension,  October  27,  1861.  First 
Local  Telegraph  Lines:  Line  from  business  section  of  San  Francisco  to  Golden 
Gate — Line  connecting  Marysville,  Sacramento,  Stockton,  and  San  Jose — Line 
from  San  Francisco  to  Placerville,  via  Sacramento.  The  Railroads:  California 
Pacific  Railroad — California  Northern  Railroad  (p.  85) — California  Central  Rail- 
road— Western  Pacific  Railroad  (p.  86) — Earlier  attempts — Sacramento  Valley 
Railroad — Present  railway  facilities   (p.  87) — Remembers   first  train. 


Gold  Mining  in  Yuba  County 88 

Old  landmark  at  Timbuctoo — Early-day  terms,  customs,  and  methods — 
Development  of  hydraulic  mining  and  dredge  mining  (p.  90) — Yuba  County's 
leading  place  as  a  mining  centre  (p.  91).  Proposed  Dams  at  Bullards  Bar  and 
Smartsville:  Interests  behind  the  project  (p.  92) — Prospective  resumption  of 
hydraulic  mining — Water  and  power  interests — Possibilities  of  danger  (p.  93) — 
Letter  of  Major  Grant — Replv  of  the  editor  of  the  Bee  (p.  94) — Later  details 
of  the  project   (p.  98). 

Floods  and  Flood  Control : 99 

Notable  Floods:  Indian  tradition  of  a  great  flood,  about  1805 — Indian 
Peter's  account  of   the   flood   in   the   winter   of   1825-1826 — Floods   of   the   late 


forties— Account  of  the  floods  of  1852-1853 — Other  early  floods  (p.  100) — The 
flood  of  1875  (p.  101).  Flood  Control  (p.  103):  The  levees;  their  construction 
and  improvement — Levee  district  and  levee  commissioners  (p.  104) — Reclama- 
tion districts  (p.  105). 


Crimes  and  Criminals 106 

Near  lynchings,  in  cases  of  Greenwood  and  Keiger.  Noted  Road  Bandits: 
Holding  up  of  the  Camptonville  stage,  October,  1852 — Tom  Bell  (p.  107) — Jim 
Webster  (p.  108) — "Jack  Williams'  Ghost" — Tommie  Brown  and  brother — 
"Black  Bart."  Other  Noted  Criminals  and  Crimes:  Killing  of  "Mountain 
Scott" — Murder  of  Dr.  Gray  (p.  109) — Decker-Jewett  bank  robbery  (p.  110) — 
Killing  of  Dennis  Dufficy  (p.  Ill) — Race-track  murder  (p.  112) — Murder  in 
Schimpville  (p.  114) — Assassination  of  George  Bell — A  Christmas  Day  crime 
(p.  115) — Robbery  of  Oregon  express — Murder  of  Julius  Pier  (p.  116) — Tragic 
results  of  I.  W.  W.  agitation  in  the  hop-fields  (p.  117) — In  memoriam  (p.  119) — 
Murder  of  the  Picards.  Victims  among  the  Police  (p.  120)  :  John  Sperbeck — 
James  Mock  (p.  121) — Francis  M.  Heenan. 


Courts  and  Bar  of  Yuba  County :....  122 

The  Whipping-post  in  Yuba  County:  Case  of  the  People  of  the  State  of 
California  against  Frederick  Burcholder  and  John  Barrett,  from  the  Register 
of  Suits,  April  7  and  8,  1850 — Directory  account  of  a  whipping-post  case.  The 
Code  of  Honor  (p.  123) :  Near-duel  between  judges — Cause,  a  woman — News- 
paper men  mix — Another  bloodless  duel — Turner-Howser  duel  (p.  124) — Last 
on  the  county  records.  Judicial  Organization:  District  Court — Court  of  Ses- 
sions— County  Court  (p.  125) — Probate  Court — Recorder's,  Mayor's  and  Police 
Courts — Justices  of  the  Peace.  Bar  of  Yuba  County  (p.  126):  Associates  of 
Judge  Field  in  Marysville — Other  Members  of  early  bar  of  county — Marysville 
attorneys  of  a  later  day   (p.  128) — Present-day  members  of  Yuba  County  bar. 


County  Officials,  Past  and  Present 128 

Judges  and  Justices:  District  judges — County  judges — Superior  Court 
judges — Justices  of  the  peace — Constables  in  the  Justice  Court  of  Marysville 
Township  (p.  129).  District  attorneys — Sheriffs  and  coroners — Public  Ad- 
ministrators— Members  of  the  board  of  supervisors — County  assessors,  treas- 
urers, and  tax-collectors  (p.  130) — County  clerks  and  county  auditors  and 
recorders.  Other  County  Officials:  Superintendents  of  schools — County 


The  City  of  Marysville -— -  133 

The  Christening  of  the  City:  Account  of  Stephen  J.  Field's  early  activi- 
ties— The  city  named  (p.  137) — A  tribute  to  Marysville's  godmother — A  highly 
prized  souvenir  (p.  138).  An  Early  Account  of  the  City  (p.  139):  History 
of  Nye's  Ranch  in  preface  of  first  Marysville  directory,  1853 — Earliest  form  of 
government — First  county  election — New  city  incorporated  (p.  140) — Old  toll- 
bridge  between  Marysville  and  Yuba  City.  The  Baptism  of  Fire:  Marysville's 
first  fire — Other  early  fires  (p.  141) — The  fire  at  the  Southern  Pacific  freight 
sheds  (p.  143) — Fire  and  flood  combine — Frost  and  Shaffer  fire  (p.  144) — 
Later  fires — Esteemed  youth  loses  life  (p.  145) — Burning  of  the  old  theater 
building — Fire  chief  loses  life — Destruction  of  the  Binet  Row — Other  fires 
(p.  146)— Biggest  of  all.  Marysville  Fire  Department:  The  city's  first  fire 
company — Other  early  companies — Fraternity  and  rivahy  among  the  early 
companies  (p.  147) — Personnel  of  the  department  (p.  148) — Improvements 
in  equipment.  Newspapers  of  the  City  (p.  149) :  The  Marysville  Herald — 
The  California  Express— The  Daily  Inquirer  (p.  150)— The  Weekly  Spiritual- 
ist— Marysville  Daily  News,  and  Daily  National  Democrat— The  Daily 
and  Weeky  Appeal— The  Marysville  Daily  Standard  (p.  151)— The  Marysville 
Democrat.  Early  Industries  and  Business  Firms:  Marysville  Foundry — Em- 
pire Foundry— Marysville  Woolen  Mills  (p.  152)— The  Marysville  Winery- 
Buckeye  Flour  Mills— A  faithful  watchman— Trayner  &  Ellis  Flour  Mills  (p. 
153) — Early  carriage  and  wagon  works— Union  Lumber  Company—Other 
manufacturing  industries  of  the  early  days — Earlv  express  companies  (p.  154) 
Other  early  business  firms.     Financial  Institutions   (p.  155):     Earliest  banking 


houses — Decker-Jewett  Bank — The  Rideout  string  of  banks  (p.  156) — Northern 
California  Bank  of  Savings — First  National  Bank  of  Marysville.  Hotels,  Past 
and  Present  (p.  157):  Early  structures,  1850-1852 — The  Western  Hotel— 
The  Dawson  House — United  States  Hotel  (p.  158) — Other  early-day  hos- 
telries — Projected  hotel.  Public  Buildings:  Public  buildings  erected  in  the 
early  fifties— The  Courthouse  (p.  159)— The  County  Hospital— The  City  Hall 
and  other  buildings.  The  Packard  Free  Library  (p.  160):  The  Marysville 
Library  Association — Organization  and  growth  of  the  City  Library  (p.  161)  — 
The  library  building — John  Q.  Packard,  philanthropist  (p.  162).  Public  Parks  . 
and  Grounds  (p.  163)  :  Cortez,  Napoleon,  Washington,  and  Yuba  Squares — 
Knight  Recreation  Park — Marysville's  Free  Motor  Park — List  of  city's  breath- 
ing spots  (p.  164) — Fealty  of  a  fraternity.  Amusements  and  Sports  (p.  165)  : 
First  public  entertainment  in  Marysville — Shows  and  showhouses — The  famed 
Intrepid  Baseball  Club  (p.  166) — Harvest  Festival  in  Marysville's  Chinatown. 
Marysville's  Police  Department  (p.  167) :  Early  Vigilance  Committees — 
Officers  of  the  police  department  (p.  168).  City  Officials,  Past  and  Present  (p. 
169):  Mayors  and  aldermen,  1851-1875 — Mayors  and  councilmen,  1875-1919 
(p.  170) — Mayors  and  councilmen  under  new  charter  (p.  171) — Other  city 


Schools  of  the  City  and  County 172 

Birthplace  of  the  school  system  of  Marysville:  the  private  school  of  Rev. 
S.  V.  Blakeslee,  May.  1850— Rev.  Mr.  Thatcher's  school.  Early  Public  School 
System:  Organization  and  growth,  in  detail,  1851-1870.  Other  Early-day 
Schools  (p.  173) :  Marysville  Eclectic  Institute — Poston  Seminary — State  Re- 
form School  (p.  175) — Knoxville  Institute  (p.  176) — Other  private  schools 
(p.  177).  The  County's  Present  School  System:  Marysville  High  School — 
Growth  of  the  city  schools   (p.  178) — Present  rural  schools. 

Churches  of  Marysville 179 

Early  religious  work  of  Revs.  Washburne,  Wilson,  Burrell,  Blakeslee, 
Hunt,  and  Brier.  First  Presbyterian  Church  (p.  180) :  Extracts  from  the  jour- 
nal of  Rev.  W.  W.  Brier,  1850,  and  account  of  the  church  to  date.  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  (p.  181):  First  Methodist  quarterly  conference,  June  15, 
1850 — First  meeting  house  erected  in  Marysville,  on  D  Street,  1850 — Pastors 
and  officials — Present  church  edifice.  St.  Joseph's  Catholic  Church  (p.  182) : 
Work  of  Fathers  Acker,  Anderson,  Ingraham;  and  Magganotta.  1851-1853 — Erec- 
tion of  cathedral,  1855,  and  subsequent  history.  The  Baptist  Church  (p.  183): 
■  Organization  of  work  in  1854,  under  Rev.  O.  B.  Stone — Founding  of  Mt.  Olivet 
Baptist  Church,  1856;  officials  and  church  building.  African  M.  E.  Church: 
Organization  in  1854 — First  pastor  and  trustees — Destruction  of  old  church  and 
erection  of  new.  St.  John's  Episcopal  Church  (p.  184) :  Formation  of  society, 
April  30,  1855 — First  officials — Successive  rectors — Church  edifice.  German 
Methodist  Church — Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception — First  Christian 
Church — First  Church  of  Christ,   Scientist   (p.   185). 


Fraternal,  Social  and  Literary  Organizations 185 

Influence  and  work  of  the  benevolent  orders  in  the  early  days — The 
Masons— Marysville  Lodge,  No.  9,  F.  &  A.  M. — Marvsville  Masonic  Hall  (p. 
186)— The  DeLong  Collection— Corinthian  Lodge,  No.  9,  F.  &  A.  M.— Inde- 
pendent Order  of  Odd  Fellows  (p.  187)— Independent  Order  of  B'nai  B'rith— 
Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians — Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks  (p. 
188) — The  Elks'  Home — Foresters  of  America — Knights  of  Columbus  (p: 
189) — Other  fraternal  orders.  Societies  and  Clubs:  Marvsville  Pioneer  So- 
ciety—Marysville  Art   Club   (p.  190)— The  Shakespeare   Club. 


Military  and  After-War  Organizations 191 

Local  military  organizations  during  the  Civil  War— The  Yuba  Guards 
(p.  192)— Marysville  Rifles— Marvsville  Union  Guards— Marvsville  Zouaves— 
Marysvdk-  Light  Artillery— Sherman  Guards— Marysville  GuaVds.  Company 
C,  Champions  of  the  World  (p.  193):  List  of  local  contestants,  account  of  the 
event,  and  subsequent  history  of  the  company— World's  championship  record 


(p.  194) — Key  to  plate.  After-War  Organizations  (p.  197) :  Yuba-Sutter  Post. 
American  Legion — Bishop-Langenbach  Post,  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars — 
Women's  Auxiliary  to  the  American  Legion,  and  "40  and  8"   (p.   198). 


Other  Towns  of  the  County.... 198 

Marysville's  sister  settlements.  Wheatland:  ,_J>etrlement  and  history — 
Farmers  Bank  of  Wheatland  (p.  199) — Organizations  of  the  town — The  weekly 
newspaper — Men  who  made  Wheatland  (p.  200).  Browns  Valley :  l_Mines  and 
mining  claims — Hotels,  stores,  and  stopping  places  (p.  201) — The  Hooker 
Guards.  Indiana  Ranch:  Early  settlers  and  origin  of  name;  Miss  Phillips' 
private  school.  Dobbins  Ranch  \Jjp.  202) :  William  Dobbins — Subsequent 
owners  of  the  ranch.  Greenville:  L^ct&ation  and  early  history — "Nine-horse 
Ditch" — School.  Strawberry  Valley:  Name  and  early  history — The  town  at 
present  (p.  203).  Hansonville:  Location  and  early  settlers — Former  popula- 
tion— School.  Brownsville  (p.  204) :  Location  and  early  industries — Odd 
Fellows  and  Good  Templars  lodges — Methodist  Episcopal  Church — Later 
growth.  Challenge:  Origin  of  name — Industries.  Foster's  Bar:  Location — 
William  Foster,  original  proprietor  and  mine-owner.  Bullard's  Bar:  Dr.  Bul- 
lard,  pioneer  miner — Other  early  settlers — First  bridge  (p.  205) — Bullard's 
Guards — Other  bars  in  the  vicinity — Bullard's  Bar  dam.  Camptonville:  Loca- 
tion and  early  mining  operations — Early  stores  and  hotels — Robert  Campton 
(p.  206) — Stage  lines — Early  schools — Early  water  companies — Yuba  Light 
Infantry.  Smartsville  (p.  207) :  Pioneer  settlers  of  the  town — Union  Church — 
Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception — Sketch  of  Catharine  Johnson  Berry. 
Timbuctoo  (p.  209) :  Origin  of  the  name — Early  importance  as  a  mining  center 
— Wells,  Fargo  &  Company's  building — Former  population — Amusements — 
First  school  (p.  210).  Sucker  Flat  tformeriv  Gatesville) :  Early  settlers — 
Near-by  towns.  Rose  Bar:  First  discovery  of  gold  on  Yuba  River.  June  2, 
1848,  by  James  Spect — Other  early  settlers — William  H.  Parks — Mining  on 
the  river  and  in  the  ravines.  Sicard  Flat:  Theodore  Sicard,  1860 — Surface 
diggings  and  hydraulic  mining.  Long  Bar  (p.  211):  Mining  begun,  1849 — A 
state  visit  to  the  Nash  girls — Population  in  18S0.  Oregon  House:  An  early 
landmark — A  grand  party  at  the  Oregon  House,  1853 — The  Yuba  Mountaineers. 
Parks  Bar:  David  Parks,  1848 — Immense  profits  of  his  trading  post  and  store 
(p.  212) — Richness  of  the  gold  deposits.  Settlements  of  Short  Duration:  A 
list,  by  townships,  of  the  early  mining  camps. 


Who    Remembers? ,.... 213 

A  chapter  of  reminiscences  of  local  interest,  featuring  scenes  of  b3'gone 
days,  customs  long  since  outgrown  in'  the  progress  of  change  and  improvement, 
unique  characters  once  familiar  on  the  streets  of  the  city,  social  events  of  the 
past,  and  the  pastimes  and  pranks  of  boyhood  days. 


General  Sutter's  Gun •--  219 

Description  of  General  Sutter's  gun — The  gun  now  in  Dr.  J.  H.  Barr's 
collection  of  firearms  and  curios — Affidavit  of  authenticity — A  companion  relic, 
air-rifle  brought  from  Switzerland  by  General  Sutter — Description  of  the 
weapon — Benny  Lynch,  Marysville's  Lilliputian  pioneer — Brief  account  of 
his  life. 

Sutter  County 220 

One  of  the  original  counties — Subsequent  territorial  changes.  County 
Seat  and  County  Buildings:  Various  changes  in  location  of  county  scat — Judge 
Keyser's  review — County  Courthouse  (p.  221) — Hall  of  Records  (p.  222) — Nico- 
laus,  Auburn  and  Vernon  as  county  seat — The  courthouse  fire  of  1871 — Details 
of  the  fire  of  1899  (p.  223).  Sutter  County  Buttes  (p.  224):  Description—Min- 
eral  deposits.      Climate   and   Water   Supply:    Peculiar  adaptability   of   soil   and 


climate  to  agricultural  and  horticultural  pursuits — Irrigation  (p.  227).  Reclam- 
ation and  Levee  Districts:  Number  of  districts — Names  and  locations  of  dis- 
tricts— The  Sutter  Basin  Project.  Agricultural  Products  and  Industries  (p.  229)  : 
Summary  of  most  important  products — Dairying,  poultry-raising,  and  stock- 
raising.  Transportation:  Exceptional  transportation  facilities  by  land  and 
water — Early  ferries  and  toll  bridges.  Other  Advantages  (p.  231)  :  The  first 
"no-saloon"  county  in  California — Birthplace  of  Thompson  Seedless  Grape 
industry  and  of  the  Phillips  Cling  Peach — Fish  and  wild  game. 


Native  Indian  Tribes : - 232 

Yuba  City  once  the  site  of  an  Indian  village — Brief  review  of  the  tribes 
and  their  locations — Bancroft's  classification  of  the  Indians  of  the  Coast — 
Johnson's  comment,  in  government  report  of  1850  (p.  233) — Johnson's  list  of  the 
tribes — Locations  of  tribes  according  to  Bidwell — Location  and  description  of 
other  tribes.  Early-day  Indian  Troubles  (p.  234) :  Reference  to  these  troubles, 
and  to  measures  taken  for  their  settlement,  in  the  Placer  Times  of  May  20, 
1850 — General  Green's  report  (p.  235) — Copy  of  the  treaty. 



Crimes  and  Criminals '. —  238 

Comparative  peace  and  quiet  of  the  county — Early-day  appeals  to  mob 
law:  Record  of  an  early  court  proceeding,  and  the  hanging  of  Washington 
Rideout  and  of  John  Jackson — Attitude  of  the  press  (p.  239) — Necessity  for 
occasional  activities  outside  the  law  in  early  days — Joaquin  Murietta  and  Tom 
Bell  (p.  240)— William  Wells. 


The  Era  of  Agriculture 241 

Present  remarkable  transformation  of  the  county  from  agricultural  to 
horticultural  and  viticultural  district — Early  agricultural  and  stock-raising 
activities  (1845-1846) — Primitive  methods  of  farming — Introduction  of  modern 
methods  (p.  242) — Other  crops  and  further  development — Importation  and 
exportation  of  wheat  (p.  243) — The  Farmers'  Cooperative  Union  of  Sutter 
County  (p.  244) — Farmers'  Union  Bank — Producers'  Bank  of  Yuba  City 
(p.  245) — Nicolaus  Farmers'  Grain  Warehouse — Early-day  growers  of  grain — 
Rice  a  new  crop  in  Sutter  County  (p.  246) — Beans  and  the  full  dinner  pail. 


Horticulture  and  Viticulture 247 

Marvelous  transformation  of  Sutter  County  from  vast  grain  fields  to  a 
panorama  of  orchards  and  vineyards — A  three-fold  union  of  earth's  greatest 
riches:  soil,  water,  and  climate — The  remarkable  valley  deposits  of  silt-like 
loam.  Beginnings  of  the  Fruit  Industry:  First  orchard  in  Northern  California, 
planted  by  Gen.  John  A.  Sutter,  at  Hock  Farm — Commissioner  Stabler's 
account  of  the  beginnings  of  the  fruit  industry  in  Sutter  County — Abbott  and 
Phillips  (p.  248) — Birth  of  the  Phillips  cling  peach — Other  pioneer  fruit  growers 
(p.  249).  Present  status  of  the  Fruit  Industry  (p.  250):  Data  from  Commis- 
sioner Stabler's  census  of  the  county — Quality,  and  tonnage  per  acre — New 
early-fruiting  midsummer  peach  (p.  251) — Viticulture — Almonds  at  home  in 
Sutter  County — Prunes  and  plums  (p.  252) — Growing  and  packing  of  figs — Fruit 
plantings  in  1923. 


The  Fight  Against  Hydraulic  Mining... 253 

Strained  relations  between  the  mountain  and  valley  sections  during  period 
of  litigation  against  hydraulic  mining — Work  of  the  Anti-Debris  Associations — 
Hydraulicking  defined  (p.  254) — Magnitude  of  the  menace — Litigation  in  the 
State  courts  (p.  255) — Relief  in  the  Federal  courts — The  Sawyer  Decision 
(p.  256) — Valley  men  who  stood  in  the  vanguard  (p.  257) — George  Ohleyer 
(p.  258)— A  song  of  victory  (p.  260)— The  Caminetti  Act  (p.  261). 



Work  of  the  Women's  Clubs 261 

The  six  clubs  of  the  county  affiliated  with  the  California  Federation  of 
Women's  Clubs — Bi-County  Federation  of  Women's  Clubs — Unveiling  of  mon- 
ument to  Fremont  (p.  262) :  Newspaper  account  of  the  ceremonies  on  the 
occasion  of  the  unveiling  of  the  memorial — Cross  to  surmount  the  Buttes 
(p.  263) :  Bishop  Moreland's  statement  in  advocacy  of  the  movement  for  the 
erection  of  a  permanent  cross  (p.  264)  ;  formation  of  the  Sutter  Butte  Cross 


Public  Officials  and  Professional  Men 264 

Political  and  judicial  association  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties — Senators 
of  the  Sixth  District  (1851-1923) — Members  of  the  Assembly,  Eighth  District 
(1851-1923)  (p.  265) — District,  County  and  Superior  Court  judges — District 
attorneys  (p.  266) — Sheriffs,  coroners,  and  public  administrators — Members  of 
the  board  of  supervisors — County  assessors  and  county  treasurers — County 
clerks  and  county  auditors  and  recorders — Other  county  officials  (p.  267) :  Su- 
perintendents of  schools,  county  surveyors.  Professional  Men:  Yuba  City 
barristers  of  early  and  later  days — Physicians  practicing  in  Sutter  County  in 
early  and  later  days. 


Yuba  City 268 

The  City  in  Early  Days :  Deeding  of  the  site  of  the  city  by  Capt.  John  A. 
Sutter,  July  27,  1849 — Survey  of  the  prospective  city — Early  historian's  state- 
ment of  the  advantages  of  the  site  of  Yuba  City  over  that  of  Nye's  Ranch 
(Marysville) — The  first  store — Rivalry  between  Yuba  City  and  Marysville — 
Reminiscences  of  1850  (p.  273)  :  Facts  and  incidents  related  by  William  Arm- 
strong— Early  development  (p.  274) — Incorporation  of  the  c^ty.  Yuba  City 
Today  (p.  275) :  Resume  of  city,  as  given  in  article  prepared  by  Sutter  County 
Chamber  of  Commerce  and  San  Francisco  magazine — Municipal  water-works — 
Street-paving  and  zoning  (p.  276) — Memorial  Park — Masonic  Lodge — Odd  Fel- 
lows Lodge  (p.  277) — Other  Yuba  City  lodges — Resident  veterans  of  Corinth 
Post,  No.  80,  G.  A.  R.  (p.  278). 


Other  Towns  of  the  County 278 

Rapid  development  of  the  thriving  farming  communities  of  the  county. 
Live  Oak:  Location  and  business  interests — Transformation  of  outlying  dis- 
tricts under  irrigation — Chief  products — Public  schools.  Nicolaus:  Shipping 
and  commercial  center  for  southern  part  of  Sutter  County — Judge  Keyser's 
reminiscences  (p.  279) — First  Christmas  in  California — Churches  of  the  city 
(p.  280).  Sutter  City:  Location  and  description — Churches — Sutter  City  High 
School  (p.  281).  Meridian:  Advantageous  location — Reclamation  District  No. 
70 — Church  activities — Settlement  and  early  growth.  Pennington.  Pleasant 
Grove   (p.  282),  and  other  towns. 



Summary  of  Patriotic  Activities  in  the  "Twin  Counties"  During  the 
World  War..... -----  283 

Loval  Americanism  of  the  people — Work  of  the  Red  Cross  and  its  auxili- 
aries— Yuba-Sutter  Chapter  of  the  Red  Cross,  and  its  work  at  the  Packard 
Library — Branch  meeting  places — Sutter  County  headquarters — Research  work 
of  Mrs.  G.  W.  Harney,  of  Marysville,  and  Mrs.  Hugh  Moncur,  of  Yuba  City, 
in  gathering  and  preserving  the  records  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties'  hero 
dead — Mr.  Henry  M.  Rideout's  introduction  to  their  work. 



Yuba  County  Heroes 284 

Lester  A.  Bishop — Lewis  J.  Blodget — Claude  Bayne  Boswell — Fred  T. 
Bottler  (p.  287)— James  M.  Brown— Charles  Fred  Cassano  (p.  288) — Richard 
Norton  Coupe — Patrick  Henry  Dugan — Frank  Raymond  Gengler  (p.  289)  — 
Lawrence  Gray — Bert  J.  Hale — Earl  Dewey  Hall  (p.  290) — Preston  Francis 
Hendricks — Edward  Hove — Arthur  Eugene  Linnell — Charles  William  McCon- 
aughy — Lewis  Melton  McCurry  (p.  293) — Wilton  Lyle  McDonald — Edward  J. 
McGanney  (p.  294) — John  E.  Milligan — William  Lee  Norton — Horatio  Devore 
Poole  (p."  295)— Wilfred  Rudolph  Smith— Charles  S.  Waller— William  Oliver 
White  (p.  296) — John  Zvijerkoviclv 

Sutter  County  Heroes 297 

Trugva  M.  Bordsen — Joseph  Miner  Burns — William  Stewart  Cannon  (p. 
298) — Manuel  F.  Gomes — Herman  L.  Hansen — Paul  John  Lagenbach — Sidney 
Henry  Lyall  (p.  301) — Harold  J.  Moore — Elmer  Elwood  Van  Lew — Everett 
Kelly  Wisner   (p.  302). 

Roll  of  Honor 303 

Classified  List  of  War  Heroes  from  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties  who  made 
the  supreme  sacrifice  in  the  service  of  their  country  during  the  World  War,  and 
those  since  deceased,  including:  Yuba  County  Heroes — Sutter  County  Heroes 
— Heroes  Deceased  Since  the  War. 


(Numbers  refer  to  pages.) 


Abbott,  Alexander  Franklin 326 

Abbott,  Mary  E 326 

Adams,  Burwell  B 660 

Addington,    David   Morgan,    M.D...  410 

Adkins,    Oliver   Perry 1186 

Adloff,  Mrs.  Mary  K.  Dean 1312 

Alban,  Conrad 1303 

Albrecht,    Louis    F 587 

Alderman,    Foster    Ferber 1181 

Alderman,  Roger  L 871 

Alexander,   Clarence   M 1226 

Alexander,    Claude   W 1324 

Allen,    Edward    W 951 

Allnett,  John  W 1263 

Alvernez,  Antone 797 

Ames,   John   L 560 

Anderson,  William 1233 

Andreason,    John    C 1192 

Andreason,  John  Christian,  Sr 959 

Andreason,  Laurentine 959 

Arbucco,  Andrew  G 715 

Arfsten,  Anton  Dietrich 1232 

Armstead,  Albert  Hamilton 617 

Armstrong,  Jasper  N.,  Jr 546 

Arnold,  Wylo  J. 921 

Arnoldy,    Elmer    Francis 709 

Arnoldy,  Mat 575 

Ashburn,   Charles   Edmund 1258 

Ashford,    Nelson    D 999 

Ashford,   Richard   Carleton 1048 

Ashford,  Wilson  Weslev 1204 

Ashley,  J.  A 1066 

Ashley.   Jav   W 1270 

Atherton,  William  G 1 157 


Backus,  John  Horace 1294 

Bailev,  Arthur 1258 

Bailev,  Mrs.    Elizabeth : 951 

Bailey,    R.    H 1310 

Bainbridge,  Albert  Pike 508 

Baker,   Frank 1322 

Baker,    George    B 956 

Baldwin,  Arthur  T 748 

Baldwin,  James  C 532 

Ball,   Frank 796 

Barker,    Herbert 475 

Barrett,  John  Joseph 1263 

Barrie,  James  B 1255 

Baumgardner,   George   M 1015 

Baun,  Louis  D 784 

Bean,  Arnold  R 752 

Bean,  Joel 440 

Bean,  John  A 639 

Bean,  Mrs.  Marv  A 440 

Bean,   Paris    G 1316 

Becker,  Adolph  Fred 1302 

Becker,  Charles  J 527 

Becker,  Charles  J 1269 

Beik,  William  526 

Beilby,   Charles   W 1295 

Beilby,  Chester  R 1323 

Bell,  J.  W 759 

Bender,  Joseph  (Krull  &  Bender) .  .  .     564 

Benton,  Fred  Norman 1119 

Berg,    Henry   Frederick 543 

Bernal,  Valentine  E 403 

Berry,  Mrs.  Ida  E 783 

Best,    Charles    G ' 1327 

Best,  Henry 321 

Best,  Samuel  E 552 

Betty,  Horace  Ackley 614 

Betty,    Leonard 676 

Bevan,  Richard  Edwin 538 

Bevan,  Thomas  Edward 467 

Bigelow,  W.  F 595 

Bihlman,  Anthony  William 1288 

Bihlman,  George  316 

Bihlman,   George  H 600 

Billings,  E.  F 550 

Binninger,  M.  H 445 

Bissett,  Lee  H 1257 

Bisset,   Thomas   McCov 1275 

Blackford,   Price 433 

Blanchard,  Milton  Eugene 1116 

Blue,  Henry 605 

Boardman,  Cassius  F 849 

Bohon,    George   B 1254 

Booth,   Frank   Martin 1080 

Bosard,  Andrew  Keller 830 

Boulton,  Arthur  H 980 

Bourgeois,   Joseph   T 1087 

Bowen,  Chester  L 896 

Bovd,  C.  R S13 

Bovd,   Charles  R.,  Jr 1225 

Bovd,   Eugene,   M 1262 

Bovd,  George  T 623 

Bovnton,  Ed  A 578 

Bradlev,  Capt.  C.  T 555 

Bradley,  Miss  Eva  M 332 

Brass,  Joseph •  •  •     334 

Bremer,   Frank   G 1040 

Brill,  Mrs.  Evelyn  J 566 

Brittan,  George  E 353 

Britton,    Sam    Bradley 1016 

Brock,  Isaac  Norton 347 

Brock,  Mrs.  Jeanette  M 347 

Brockman,  John  Henry 679 

Brown,  Antone  Francis l-'l 

Brown,  Dan  F 1012 

Brown,   James Jh 

Brown,  Kenneth  R 624 

Brownlee,  Archie  L }15o 

Bruce,  Edward  Wilcoxon 1 307 

Bruce,  Frank  H 1123 

Bryant,  Walter  J 929 

Brvdeu,  James £« 

Buchanan,  Wilson  Murray MU 

Buckingham,  Mrs.  Amanda  Ellen...      563 

Buckingham,  Henry  1032 

Burch,  Harry  A 830 



Burmood,  William  Henry 1202 

Burns,  Clarence  W 1265 

Burns,  John 1031 

Burris,    Byron 826 

Burris,   Byron,   Sr 1272 

Burroughs,  William  Curt 537 

Burroughs,  William  R 992 

Butler,  Edward 551 

Butz,  Peter  J 491 

Byers,   Philip    M 763 

Byrne,  James 1249 

Byrne,   James   D 1249 


Caldwell,  Annie  (Winship) 409 

Calvin,  M.  G. 1011 

Campa,  Faustino 980 

Campbell,  Mrs.  Ida  Virginia 1157 

Capaul,  Ulrich  Antone 1127 

Carlson,  Carl  P 819 

Carlson,  Sett  Thure 823 

Carmichael,    Peter   L 1112 

Carpenter,  James  C 1248 

Carroll,  James  D 420 

Carroll,   John   J.,   Jr 420 

Carter,    William    S 1 182 

Case,   Edward  L 1247 

Casev,  Katherine  B 372 

Casey,  Martin   E 372 

Cassano,   John   Baptist 1292 

Cate,  Horatio  Clifford 976 

Catlett,  Howard  R 1 180 

Channon,  John   Francis 634 

Chase,  Arthur  W 935 

Chism,  Mary  Julia 362 

Chism,  William  H 362 

Christ,  Conrad 1168 

Christman,   Rollie,  S.,  D.  V.  M 691 

Christopherson,  George  Washington  496 

Clark,  Cvrus  B 1019 

Clark,  H".  W 457 

Clark,  Walter  Sherman 942 

Clarke,   Albert   J 1305 

Clements,  William  Andrew 607 

Coats,  William  A 1084 

Colford,  John  Patrick 810 

College  of  Notre  Dame 891 

Colley,  Ellsworth  A 1190 

"Collins,  John   S 1035 

Connarn,    William    M 594 

Conneghan,  Cornelius 1279 

Cook,    Seely 881 

Cooley,  Verdenal  W 731 

Coplantz,   Elvis   Lafayette 1301 

Coppin,    George    E 1240 

Coppin,   James   Robert 1168 

Coppin,  Samuel  Miller 952 

Corliss,  Amos  R 1 1 72 

Corliss,   Henry   Brown 1172 

Correll,  George 888 

Costa,  Martin  699 

Coupe.    Henry 1268 

Cramsie,  John  E 759 

Creed,  John  J 1296 

Cremin,  J.  M 319 

Creps,   Roscoe  S 1173 

Cress,  J.  M 550 

Crook.  Leslie  B 1236 

Cuddcback,  Dewitt  Clinton 1299 

Curran,  Dennis  D 1076 

Curry,    George   Washington 1140 

Cutts,   Walter   B 572 


Da  Cosse,   Charles  A 1238 

Dahling,   Louis   E 596 

Dam,   Arthur   King 751 

Dam,  C.  K 1144 

Dam,   Cyrus   Harry.  .  .  .- 1211 

Dam,   Frances   L 1 144 

Darrach,   Peter  A 1220 

Davis,  C.  F 1292 

Davis,    Grant 668 

Dean,  Edward 1048 

Dean,  Edwina  S 1048 

Dean,  Capt.  Thomas 322 

Delay,   Peter  J. 310 

Dempsey,    Daniel 968 

Dempsey,  John  F 963 

Dempsey,   William   J 1321 

De  Wayne,  Mrs.  Harriet  E 764 

De  Witt,  Mrs.  Florence  Welthy 341 

De  Witt,  Frank  W 1164 

De  Witt,  Richard  C 1254 

De  Witt,  William  Golder 341 

Disernia,  Antonio  M 1273 

Dobbins,    Homer    L 834 

Dolan,  Timothy  J 815 

Donaldson,    Frank 666 

Drake,    Harvey   Scott 498 

Drake,  Isaac  581 

Dunning,  Halsey  H 307 

Durst,  D.  P.,  M.  D 1187 

Durst,  Ralph  H 1187 

Dutra,  Frank  M 1290 


Eager,  Oscar 1328 

Eich,  Harvey  D 510 

Ely,  Calvin  Luther 779 

Engel,  Peter  481 

Engstrom,  Theodore  F.,  D.  0 904 

Erickson,  Alvin   0 1253 

Erickson,  Isaac 1161 

Erickson,  Paul  1179 

Esenman,    Paul    George 738 


Fairlee,    Earl 1252 

Farington,  Charles  Frederick 612 

Farington,  Irwin  Edson 612 

Farmer,  Lee  J 1327 

Fehr,    Frederick   C 1069 

Fellows,   George  W 850 

Ferguson,  Thomas  A 1301 

Fichter,  Richard  Milton 482 

Filter,    Joseph 1289 

Finch,    David   U 1178 

Finch,  Walter  H 1247 

Finch,  Willey  L 1100 

Fippins,  J.  D 507 

Fippins,   Lillie   Mae 507 

Fisher,    Frank   L 1317 

Fitts,  Amasa  E 1207 

Flannery,   Patrick  J 618 

Fleshman,  John  W 1300 

Folsom,  Albert   Franklin 659 

Forbes,    Alexander    R 1197 

Forbes,  Gen.   E.  A 1197 

Forderhase,   Edward   Henry 922 



Forderhase,  Otto  B 785 

Foster,  John  Rupert 876 

Foster,   Marie   D 876 

Foulk,   George    H 867 

Eraser,  Samuel  J 428 

Freeman,  Lavern  L 342 

.  G 

Gage,  Arthur  Braxton 859 

Galligan,  Andrew  L 887 

Galligan  Bros 887 

Galligan,  Clarence  F 887 

Galligan,  George  A.  and  William  L.  1245 

Galligan,   Matthew 1245 

Garmire,   Preston   E 1200 

Garrett,  James  Rilev 315 

Gates,  Chester  0 534 

Gee,  George  Edgar 1053 

Gern,  William 779 

Gianella,  Thomas  A 570 

Gianella,  Vincenzo 570 

Giblin,  John  Warner 671 

Giblin,  Thomas  Francis 1044 

Gibson,  William   C 1000 

Girdner,  Henry  Tutt 355 

Girdner,  Joseph 337 

Gledhill,   Harrison   Morton 1201 

Glenn,    George    R 1207 

Glenn,    John    Polk 1160 

Glenn,  John  Thomas 1218 

Goetz,  Antone  William 967 

Goetz,  Carl 1320 

Gomes,  Manuel  F 1285 

Goolsby,  Thomas  Sierra  Nevada....      509 

Gorwood,   Arthur 772 

Gottwals.    George   William 1039 

Grams,    Alonzo 1083 

Grahn,   Gustaf 1115 

Grant,  Allan   H 1284 

Grant,  William  0 655 

Graves,  Albert  William 601 

Gray,  Allen  Earl,  M.  D 711 

Gray,   Everett   E.,   M.  D 814 

Grav,  James  Clarence 747 

Gray,    Mrs.    Minnie    M 1274 

Gray,  Walter  S 1230 

Greely,  Fred  Henry 313 

Greet,  Alfred. 945 

Gregor3',  Marion  Eugene 665 

Griffith,  Clarence  V 863 

Griffith,  John 578 

Griffith,  Mrs.  Martha  Matilda 521 

Groh,    Charles    H 1243 

Groh,  Fred  D 1243 

Gurney,   Elmer   E 1277 

Gurney,    Leo   B 1261 


Hageman,    Henrv    H 795 

Hall,   Elmer   S.  R 1065 

Hall,  Francis  F 1074 

Hall,  George  W 710 

Hall,  Joseph  H 613 

Hamm,  Robert  C 565 

Hammon,   Wendell    P 1194 

Hamon,  Charles  E 1241 

Hampshire,   George  T 1242 

Haney,  Milton 700 

Hansen,  John  H 533 

Hanson,    Elof 1246 

Harkey,  Mrs.  Clarinda 1020 

Harkey,  William  Pinckney 1020 

Harmon,    Charles    Wilder 963 

Harris,  Edgar  A 618 

Harris,   Edward  H 1043 

Harris,  Jeremiah  A 899 

Harris,  Jesse   C 945 

Harris,  Mrs.  Rhoda  E 899 

Harrison,    William 1293 

Hartley,  Joseph   Robert 1139 

Harvey,  Charles  F.,  Sr 1162 

Harwood,  Benjamin  R 825 

Hauck,    Ernest   R 545 

Hauss,  Elizabeth  1073 

Hauss,  Ferdinand 1073 

Hauss,  Fred 1074 

Havey,  John,   Sr 846 

Hawley,   Roland   Henry 606 

Hayne,  William  Alston 381 

Haynes,   Norman   E 692 

Haynes,    Thomas   W 945 

Heier,  Mrs.  Anna 1193 

Heier,    George  W 1193 

Heiken,  Fred  H 860 

Heiken,  John  B 602 

Heisch,   Edward   F 696 

Helsem  Bros 1032 

Hemstreet,  D.  A 911 

Henderson,  Thomas  J 809 

Henrichsen,    Hans 1286 

Henson,    William   Leonard 1058 

Herboth,    B.   J 1284 

Herrin,    Edward   Walker 1035 

Herzog,   Albert 1326 

Herzog,  George  F 975 

Hewitt,    Edna   Jane 992 

Hiatt,  Glenwood  J 833 

Hickeson,   L.  P 1289 

Hicks,     Champ 908 

Hicks,  Judge  Stephen  D 987 

Hill,  Arthur  L 675 

Hill,   Elbert   L 1224 

Hill,   Robert .'   1190 

Hite,   Herbert   L 672 

Hite,  Lincoln  Edward 813 

Hixson,   Carroll  Wilber 988 

Hixsou,   Wilmer  W 1229 

Hoeppner,   Emil  A 419 

Hoffman,    George   J 1070 

Hoke,    Harmon   August 502 

Hollingshead,    Joseph    Easton 352 

Holman,  Jesse  L 1036 

Holmes,   Thomas   E 1119 

Hoist,  Henry 767 

Hosking,    Frank 728 

Howser,  Steve 525 

Hull,  Mrs.  Maggie 704 

Hunn,  Edwin  A 699 

Hunt,    Jasper   J 1324 

Hust,    Charles 9°7 

Hutchinson,  Ernest  E 531 

Hutchinson,  F.  L 8°1 

Hutchinson,  Oscar  R 841 

Hutchinson,  Ralph 1251 

Hutchinson,  Ray  Elmer 1222 

Irwin,   Alex   C 1279 




James,    Lewis    Franklin 1070 

Jasper,  Henrv  Carrington 768 

Jeffery,  H.  B 1308 

Jenkins,   Clarence  Wilmot. 819 

Jensen,  John  T 806 

Joaquin,    John 628 

Johnson,    Albert    John 1252 

Johnson,    Charles 1220 

Johnson,    Charles    H 1322 

Johnson,  Edward  Carl '1007 

Johnson,    Ephraim 106S 

Johnson,   Fred 871 

Johnson,  John  Sanders 991 

Johnson,  Mrs.  Sadie  L 871 

Johnson,    Samuel    David 531 

Jones,  Mrs.  Bell 635 

Jones,  David   N 1171 

Jones,  David  Nevens,  Sr 1174 

Jones,  M.    Elmer 1266 

Jones,  Mrs.  Maria 635 

Jones,  Raymond   Henry 544 

Jopson,   Alonzo 1128 

Jopson,  Charles  Willows 972 

Joseph,  Thomas 426 

Joubert,    Frederick   J 1091 

Joy,  William  H 434 


Kaas.   John 703 

Karstens,  John  Henrv 1299 

Keck,    Robert 696 

Kcelcr,  G.  F 540 

Keesy,  Fred  A 1151 

Kells,    Robert    C 1087 

Kennedy,    David 996 

Kerr,    Joseph 1309 

Kerrigan,    P.   A 583 

Keys,  William  Julius 1169 

Kimball,    George   H 519 

Kimball,    John    H 519 

Kimerer,    Carl 639 

Klenzendorf,  Henry  J 555 

Klenzendorf,  Lillie 555 

Kline,    Claude   C 1317 

Knight,  George  W 629 

Knoop,    Fred 1230 

Kramer,  Austin 941 

Krehe,   Fred   J 1221 

Krehe,    Henry 414 

Krehe,  J.  J 414 

Krull,   Christina   Hagemann 1202 

Krull,   E.   C 564 

Krull,  Joseph   1228 

Krull   &  Bender 564 

Kupser,  Mrs.  Anna  Mary 1115 

Kussenberger,  John  G 979 

Kuster,   Emery   Ellsworth 1231 

Kuster,  Samuel,  Jr 1250 

Kynoch,  Walter  A 912 


Labadie,  Benjamin  F 522 

Labadie,   Francis  S 712 

Labadie,    Orson    P 737 

Lambert,    Rev.   George   M 1095 

Lambert,  Harriet  I .  .  .' 1095 

Lamme,    John    Hamilton 608 

Langdon,   Everett  B 377 

Langdon,  Judge  W.   E 377 

Lange,  Harry  Conrad 806 

Lanzendorf,   Oscar  W 1015 

Lauritzen,    Harold    C 549 

Lawton,  Maurice  E 1 100 

Lay,    John    D 741 

Leal,    Manuel 719 

Lehner,    Ludwig    M 907 

Lemmon,  Andrew  Jackson .  .  1123 

Lewis,  A.  Walter 325 

Lewis,   Mrs.    Emma   M 353 

Lewis,  James  Edwin 338 

Lewis,  Rov  Henry 594 

Lewis,  William  A 895 

Liebig,    Fred 556 

Linggi,    Albert 1177 

Lipp,    Frank    Milton 972 

Littlejohn,    George    Washington....  649 

Littlejohn,  Helen  D 742 

Littlejohn,  Howard  Grant 387 

Littlejohn,   James 742 

Littlejohn,  James  A 452 

Lohman,  Louis  D 1155 

Long,   Thomas  H 687 

Lopes,  Mrs.   Mary 1104 

Losey,  Isaac  S 627 

Luckensmeyer,  Henry  W 653 

Luther,   Everett  Wheaton 1267 

Luther,    H 492 

Luther,  J.  F 1257 

Lybecker,   Erick  B 478 

Lysell,   Edwin   C 640 

Lytken,  William 1256 

Lytle,  Mrs.   Clara  P 661 


McAnulty,  Joseph   B 1155 

McCarty,  Andrew  Joseph 802 

McCarty,   Matthew   H 752 

-McCoy,    Charles    J 386 

McDaniel,  E.  W 400 

McDaniel,   Hon.  Eugene  P 421 

McDaniel,   George   E 959 

McDevitt,  Mrs.  Almeda  E 850 

McFadden,  Andrew 825 

McKinney,    John   A 361 

McLean,    Stanley    Ralph 1069 

McNamara,  Michael  James 1127 

McPherrin,  Earl  Elwood 1306 

McQuaid,  Charles  E 395 

McQuaid,  Isaac  Clark 395 

McRae,  Jack  Wilson 1165 

McRoberts,  William   G 623 

McWilliam,  George   1170 


Magruder,   George   Henrv 514 

Mahon,    Hon.   Kirby    Smith 356 

Major,    George   Lawrence 1244 

Malaley,  Jennie 1108 

Mangels,  William  D 854 

Manwell,  Ray 359 

Marders,   Cay   Nelson 976 

Martignone,  Andrew 1270 

Martin,    Omar    Hartzell 755 

Martini,   Nicolaus    805 

Matthews,  George  W 1261 

Meek,    Jason    Russell 925 

Meek,   William   Mayo 1291 

Meier,  Frederick  A 630 

Meier,  Christ 760 



Meier,  William   F 926 

Mellon,   William   J 1124 

Merriam,    Charles    E 644 

Merriam,  Henry  G 900 

Merriam,  Joseph  Chester 449 

Merz,  Charles  W 837 

Messick,    Charles    C 1217 

Metteer,  Charles  H 351 

Metteer,    George    Baxter 334 

Meyer,  Charles  William 1264 

Meyer,    Edna   No}'es 946 

Meyer,  LeRoy  Henry 946 

Michel,  Mrs.  Anna 1003 

Michel,    Mrs.   Anna   Margretha 1135 

Michel,  Casper  J 1003 

Michel,  Frank  Joseph 1235 

Miller,  L.  F 590 

Miller,  Mark  J 853 

Miller,    Solomon    Page 659 

Mills,  Frank  L 1159 

Mills,  James  William 1008 

Minden,  August  Edward 1136 

Minden,  C.  J.  Henrv 1136 

Minden,   John  A 1218 

Mix,   F.  L 1104 

Monson,    Earl   E 780 

Montna.  Peri 1203 

Moon,   Wesley   Abel 820 

Mooney,  Thomas 983 

Moore,  Fred  S 775 

Moore,   Thomas  Jefferson 468 

More,  John  Wesley 741 

More,  Mrs.  Mao<-  E 741 

Morehead,    Franklin    Foley 400 

Morley,   Harold  J ". 888 

Morrison,  David 683 

Morrison,    Hugh    A 1303 

Morrison,  J.  Eugene 1308 

Morrison,   James   H 860 

Morrison,  John  Hobson 649 

Morrissev,   James    M 627 

Muck,  Charles 687 

Mudgette,  Rose  F 1026 

Mudgette,  Sidney  William 1026 

Mullin,  William  "T 756 

Murchie,    Durrell    H.,    D.  D.  S 1225 

Murphy,  Matthew   B 1283 

Murray,  Mrs.  Annie  B 319 

Murray,     George    A 1298 

Murray,  James  319 


Nail,   Ira   E 1212 

Nance,  James   M 1162 

Nash,    Fred   A 1325 

Nelson,    Mrs.    Elna 882 

Nelson,  Eric 882 

Nelson,  James  F 571 

Nelson,    John   Walter 1315 

Newbert,    William    L 868 

Newman,    David    1 875 

Newman,  Sarah  E 875 

Nicholau,  Charles 1321 

Niemeyer,    William    II 654 

Niesen,   William   P 955 

Nix,  Mrs.  Lillie  May 864 

Noronha,  Henry  Reis 437 

Norris,  William  Kent 1313 

Noyes,   E.  A 368 

Noyes,  Fred  B 431 

Nunes,  William  Souza 1215 

Nutt,   Arthur   Francis 1 140 

Nutt,  George  Ernest 1143 

Nutt,  Margaret  L 1 143 

Nutt,   Samuel  Doty 1143 


Oakley,  Amasa  George 477 

O'Brien,  James 1091 

O'Brien,  William  A 1249 

O'Connor,    Howard 1242 

O'Connor,   Neal 1237 

Ohlever,  George 464 

Ohlever,    George,    Sr 320 

Olsen,    Arthur   J 1153 

Olson,   Aaron 867 

Olson,    Albert   Theodore 1304 

Olson,  Per 667 

O'Neil,  John 1298 

Onken,   William   F 1079 

Onstott,   George   W 416 

Onstott,  John  Paxton 388 

Onstott,  Lizzie  Flvnn 388 

Ostrom,    George   W 1191 

Ottney,  Garth  H 446 


Palmer,  John  E 1233 

Parks,    William    H 892 

Payton,    Henrv   Burtt 829 

Payton,  Nora  A 829 

Pease,  Leroy 1219 

Pease,  Mark 456 

Pease,  Mark,  Jr 1226 

Peckham,   Thomas  W 838 

Peirano,  Rose 559 

Peirano,  Thomas  William 559 

Pendola,  James  William 935 

Percy,  A.  J 348 

Perry,  Aaron   1096 

Peters,   Charles   P 1314 

Peters,   Claus 723 

Peters,    John    F 539 

Peterson,  Charles  M 695 

Peterson,  Peter 915 

Peterson,  William  T 1268 

Phelan,  Charles .    . 1278 

Pieratt,   Louis    Franklin 706 

Pierce,  Mrs.  Mary  A 463 

Plantz,  Timothy" A 1287 

Plaskett,  James   Edman 903 

Poffenberger,  Hazekiah 396 

Poole,  Frank  D 1167 

Poole,   Frank  W 1260 

Poole,  James  D 676 

Poole,  Samuel  G 72S 

Poole,   William   C 1216 

Potts,   William 1267 

Powell,   Charles   H 608 

Price,  George  Lewis 596 

Probst,  Barbara  W 1047 

Probst,  Jacob 1047 

Proper,   Edward   Eugene 968 

Pugsley,  Charles   1296 

Purinton.    James    Parker 1206 


Queen,  Hugh  S 1180 

Quenell,    E.   William 508 




Rackerby,  Paul  A 1120 

Rednall,    Charles    F 611 

Reed,  C.  Wesley 692 

Reed,  Howard 1227 

Reeves,  Edward  Everette 643 

Rehermann,  Herman 1325 

Reimers,  O.  J 1143 

Reische,  C.  P 727 

Reische,  Frederick  T 964 

Reische,  Samuel  E 1314 

Reissinger,  Michel 633 

Reusser,  Gottfried 675 

Reusser,   Sophia  D 675 

Richards,    George   William 1083 

Rickerts,  John  R 1007 

Rideout,  Norman  Dunning 1188 

Robinson,    James    W 915 

Robson,   Andrew   A 1107 

Robson,  Mrs.  Deborah 1025 

Ross,   James   Alex 1183 

Rowe,   Pleasant  William 593 

Rudge,  Harry 1318 

Ruff,    Miss   Ida 960 

Russ,  William  Henry 767 

Russell,  John 526 

Ruth,  Daniel  B 427 


Sanders,  John  H 842 

Sanders,  Mrs.  M.  A 404 

Sanders,  William 404 

Sanford,  Wallace  J 1208 

Sartori,  Victor 995 

Scheiber,  Ambrose  Emil 916 

Scheiber,  Anna  Theresa 930 

Scheiber,   Catherine  L 936 

Scheiber,  Emma  M 854 

Scheiber,  John  930 

Scheiber,  Morris 854 

Scheiber,   Oswald 936 

Scheiber,  Rose  Katherine 916 

Schellenger,  Adelbert  Edmond.    .    ..  680 

Schlag,  Josephine  (Whvler) 650 

Schloss,   Rose 1282 

Schmidt,  Andreas   C.   H 1266 

Schmidt,   Erich 470 

Schoch,  Frank  B 1224 

Schuler,   Elmer   C 1234 

Schultz,  August 723 

Schultz,  William  J 394 

Schwall,  Peter 999 

Scott,  Arthur  H 1269 

Scott,    Arthur    Winfield 1276 

Scott,  Charles  R.,  Sr 823 

Scott,  Dwight  Sanford 1076 

Scott,   Louis   Nelson 450 

Selinger,  Charles 584 

Shannon,  Grover  C 1205 

Shearer,  William 971 

Shepard,  W.  J 378 

Shields,  Marshall  R 636 

Silva,   Manuel   E 1062 

Simpson,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  A 515 

Slingsby,    Mrs.    Mary 489 

Slingsby,  William 484 

Smith,  Calvin  Alexander 1281 

Smith,   Chester   A 720 

Smith,    Edwin    M 462 

Smith,  Frank  Edward 497 

Smith,   James   William 801 

Smith,  Thomas  L 495 

Snygg,   Simon   P 1228 

Soderlund,  Noack 785 

Soderlund,  Noah  Edwin 1011 

Sorensen,  Marianne    955 

Sorensen,   Soren  A 955 

Southern,  Miss  Fannie  E 413 

Sowles,  John  W 1259 

Spencer,  Allan  Thomas 1061 

Spencer,  Carl  Ray 925 

Sperbeck,  Jacob   F 1277 

Spring,  Gardiner  Whittier 921 

Springer,  Samuel  0 1213 

Srite,    Mary   Olive 1 186 

Staas,  August 1309 

Stafford,  William  H 577 

Stagner,  Albert  C 475 

Stagner,  Mrs.  Louise  C 475 

Stam,  George  John 1131 

Starr,   Roy  D 1297 

Stephens,  William  L,  M.  D 700 

Stewart,  Desseau  Arthur 490 

Stohlman,  Charles  Henry 816 

Stohlmann,   Henry    606 

Stohlmann,  Louis  C 606 

Stoker,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  J 416 

Stoker,  George  Smith 1271 

Stoker,  Jesse  Albert 1214 

Stolp,  Cornelius 432 

Stottlemyer,  Emeral  Hanford 461 

Strain,  James  Edward 399 

Straub,  William  Asburv 646 

Sugg,  A.  C.    . 1318 

Sullivan,  Daniel  Francis 462 

Sullivan,  James  Thomas 845 

Sullivan,  Jeremiah  Peter 984 

Summy,  Charles 422 

'  Summy,  G.  William 772 

Sumner,  Charles  N 1294 

Sutfin,  Willis  A 1004 

Sutter  Union  High  School 921 

Sweeney,  B.  M 576 

Swift,   Clarence  Eugene 1057 

Swift,  John  Pierce 1165 

Syvertsen,  Thomas  A 545 


Taffinder,   Robert  Albert 1234 

Tapley,  Fred  Bovd,  M.  D 501 

Taresh,  John 1099 

Tarke,   Louis 786 

Tarke,  Nancy  E 786 

Taylor,  Cary  Peebles 1075 

Taylor,  Clyde  0 1280 

Taylor,  Thomas  J 516 

Thalls,  Charles  H 469 

Tharp,  Charles  H 1135 

Tharp,   Harvejr 1311 

Tharp,  William  Monroe   1079 

Thompson,  George .    .    371 

Todd,  M.  M 528 

Todd,   Nelson   F 425 

Travis,  Cyrus  E 988 

Trevathan,  Thomas  William 1239 

Triplett,  Claude 771 

Troncatty,  James  Sebastian 1223 

Trowbridge,  L.  D .  1200 

Tubbs,  Dr.  G.  Parker 1103 



Tucker,  Judge  W.  E 569 

Turner,  Charles 727 

Turner,  Mrs.  Susie 727 


Ullrey,  Bertie  Miles 792 

Ullrey,  Clyde  T 705 

Ury.  George  Murray 1150 


Vagedes,  Antone 1520 

Vagedes,  John  Henry  Theodore.    .    .  576 

Van  Buskirk,  Henry 1003 

Van  Lew,  Fred 582 

Van  Male,  J.  J.,  M.  D 656 

Van  Tiger,  Roy  J 1019 

Velasco,  Joseph  Alfred 1111 

Vestal,  J.  H 1238 

Vieira,  Mariano  P 716 

Vineyard,  William  B 734 

Vogan,  Charles  E 684 


Wadsworth,   Edson   Schuyler 621 

Wadsworth,  Leo  Ainslie 621 

Walker,  John  William 1054 

Walkup,  Claude  V 791 

Wallace,  Orlain  W 1131 

Walsh,  John  E 833 

Walsh,  William  P 1179 

Walton,  Harry  A 455 

Wanzer,  James  Olin 360 

Ward,  William  W 841 

Watson,  John  W 929 

Watson,  Stanley  Efkin 798 

Weber,  M.  J..   ." 1288 

Weber,   Nicholas  J.,  Jr 775 

Weis,  Charles  J 1319 

Welch,  James  Chester 1166 

Welch.  Mrs.  Lillie  E 1166 

Weldon,  Augustus  L.  and  Harry  P..  1182 

Wellman,  Aaron  Sargent 1153 

Wellman,  Miles 1 153 

Wells,  William  S 1286 

Wessing,   G.   A U65 

Wheaton,  Allan  Given 724 

White,   Mrs.  Amanda   Catherine 396 

White,  Arthur  H 1274 

Whiteside,   Mrs.  Louisa 1045 

Whiteside,  Orlo  1043 

Wiget,  Dominie 1184 

Wilcoxon,  Lewis  Boyd 483 

Wilcoxon,  Noah  J 688 

Wilcoxon,  Strother  E 360 

Wilkie,  John 458 

Wilkinson,  J.  Augustus 538 

Williams,  Lowell  Cortez 599 

Williams,   Thomas  J.,   Sr 643 

Willis,  Harvev  Ray 1210 

Wilson,  John  Bell 1240 

Winship,  Chester  Douglas 1305 

Winship,   Edwin 588 

Winship,  Foster  E 776 

Wise,  John  A 1199 

Wisner,  Calvin  Sylvester 589 

Wisner,  Marvin  E 589 

Wissler,  Ed  L 904 

Wood,  Arthur  M 1 185 

Wood,  Joseph   588 

Worth,  James  A 1176 

Wright,  Aden  J 895 

Wright,  Mrs.  Mary 895 

Wurm,  Herman  A 1211 


Young,  Jacob 645 

Young,  James  Redmond 1311 

Yuhre,  William  F 1192 


Zbinden  Gottfried 1040 

Zerga,  Antone 621 

Zwanck,  Arnold  Emil 1307 

.      INTRODUCTORY  37 

The  object  of  -this  work  is  to  give  a  connected  history  of  the  Counties 
of  Yuba  and  Sutter  from  their  first  occupation  by  the  Indians  and  trappers 
down  to  the  present  time.  For  the  very  earliest  data  the  editor  wishes  to 
give  credit  to  William  H.  Chamberlain,  Ph.  B.,  and  Harry  L.  Wells,  who 
compiled  a  highly  creditable  history  of  the  territory  in  the  late  seventies. 
In  gathering  the  later  story  of  Yuba  County  we  have  received  much  informa- 
tion from  Eugene  P.  McDaniel,  present  judge  of  the  superior  court  of  Yuba 
County ;  from  Fred  H.  Greely,  the  present  auditor  and  recorder ;  and  from 
Airs.  John  C.  Dooley,  daughter  of  a  pioneer  of  Yuba  County,  who  has  a  diary 
kept  by  her  father,  the  late  Joseph  Brown,  during  the  days  he  was  on  the 
emigrant  trail  "crossing  the  plains,"  and  after  his  arrival  here.  The  compiler 
also  wishes  to  acknowledge  courtesies  extended  by  C.  Stephen  Howser, 
member  of  the  Marysville  police  force,  who  has  a  collection  of  the  directories 
of  the  City  of  Marysville  issued  from  time  to  time  in  the  Argonaut  days. 
Lewis  B.  AYilcoxon,  present  agent  for  the  Masonic  order  in  Marysville,  also 
has  helped,  in  giving  the  early  history  of  that  .organization  in  Yuba  County. 

On  the  Sutter  side  of  the  river,  the  compiler  received  invaluable  aid  from 
Miss  Ada  Ohleyer,  daughter  of  George  Ohleyer,  the  pioneer  defender  of  the 
farmers  during  hydraulic  mining  days.  Miss  Ohleyer  is  actively  in  charge 
of  the  landmarks  section  of  the  Federated  Women's  Clubs  of  the  northern 
district,  and  is  performing  excellent  work  along  that  line.  Miss  Edna 
Hewitt,  county  librarian  in  Yuba  City,  also  has  the  thanks  of  the  editor  for 
suggestions  and  help.  C.  E.  McQuaid,  county  assessor  and  former  news- 
paper man,  also  has  been  of  service.  To  County  Horticultural  Commissioner 
Harry  P.  Stabler,  the  editor  is  indebted  for  data  of  a  highly  interesting  nature. 

As  was  said  in  the  prospectus  to  this  volume,  "What  a  team  are  Yuba 
and  Sutter  Counties !  Sutter  County  matching  her  golden  flow  of  fruit  with 
the  fruitful  flow  of  Yuba  County's  gold  each,  year  certainly  makes  a  com- 
bination of  resources  difficult  to  parallel.  It  means  that  this  wonderful  sec- 
tion shall  always  be  an  empire  in  itself,  independent,  if  the  test  came, 
of  all  the  world." 


Marysville,  Yuba  County,  California. 




The  contiguity  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties  renders  the  record  of  their 
early  settlement  almost  inseparable.  However,  it  will  be  the  aim  of  the 
compiler  of  this  history  to  treat  these  remarkable  sections   separately. 

California  has  no  more  historic  county  than  Yuba,  of  which  the  Citv  of 
Marysville  has  virtually  always  been  the  county  seat.  During-  the  exciting- 
times  of  the  mining  fever,  the  reputation  of  its  wonderful  riches  spread  far 
and  wide,  and  it  received  its  full  share  of  the  immense  immigration  which 
poured  into  the  State  during  that  memorable  period.  Marysville  early  occu- 
pied a  prominent  position  among  the  cities  of  the  Coast,  both  in  population 
and  in  the  extent  of  its  mercantile  interests. 

Yuba  County  was  an  uncultivated  tract  of  plain  and  mountains,  occupied 
by  the  lowly  Digger  Indian  and  traversed  occasionally  by  the  nomadic  trap- 
per employed  by  American  and  foreign  fur  companies,  when  Capt.  John  A. 
Sutter,  original  white  owner  of  the  tract,  first  knew  it.  That  was  in  1841, 
at  a  time. when  the  southern  portion  of  California  was  essentially  Spanish 
and  Mexican  in  its  population — the  northern  part  being  left  to  the  occupation 
of  foreigners.  Not  until  Captain  Sutter  began  his  activities  in  the  northern 
end  of  what  was  destined  to  become  the  great  Pacific  Coast  commonwealth, 
and  not  until  he  established  his  New  Helvetia,  did  the  Sacramento  Valley 
attract  attention.  Until  then  it  went  comparatively  unnoticed.  Following 
his  entry,  however,  it  became  the  theater  for  grand  operations  and  achieve- 
ments. Sutter's  Fort  became  the  nucleus  about  which  congregated  nearly 
all  of  the  early  emigrants.  To  the  influence  of  Captain  Sutter  and  those 
associated  with  him,  is  largely  due  the  annexation  of  California  to  the  Union. 

It  is  deemed  fitting  at  this  stage  of  our  story  to  give  a  brief  history 
of  the  ever  hospitable  and  generous  Sutter,  friend  of  all  the  early  settlers 
and  explorers,  the  man  to  whom  they  repaired  for  advice  and  sustenance. 
His  name  is  inseparable  from  even  the'  slightest  historical  reference  to  either 
Yuba  or  Sutter  County. 

Tohn  Augustus  Sutter  was  born  in  Baden,  Germany,  at  midnight. 
February  28,  1803.  of  Swiss  parents.  After  the  completion  of  his  education 
he  became  a  captain  in  the  French  army;  hence  his  military  title.  Becoming- 
tired  of  the  superficial  nature  of  French  society  and  customs,  he  set  out  for 
America,  to  find  some  secluded  spot  where  he  might  surround  himself  with 
a  home  and  associations  more  in  consonance  with  his  ideas  and  tastes.  Aew 
York  was  reached  in  July,  1834;  and  from  there,  after  a  sojourn  of  only  one 
month,  the  Captain  set  out  for  the  far-famed  "West."  He  journeyed  to  New 
Mexico,  and  having  heard  of  the  marvelous  beauty  and  fertility  of  California, 
he  joined  a  party  of  trappers,  expecting  soon  to  reach  his  destination.  But 
the  journey  ended  at  Fort  Vancouver,  and  Captain  Sutter's  only  wax  In 
reach   California  was  to  go   to  the   Sandwich   Islands  and   from    there   by   a 


sailing  vessel  to  Monterey.  After  waiting  a  long  time  in  Honolulu  he  took 
passage  in  a  ship  bound  for  Sitka.  By  singular  good  luck  the  vessel  was 
driven  into  San  Francisco  Bay,  July  2,  1839. 

Having  reached  the  goal  of  his  ambition,  Captain  Sutter  received  per- 
mission from  the  Mexican  authorities  to  select  a  place  for  settlement  in  the 
Sacramento  Valley.  After  much  difficulty  he  succeeded  in  reaching  the 
junction  of  the  Sacramento  and  American  Rivers  on  the  16th  of  August,  1839. 
and  being  fully  satisfied  with  the  conditions  and  prospects  of  the  region, 
a  location  was  made,  and  he  commenced  the  construction  of  a  house. 

The  spot  was  named  "New  Helvetia"  in  honor  of  his  mother  country. 
But  on  account  of  the  strength,  armament  and  formidable  appearance  of 
the  buildings,  the  place  was  called  by  all  the  early  settlers  "Sutter's  Fort," 
which  name  is  now  the  only  one  that  clings  to  it.  This  fort  was  commenced 
in  1842  and  finished  in  1844.  In  1841,  when  his  grant  of  deed  was  to  be 
made,  it  became  necessary  to  have  a  map  of  the  tract,  and  he  employed  for 
that  purpose  Capt.  Jean  Vioget,  a  seaman,  and  a  Swiss  by  birth.  The  survey 
was  made  by  lines  of  latitude  and  longitude.  Sutter  made  his  application 
under  this  survey  in  1841,  the  same  year  the  map  was  completed.  The 
Mexican  laws  allowed  only  eleven  leagues  to  be  granted  to  any  one  person, 
but  Sutter's  map  contained  fifty  leagues  or  more.  Nevertheless,  he  got  the 
idea  he  could  hold  it,  and  with  this  came  the  idea  he  could  sell  it.  The 
original  claim  embraced  a  considerable  portion  of  Sacramento  and  Placer 
Counties,  all  of  Sutter,  the  valley  portion  of  Yuba,  and  a  little  point  of 
Colusa.  It  was  in  this  same  year,  1841,  that  John  Bidwell,  later  the  founder 
of  Chico  in  Butte  County,  and  Michael  C.  Nye,  who  played  a  prominent 
part  in  the  early  history  of  Yuba  County,  came  to  California  from  Independ- 
ence, Mo.,  with  thirty-four  others,  seven  of  whom  returned  to  Missouri, 
and  died  there. 

Little  of  note  occurred  in  the  valley  during  1842,  but  during  the  next 
two  years  Captain  Sutter  and  his  newly  formed  friend,  John  Bidwell.  saw 
the  monotony — if  there  was  such  thing  in  those  days — relieved.  It  was 
in  1843  that  General  Micheltorena,  an  "enlightened  and  educated  gentleman 
and  an  agreeable  personage,  arrived  from  Mexico  to  take  the  place  of  Alvarado 
as  Governor  of  California.  Rightly  anticipating  trouble,  Micheltorena  would 
not  consent  to  act  as  Governor  without  the  presence  of  troops.  The  Mexican 
government  sent  him  500  trained  soldiers.  Captain  Sutter,  learning  of  the 
presence  of  the  new  Governor,  sent  him  a  congratulatory  message.  In  due 
time  Micheltorena  went  to  Monterey  and  made  it  his  capital.  A  very 
friendly  correspondence  sprang  up  between  the  Governor  and  Captain 
Sutter.  The  latter  had  never  seen  Micheltorena,  although  he  had  been  in 
frecpient  correspondence ;  hence,  in  the  fall  of  1844  he  concluded  to  make 
him  a  visit  at  Monterey,  and  accordingly  started  upon  the  journey  accom- 
panied by  two  persons,  John  Bidwell  of  Chico  being  one.  They  traveled 
on  horseback,  crossing  the  San  Joaquin  River  on  improvised  rafts,  and  camp- 
ing out  every  night,  except  one  in  San  Jose.  It  was  there  that  the  Captain 
heard  of  a  revolt  brewing  among  the  native  Mexicans,  and  he  was  first 
to  convey  the  intelligence  to  Governor  Micheltorena;  and  while  the  party 
was  there,  the  first  blow  was  struck.  This  convinced  Sutter  and  Bidwell 
that  they  had  better  return  north.  Sutter,  on  his  return,  put  his  fort  in 
a  more  secure  state  of  defense,  as  was  usual  upon  an  uprising  of  the  natives. 

The  native  Californians  desired  the  possession  of  the  country  and  the 
formation  of  an  independent  republic  ;  but  their  leanings  were  against  the 
Americans,  and  more  prejudiced,  in  fact,  than  were  the  Mexicans  themselves. 
It  was  to  the  interest  of  Governor  Micheltorena  to  encourage  the  settlement 
in  the  country  of  intelligent  and  energetic  foreigners  ;  hence  he  was  friendly 
disposed  toward   that   class..     In   the   struggle   going   on   at   that    time,    the 


majority  of  the  Americans  were  on  his  side,  because  hostility  toward  the 
government  meant  hostility  to  American  interests.  The  other  foreigners 
naturally  took  sides  with  the  Americans,  and  any  on  the  opposing-  side 
were,  in  the  nature  of  the  case,  extremely  obnoxious. 

One  Capt.  C.  M.  Weber,  however,  was  one  American  who  took  sides 
with  and  aided  the  leaders  of  the  Mexican  malcontents  against  Governor 
Micheltorena ;  and  he  carried  the  insurrection  so  far  as  to  proceed  to  Sutter's 
Fort  and  attempt  to  stir  up  dissatisfaction  among  the  occupants.  In  case 
of  any  disturbance  in  the  political  affairs  of  the  country,  the  foreigners,  for 
miles  around,  assembled  at  the  fort  for  mutual  protection.  Captain  'Weber, 
even  after  being  cautioned,  continued  in  his  insurrectionary  work,  until 
finally  the  occupants  of  the  fort  held  a  meeting  and,  after  consultation,  framed 
and  signed  the  following  document: 

"We,  the  subscribers,  chosen  as  a  Council  of  War,  have  unanimously 
resolved  the  following:  First,  that  Mr.  Weber  be  put  in  irons  and  detained 
in  the  fort.  New  Helvetia,  until  such  time  as  we  may  receive  orders  from 
his  Excellency,  the  Governor,  as  regards  his  disposal ;  Second,  that  Mr. 
Pearson  B.  Reading  be  requested  to  keep  Mr.  Weber  in  a  convenient  room 
and  afford  him  such  necessaries  as  circumstances  may  admit  of  and  his  safe 
detention  may  require." 

The  sentence  and  instructions  were  not  carried  out  in  full,  but  Weber 
was  closely  watched  and  guarded. 

Micheltorena  appealed  to  Sutter  for  assistance,  which  he  agreed  to 
render  in  view  of  certain  advantages  to  be  derived  by  himself  and  the  foreign 
residents  in  the  vicinity.  The  conditions  imposed  by  Sutter,  who  was  the 
magistrate  in  this  region,  were  that  every  petition  for  a  grant  of  land 
which  he  as  justice  should  approve,  was  to  be  taken  as  granted,  and  that 
a  copy  of  the  general  title  which  the  Governor  then  confirmed  should  be 
considered  as  binding  as  a  formal  grant. 

Sutter  started  south  with  one  hundred  men,  and  was  met  at  the  resi- 
dence of  Dr.  Marsh,  near  Mt.  Diablo,  by  J.  Alexander  Forbes,  who  in  vain 
tried  to  dissuade  him  from  his  undertaking'.  The  result  was  that  when  the 
nostile  armies  met,  the  foreigners  were  found  on  both  sides,  and,  after  a 
consultation,  withdrew,  leaving  the  Mexicans  to  fight  out  their  quarrel 
alone.  Micheltorena  was  defeated,  and  compelled  to  return  to  Mexico: 
Sutter  was  captured  by  the  insurgent  leader,  Castro,  and  only  given  his 
liberty  upon  the  personal  interposition  of  Weber  and  others,  to  whom  Castro 
was  under  obligations  for  assistance. 

The  country  now  being  in  the  hands  of  the  native  Californians,  the 
California  "Deputation"  declared  Pio  Pico  Governor.  Castro,  not  relishing 
this  selection,  renewed  his  acts  of  dissension  ;  but  his  plans  were  frustrated 
by  the  appearance  of  John  C.  Fremont  on  his  second  exploring  expedition 
in  March,  1846.  Fremont  had  reached  Sutter's  Fort  in  1844  and  at  that 
early  date  was  known  as  "The  Pathfinder,"  being  bent  on  establishing  a 
transcontinental  trail  from  the  East  to  the  Pacific  Coast.  This  time  Fremont 
came  down  the  Humboldt  River,  directing  the  larger  part  of  his  exploring 
party  to  bear  to  the  south  until  they  came  to  a  certain  pass  which  he  imag- 
ined to  exist  there,  and  await  his  orders,  while  he,  with  about  eight  men, 
followed  the  emigrant  trail  (which  now  had  an  existence)  into  California. 
He  came  up  the  Truckee  River,  and  down  the  north  side  of  the  Bear  River. 
At  the  time  when  General  Bidwell's  party  crossed  over  the  mountains,  in 
1841,  there  was  as  yet  no  trail  in  existence. 

Castro,  having  given  Fremont  permission  to  pass  through  the  San 
Joaquin  Valley,  soon  proved  untrue  to  his  promise  and  ordered  Fremont  t<> 
leave.     The  explorer  was  obliged  to  fortify  himself  on  Hawks'  Peak,  thirty 


miles  from  Monterey.  Castro's  forces  appeared,  but  beyond  a  few  mock 
assaults,  did  no  fighting-;  so  that  on  the  fourth  day  Fremont  deemed  it 
expedient  to  avoid  actual  collision,  and  slowly  marched  north  toward  Oregon. 
Having  passed  the  border,  he  was  overtaken  by  Lieutenant  Gillespie,  an 
army  officer,  with  despatches,  the  contents  of  which,  together  with  the  exist- 
ing state  of  affairs,  caused  him  to  return.  Passing  down  the  Sacramento 
Valley,  he  encamped  for  a  time  in  the  Buttes,  in  Sutter  County.  The  spot 
in  the  Buttes  where  Fremont  camped  now  bears  a  marker  telling  of  the 
history  attending  it.  This  marker  was  placed  on  Sunday,  April  15,  1923, 
during  a  "landmark"  celebration  conducted  under  the  auspices  of  the  Sutter- 
Yuba  Bi-County  Federation  of  Women's  Clubs.  The  parlors  of  the  Native 
Sons  and  Native  Daughters  of  Marysville  took  part  in  the  program,  which 
was  arranged  by  Miss  Ada  Ohleyer,  daughter  of  George  Ohleyer,  pioneer 
of  Sutter  County  and  newspaper  man  in  his  lifetime  in  Yuba  City.  Miss 
Ohleyer  was  aided  by  Miss  Edna  Hewitt,  then  librarian  in  Sutter  County's 
free  library,  and  by  the  chairmen  of  History  and  Landmarks  in  the  Bi- 
County  and  District  Federations  of  Women's  Clubs.  The  marker  consists 
of  a  bronze  tablet  fittingly  engraved  and  attached  to  a  huge  boulder  on  the 
DeWitt  place,  not  far  from  Sutter  City.  Many  organizations  of  Yuba  and 
Sutter  Counties  took  part  in  the  celebration  over  the  placing  of  the  marker, 
and  there  were  many  visitors  from  adjoining  counties  at  the  behest  of  the 
civic  and  commercial  bodies  of  Marysville  and  Yuba  City.  A  more  detailed 
account  of  the  celebration  is  given  in  a  later  chapter  devoted  to  the  work 
of  the  women's  clubs,  in  the   History  of   Sutter   County. 

Fremont,  while  camped  in  the  Buttes,  was  informed  by  a  Mr.  Knight 
that  a  party  of  Mexican  soldiers,  under  Lieutenant  De  Arce,  in  charge  of 
a  band  of  horses,  were  traveling  from  Sonoma  to  the  southern  county. 
Fremont  immediately  sent  out  a  party,  which,  after  passing  Sutter's  Fort, 
and  without  the  knowledge  of  Captain  Sutter  or  any  consultation  with  him, 
attacked  the  Mexicans  on  the  Cosumnes  River,  on  June  11,  capturing  the 
horses  and  sending  Lieutenant  De  Arce  and  his  men  to  report  to  Castro. 
The  movement  was  claimed  to  be  in  de'fense  of  the  American  settlers,  but 
the  real  facts  in  the  case  were  that  no  settler  ever  implored  Fremont  for 
aid.  All  Americans  believed,  it  is  true,  that  the  territory  should  come 
under  the  control  of  the  United  States ;  but  they  desired  the  change  to  be 
brought  about  by  peaceful  measures.  The  hunters  who  usually  wintered 
at  Sutter's  Fort  were  the  first  to  rally  around  Fremont's  camp.  Sutter 
having  at  one  time  complained  of  the  acts  of  Fremont,  the  latter  came 
down  and  told  the  generous  old  pioneer  that  if  he  did  not  like  what  he 
(Fremont)  was  doing,  he  would  send  him  across  the  San  Joaquin  River 
and  he  could  join  the  Mexicans.  Tuthill,  in  his  "History  of  Califorina," 
states  that  the  party  who  attacked  Lieutenant  De  Arce  were  under  the 
leadership  of  Captain  Merritt,  and  that  they  were  the  persons  who  marched 
on  Sonoma  and  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  "Bear  Flag  Party." 

Following  this  assault  on  the  Mexicans  and  the  acts  of  the  "Bear  Flag 
Party,"  Castro  retreated  to  Los  Angeles,  and  was  promptly  followed  by 
Fremont.  Before  any  action  occurred,  the  news  of  the  raising  of  the  Stars 
and  Stripes  at  Monterey  by  Commodore  Sloat  was  heralded.  Then  followed 
a  series  of  conflicts,  mostly  of  slight  importance,  the  battles  in  California 
being  supplementary  to  the  war  in  the  East  and  South.  After  the  war 
was  ended,  it  became  necessary  for  the  conquering  forces  to  appoint  a 
Governor.  A  contest  ensued  as  to  whether  Lieutenant  Fremont,  who  had 
received  a  commission  from  Commodore  Stockton,  or  General  Kearney 
should  be  the  ruler.  It  was  finally  ended  when  Fremont,  under  orders, 
accompanied  General  Kearney  upon  his  march  East.     At  Fort  Leavenworth 


Fremont  was  arrested,  and  at  Fortress  Monroe  a  court  martial  found  him 
guilty  of  mutiny,  disobedience  and  disorderly  conduct,  and  he  was  by  its 
sentence  deprived  of  his  commission.  This  ended  his  connection  with  the 
army,  but  did  not  serve  to  dampen  his  ambition,  or  to  sully  his  reputation 
as   one   to   whom    the   gratitude   of   all   American   citizens    is"  clue. 

The  early  settlements  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties  were  parts  of  a 
series  extending  through  nearly  the  whole  Sacramento  Valley,  and  an 
account  of  the  most  important  will  doubtless  prove  interestino-".  Sutter's 
map  included  a  much  larger  area  than  the  Mexican  laws  would  allow,  and 
in  order  to  hold  the  land  he  placed  tenants  on  various  portions  of  the  terri- 
tory embraced  within  its  limits.  Subsequently,  when  it  was  thought  that 
he  could  not  hold  all  the  land  applied  for,  he  endeavored  to  obtain  a  sobrante 
grant  for  his  children ;  and  this  was  partly  the  motive  that  induced  him 
to  visit  Governor  Micheltorena  at  Monterey  in   1844. 

After  the  settlement  at  Xew  Helvetia,  the  next  point  where  a  dwellino- 
was  located  was  about  two  miles  northeast  of  the  fort,  on  the  American 
River,  in  1841.  This  location  was  made  by  John  Sinclair  for  Capt.  Elias 
Grimes  and  Hiram  Grimes,  to  whom  Sutter  afterwards  sold  it.  It  made  a 
fine  ranch  and  farm,  and  was  extensively  stocked. 

In  1842.  Nicolaus  Allgeier  was  placed  on  what  is  known  as  the  town 
of  Nicolaus  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Feather  River. 

The  next  two  places  were  settled  almost  simultaneously  in  the  fall  of 
1842.  Hock  Farm,  which  subsequently  became  the  home  of  Captain  Sutter, 
was  established  and  made  his  principal  stock  farm,  the  animals  ranging 
over  that  part-  of  Sutter  County  lying  west  of  the  Feather  River  and  south 
of  the  Butte  Mountains.  The  land  in  the  vicinity  of  the  site  of  Marys- 
ville  was  leased  to  Theodore  Cordua.  Cordua  made  a  stock  farm  of  it, 
and,  to  a  limited  extent,  a  trading  post.  He  obtained  a  few  otter  and 
beaver  skins,  and  was  continually  passing  to  and  from  Yerba  Buena,  trad- 
ing, in  his  launch.  The  settlement  of  George  Patterson  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  Yuba  River,  in  1845,  was  another  of  .these  locations  in  the  interest 
of  Sutter,  to  hold  the  land. 

The  next  grant  was  made  to  Charles  YY  Flugge,  and  was  located  on 
the  west  bank  of  the  Feather  River  adjoining  the  northern  portion  of 
Sutter's  grant  and  called  the  "Flugge  Grant."  It  fell  into  the  hands,  by 
purchase,  of  Thomas  O.  Lawton,  as  did  also  the  Hernandez  Grant.  Larkin 
tried  to  locate  the  Flugge  Grant  in  the  mining  regions,  but  failed.  Sicard's 
Grant  (four  leagues)  and  Johnson's  Grant  (four  leagues)  on  Bear  River. 
were  secured  in  1844.  About  the  same  time,  grants  were  made  to  the 
present  site  of  Vacaville,  and  to  various  other  points  located  in  Yolo,  Butte, 
and  Tehama  Counties. 

The  bottom  lands  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties  offered  special  induce- 
ments to  settlers,  on  account  of  their  fertility  and  their  contiguity  to  Sutter's 
settlements.  Having  obtained  from  Captain  Sutter,  in  the  fall  of  1842,  a 
lease  for  nineteen  years  of  the  tract  of  land  upon  which  Marysville  is  now 
located.  Theodore  Cordua  erected,  at  what  is  now  the  foot  of  D  Street, 
an  adobe  dwelling  house,  a  storehouse  or  trading  room,  culinary  depart- 
ment and  outhouses.  The  walls  of  the  dwelling  were  thick,  and  well  con- 
structed for  withstanding  a  siege.  The  spot  was  named  "New  Mecklen- 
burg" by  Captain  Sutter,  in  honor  of  the  place  of  nativity  of  Cordua.  It  soon 
became  known,  however,  as  "Cordua's  Ranch."  the  neighboring  settlers 
choosing  the  latter  title  in  preference  to  the  more  European  name.  Many 
of  the  Indians  in  the  vicinity  gathered  about  Cordua,  and  he  was  able  to 
utilize  them  in  herding  his  animals,  in  tilling  the  soil,  and  in  gathering 
the  products.      Their   village   was   located   near   where    the   railroad    crosses 


the  Yuba  River.  On  December  30,  1844,  Cordua  obtained  from  the  Mexican 
government  a  grant  of  land  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Feather  River 
and  Honcut  Creek,  on  the  east  by  the  foot  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains, 
on  the  south  by  the  Yuba  River,  and  by  the  tract  of  land  previously  leased 
from  Captain  Sutter,  and  on  the  west  by  the  same  land  and  the  Feather 
River,  embracing  about  seven  square  leagues. 

Cordua's  house  was  located  on  the  trail  leading  from  the  upper  to  the 
lower  portion  of  the  Sacramento  Valley ;  and  as  the  country  became  more 
closely  settled,  travel  on  this  route  became  more  extensive,  until  finally, 
in  1846,  Cordua  conceived  the  idea  of  establishing  a  trading  post  at  his 
adobe  structure.  Provisions  and  supplies  were  brought  from  Yerba  Buena 
and  the  lower  settlements  in  the  valley,  which,  with  the  products  of  his 
own  land  and  flocks,  enabled  him  to  provide  a  suitable  stock  for  his  store. 
It  is  said  that  in  1847  and  1848  he  exported  to  the  Sandwich  Islands  a  large 
quantity  of  the  products  of  his  farm.  He  soon  found  abundant  opportunity 
to  dispose  of  all  he  could  produce  in  a  nearer  market — a  change  brought 
about  by  the  discovery  of  gold.  In  the  summer  of  1847,  when  William  G. 
Murphy,  father  of  the  present  deputy  postmaster  of  Marysville,  arrived  at 
the  ranch,  Cordua  had  in  his  employ  fifteen  or  twenty  Indians  and  white 
men,  among  whom  was  Charles  Covillaud,  who  acted  as  mechanic  and 
overseer.  At  that  time  Cordua  had  about  10,000  or  12,000  cattle  and  500 
wild  mares.  The  latter  were  used  for  raising  colts,  while  their  luxuriant 
manes  and  tails  furnished  material  for  "hair  ropes."  The  bottom  lands 
near  the  buildings  were  cultivated  to  a  small  extent. 

Theodore  Sicard  was  a  French  sailor,  and  first  came  to  California  on 
a  voyage  in  1835.  Later  he  decided  to  remain  in  the  country.  He  worked 
for  Captain  Sutter  at  one  time,  in  1842  and  1843,  superintending  the  opera- 
tions at  Hock  Farm  in  Sutter  County.  He  petitioned  for,  and  obtained 
from  the  Mexican  government,  a  grant  of  four  Spanish  leagues,  extending 
from  opposite  the  north  of  Dry  Creek  ten  miles  up  the  south  side  of  Bear 
River.  His  settlement  was  made  in  1845,  and  was  on  the  south  bank  of 
Bear  River,  about  half  a  mile  above  Johnson's  Crossing.  In  1844,  a  Mexican, 
Don  Pablo  Gutierrez,  who  had  been  in  the  employ  of  Captain  Sutter, 
obtained  a  grant  of  five  leagues  on  the  north  side  of  Bear  River,  now 
known  as  the  Johnson  Grant,  at  the  center  of  which  is  now  the  city  of 
Wheatland,  often  referred  to  as  the  "Hop  Center  of  Yuba  County."  During 
this  year,  Gutierrez  built  a  mud  house  at  the  place  afterwards  called  John- 
son's Crossing.  Gutierrez  was  killed  late  in  1844,  or  early  in  1845,  and  his 
grant  and  cattle  were  sold  at  auction  by  Captain  Sutter,  as  magistrate  of 
the  region,  being  purchased  for  $150  by  William  Johnson  and  Sebastian 
Kyser,  who  settled  there  the  same  year.  Johnson  was  a  sailor  who  had 
made  voyages  to  California  quite  early,  and  for  several  years  previous  to 
this  purchase  had  traded  between  the  Sandwich  Islands  and  Yerba  Buena. 
Kyser  had  gone  with  Captain  Sutter  from  Missouri,  accompanying  him 
on  his  wandering  tour  from  that  State  to  New  Mexico  and  up  to  Oregon ; 
here  he  remained  while  the  Captain  went  on  to  the  Sandwich  Islands. 
When  Sutter  arrived  in  California,  in  1839,  Kyser  came  down  from  Oregon 
and  again  entered  the  service  of  his  old  employer.  After  the  purchase, 
the  grant  was  divided,  Johnson  taking  the  east  half,  and  Kyser  the  west. 
In  1846,  they  built  an  adobe  house  below  the  crossing. 

In  1845,  George  Patterson  settled  on  the  south  side  of  the  Yuba  River, 
opposite  Cordua's  ranch,  under  a  lease  from  Captain  Sutter,  and  constructed 
an  adobe  house.  He  cultivated  some  land  and  dug  a  ditch,  which  at  that 
period  was  the  substitute  for  a  fence.  Jack  Smith  at  one  time  lived  with 
Patterson   on  this   grant.     This  was   known   as   "Sutter's   Garden,"   and   the 


occupation  of  the  tract  was  made  by  his  proxy,  Patterson.  The  soil  was 
cultivated  only  sufficiently  to  comply  with  the  laws  under  whose  terms 
land  was  held. 

During  the  year  1845,  Charles  Roether,  a  German,  settled  on  the  north 
side  of  Honcut  Creek,  in  Butte  County,  one-half  mile  from  the  stream  and 
about  two  miles  from  its  mouth. 

Jack  Smith,  an  old  sailor,  who  had  been  in  Sutter's  employ,  obtained 
from  him  in  1844  a  grant  of  land  on  the  south  side  of  Yuba  River,  extending 
from  the  site  of  Linda  three  miles  up  the  stream  and  one  mile  back.  He 
settled  there  in  1845,  and  built  a  cabin  on  the  location  of  the  subsequent  town 
of  Linda.  In  1846,  Smith  sold  the  center  mile  of  this  tract  to  George 
Patterson.  The  purchaser  had  come  to  California  in  184-1,  in  one  of  the 
ships  belonging  to  the  Hudson  Bay  Company.  He  escaped  from  the  vessel 
at  night  and  took  refuge  on  Goat  Island  in  San  Francisco  Bay.  An  attempt 
was  made  that  night  by  John  Rose  to  rescue  him  in  a  boat,  but  it  was 
unsuccessful.  Patterson  found  his  way  to  this  valley  and  entered  the  employ 
of  Sutter.  In  1847,  Michael  Nye  purchased  a  portion  of  the  Sutter  grant 
adjoining  Smith  on  the  west.  The  tract  was  one  mile  in  extent  along  the 
south  bank  of  the  stream,  and  one  and  one-half  miles  in  depth.  In  the 
latter  part  of  1847,  when  William  G.  Murphy  moved  from  Cordua's  ranch 
to  Nye's  place,  Nye  had  700  head  of  cattle,  and  Smith,  800;  in  partnership 
they  owned  150  wild  horses.  The  house  occupied  by  Smith  was  of  peculiar 
construction.  Ends  of  stout  poles  were  sunk  into  the  ground,  and  willows 
interwoven  horizontally,  forming  a  sort  of  basket  work ;  a  heavy  coating 
of  soft  clay  was  placed  on  both  sides  and  the  roof  thatched  with  tules 
brought  from  Nicolaus.  The  floor  was  constructed  of  sunburned  brick 
and  earth  pounded  down  firm  and  smooth.  A  coat  of  whitewash  was  the 
only  covering  of  the  bare  and  unsightly  walls.  Nye  built  his  dwelling  in 
1847,  making  a  more  pretentious  and  commodious  structure  of  two  rooms. 
The  walls  were  thick  and  constructed  of  adobe ;  the  roof  was  covered  with 
split  shakes,  brought  from  the  river  bottom  opposite  Cordua  Ranch. 

On  October  18,  1846,  there  arrived  at  Bear  River  a  company  of  emi- 
grants, several  members  of  which  were  to  play  important  parts  in  the 
settlement  and  development  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties.  Of  these,  Claude 
Chana,  late  of  Wheatland,  was  one  of  the  leading  spirits.  Born  in  the 
department  of  Rouen,  France,  in  1811,  he  came  to  New  Orleans,  arriving 
on  March  7,  1839,  where  he  worked  as  a  cooper.  He  was  one  of  the  first 
settlers  of  the  town  of  St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  where  he  settled  in  1841.  While 
there,  he  heard  from  an  old  trapper  who  had  been  through  the  Sacramento 
Valley,  of  the  wonderful  climate  of  California  and  of  the  flourishing  settle- 
ment of  John  A.  Sutter.  In  1846  he  sold  his  property  in  St.  Joseph  to 
this  trapper  and  joined  a  train  that  was  crossing  the  plains.  This  train 
consisted  of  500  wagons  and  over  1000  men.  They  crossed  the  Missouri 
River  on  May  10,  1846.  The  train  contained  emigrants  for  Oregon,  Utah, 
California  and  other  destinations.  The  emigrants  organized  into  compa- 
nies, according  to  the  place  of  their  destination,  Mr.  Chana  being  in  what 
was  called  the  California  Company,  and  this  party  led  the  train.  In  1846 
Charles  Covillaud,  who  was  a  member  of  the  same  company,  and  Michael 
Nye,  a  member  of  General  Bidwell's  party,  entered  the  employ  of  Cordua; 
Chana,  who  had  brought  his  cooper  tools,  went  to  work  for  Sutter,  at  the 
fort,  making  water  tanks,  barrels,  churns,  pails,  etc.,  for  settlers  through- 
out the  whole  valley. 

In  1847,  Baptiste  Rouelle,  the  discoverer  of  gold  in  the  mountains  near 
the  Mission  of  San  Fernando,  settled  near  Sutter's  Garden  on  the  south 
bank  of  the  Yuba  River.     During  the  spring  of  1S47.   the  survivors  of  the 


Dormer  party  arrived,  many  remaining  at  the  settlements  in  this  vicinity; 
among  these  were  the  members  of  the  Murphy  family,  a  direct  descendant 
of  which  family,  Ernest  Murphy,  is  at  present  a  resident  of  Marysville, 
and  occupies  the  position  of  deputy  postmaster  of  the  city. 

The  contiguity  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties,  we  here  repeat,  renders 
the  record  of  their  early  settlement  almost  inseparable,  and  to  fully  appre- 
ciate the  situation  of  affairs  during  that  period,  it  is  well  to  understand 
the  relative  locations  in  Sutter  County.  There  were  only  two  settlements 
of  note  in  that  county  up  to  1848 — at  Hock  Farm  and  Nicolaus.  At  Hock 
Farm,  after  its  location,  lived  Theodore  Sicard  and  a  man  named  Dupont. 
In  the  spring  of  1843,  John  Bidwell  went  up  to  take  charge  of  the  farm. 
He  built  the  house  during  the  summer,  the  adobes  being  made  on  the  place. 
Sicard  and  Dupont  sawed  boards  for  its  construction  out  of  the  cotton- 
wood  trees.  These  were  the  only  white  men  there  until  near  the  close  of 
the  year,  when  J.  C.  Bridges  came  from  Kentucky ;  he  died  during  the 
winter.  On  Hock  Farm,  Sutter  had  about  5000  head  of  cattle  and  1200 
horses.  He.  employed  about  twenty-five  Indian  vaqueros  in  herding  the 
animals  and  breaking  horses.  General  Bidwell  remained  there  fourteen 
months,  to  the  early  part  of  the  summer  of  1844,  and  during  that  time 
planted  some  trees  and  otherwise  improved  the  spot.  William  Bennitz 
then  took  charge  and  continued  there  for  a  year,  to  the  summer  of  1845. 
Major  Hensley  followed,  remaining  until  the  spring  of  1846,  when  nearly 
all  of  Sutter's  force  went  into  the  Mexican  War,  the  farm  being  left  in  the 
charge  of  "Yankee  Jim,"  a  Kanaka,  whom  Captain  Sutter  had  brought 
from  the  "Islands."  It  was  not  until  the  spring  of  1850,  after  the  discovery 
of  gold,  that  Sutter  moved  to  Hock  Farm.  His  fort  was  so  occupied  with 
traders,  that  every  available  room  was  taken,  and  every  suitable  place  was 
in  demand  for  the  numerous  stores  to  supply  the  rush  of  miners  to  the  min- 
ing districts.  Peter  H.  Burnett  was  left  as  Sutter's  agent  for  the  sale  of  lots 
in  Sacramento,  and  when  the  former  was  elected  Governor,  H.  A.  Schoolcraft 
was  appointed  in  his  place.  Burnett  received  a  commission  of  25  per  cent 
for  effecting  sales  and  making  deeds.  Sutter  fixed  up  the  house  on  Hock 
Farm  and  built  the  iron  structure.  It  was  erected  for  a  storehouse,  and 
was  bought  from  parties  who  had  brought  it  "around  the  Horn." 

In  1842,  as  mentioned  above,  Nicolaus  Allgeier  was  settled  at  the  loca- 
tion of  the  present  town  of  Nicolaus.  This  gentleman  was  born  in  Freiberg, 
Germany,  in  1807,  and  came  to  America  about  1830.  He  went  into  the 
employ  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  as  a  trapper,  and  in  that  capacity 
spent  a  number  of  years  in  the  wilds  of  British  America.  It  was  while  in 
this  service,  in  1839  or  1840,  that  he  came  overland  to  California.  A  short 
time  after  his  arrival  here,  he  left  the  employ  of  the  company  and  engaged 
to  work  for  Captain  Sutter.  He  assisted  in  the  construction  of  an  adobe 
house,  about  one  and  one-half  miles  below  Hock  Farm,  in  the  winter  of 
1841-1842.  This  was  Sutter's  first  establishment  in  Sutter  County,  and  the 
first  settlement  of  any  kind  made  in  this  vicinity.  The  plains  between 
the  Sacramento  and  Feather  Rivers  were  used  by  Sutter  as  a  grazing 
range  for  immense  bands  of  horses  and  cattle.  The  road  from  his  estab- 
lishment at  New  Helvetia  to  the  one  at  Hock  Farm  crossed  the  river  at 
Nicolaus,  and  Sutter  desired  some  one  stationed  at  that  point  with  a  ferry 
to  assist  in  the  transportation  of  men,  cattle,  horses,  supplies,  etc.,  across 
the  stream.  He  therefore  deeded  to  Allgeier  a  tract  one  mile  scpiare  at 
that  place,  in  consideration  of  the  labor  he  had  performed,  and  of  the 
services  he  should  render  in  the  future  in  the  manner  described,  all  valued 
at  $400.  This  land  commenced  400  yards  above  the  old  adobe  house  and 
extended  one  mile  down  the  stream.     When  Allsreier   first   settled   there  in 


1842,  he  built  a  small  hut  of  poles  covered  with  tule  grass  and  dirt.  In  this 
he  lived  for  several  years,  until,  in  1847,  he  constructed  a  small  adobe  house 
near  the  old  ferry  crossing,  about  150  yards  above  the  landing  recentlv 
abandoned  when,  in  1921,  a  bridge  was  built  by  Sutter  County  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  the  ferry.  A  primitive  ferry-boat  was  constructed  in  1843,  which 
the  Indians  rowed  across  in  transacting  the  business  of  the  crossing. 



A  history  of  Yuba  Count}-  without  a  chapter  on  the  Donner  Party,  the 
"Tragedy  of  the  Sierras,"  would  be  incomplete,  as  a  number  of  the  survivors 
of  that  awful  experience  were  among  the  early  settlers  of  this  section. 

"William  G.  Murphy,  member  of  the  Yuba  County  liar  in  the  earlier  days 
of  Marysville,  and  father  of  the  present  assistant  postmaster  of  the  city,  was 
one  of  the  survivors  of  the  Donner  Party  who  located  here.  In  the  family 
with  Murphy  were  his  mother  and  six  children.  C.  G.  McGlashan,  in  his 
history  of  the  Donner  Part}-,  says  Murphy  described  to  him  how  the  party 
at  Donner  Lake  gathered  up  the  old  castaway  bones  of  the  cattle — bones 
from  which  all  the  flesh  had  been  previously  picked — arid  then  boiled,  and 
boiled,  and  boiled  them  until  they  actually  would  crumble  between  the  teeth 
as  they  ate  them.  The  little  children  playing  upon  the  fire  rug,in  his  moth- 
er's cabin  used  to  cut  up  little  pieces  of  the  rug,  toast  them  crip  upon  the 
coals,  and  then  eat  them.  In  this  manner,  before  any  one  was  fairly  aware 
of  the  fact,  the  fire  rug  was  entirely  consumed.  - 

Murphy  saw  the  hides  that  had  served  over  the  cabins  in  lieu  of  shingles 
taken  down  and  eaten.  The  green  rawhides  were  cut  into  strips  and  laid 
upon  the  coals,  or  held  in  the  flames,  until  the  hair  was  completely  singed  off. 
Either  side  of  the  piece  of  hide  was  then  scraped  with  a  knife  until  completely 
cleansed,  placed  in  a  kettle,  and  boiled  until  soft  and  pulpy.  There  was  no 
salt  and  only  a  little  pepper,  and  yet  this  unsavory  substance  was  all  that 
stood  between  them  and  starvation.  When  cold,  the  boiled  hides  and  the 
water  in  which  they  were  cooked  became  jellied  and  exactly  resembled  glue. 
The  tender  stomachs  of  many  of  the  children  revolted  at  this  disagreeable 
diet,  and  the  loathing  they  felt  at  sight  of  this  substance  persisted  for  a  long 
time  in  the  minds  of  the  survivors. 

The  terrible  experiences  of  the  Donner  Party  are  given  in  TutTiill's 
History  of  California,  from  which  we  quote  : 

"Of  the  overland  emigration  to  California  in  1846  about  eighty  wagons 
took  a  new  route,  from  Fort  Bridger  around  the  south  end  of  Great  Salt  Lake. 
The  pioneers  of  the  party  arrived  in  good  season  over  the  mountains,  but 
Mr.  Reeves'  and  Mr.  Donner's  companies  opened  a  new  route  through  the 
desert,  lost  a  month's  time  by  their  explorations,  and  reached  the  foot  of  the 
"Truckee  Pass"  in  the  Sierras  on  October  31st  instead  of  the  first  as  intended. 
The  snow  began  to  fall  two  or  three  weeks  earlier  than  usual  that  year,  and 
was  already  so  piled  up  in  the  pass  that  they  could  not  proceed.  They 
attempted  it  repeatedly  but  were  as  often  forced  to  return.  One  party  built 
their  cabin  near  Truckee  (afterward  Donner)  Lake,  killed  their  cattle  and 
went  into  winter  quarters.     The  other   (Donner's  party)   still  believed   they 


could  tread  the  pass,  and  so  failed  to  build  their  cabins  before  more  snow- 
came  and  buried  their  cattle  alive.  Of  course  they  were  soon  destitute  of 
food,  for  they  could  not  tell  where  the  cattle  were  buried  and  there  was  no 
hope  of  game  on  a  desert  so  piled  with  snow  that  nothing  without  wings 
could  move.  The  number  of  those  who  were  thus  storm-stayed  at  the  very 
threshold  of  a  land  whose  winters  are  one  long  spring,  was  eighty,  of  whom 
thirty  were  women  and  children.  The  Mr.  Donner  who  had  charge  of  one 
company  was  a  native  of  Illinois,  sixty  years  of  age,  and  a  man  of  high 
respectability  and  abundant  means.  His  wife  was  a  woman  of  education 
and  refinement,  and  much  younger  than  he. 

"During  November  it  snowed  fifteen  days ;  during  December  and  Jan- 
uary, eight  days  each.  Much  of  this  time  the  props  of  the  cabins  were  below 
the  snow  level.  It  was  six  weeks  after  the  halt  was  made  that  a  party  of 
fifteen,  including  five  women  and  two  Indians,  who  acted  as  guides,  set  out 
on  snowshoes  to  cross  the  mountains  and  give  notice  to  the  people  of  Cali- 
fornia settlements  of  the  condition  of  their  friends.  At  first  the  snow  was  so 
light  and  feathery  that  even  with  snowshoes  they  sank  nearly  a  foot  at  every 
step.  On  the  second  day  they  crossed  the  'divide,'  finding  the  snow  at  the 
summit  twelve  feet  deep.  Pushing  forward  with  the  courage  of  despair  they 
made  from  four  to  eight  miles  a  day. 

"Within  a  week  they  were  entirely  out  of  provisions,  and  three  of  them, 
succumbing  to  cold,  weariness  and  starvation,  had  died.  Then  a  heavy  snow- 
storm came  on,  which  compelled  them  to  lie  still,  buried  'neath  their  blankets 
under  the  snow  for  thirty-six  hours.  By  evening  of  the  tenth  day  three  more 
had  died,  and  the  living  had  been  four  days  without  food.  The  horrid  alterna- 
tive was  accepted — they  took  flesh  from  the  bones  of  their  dead,  remained  in 
camp  two  days  to  dry  it,  and  then  pushed  on. 

"On  New-year's  Day,  the  sixteenth  day  since  leaving  Truckee  Lake, 
they  were  toiling  up  a  steep  mountain.  Their  feet  were  frozen.  Every  step 
was  marked  with  blood.  On  the  second  of  January  their  food  again  gave  out. 
On  the  third  day  they  had  nothing  to  eat  but  the  strings  of  their  snowshoes. 
On  the  fourth  the  Indians  deserted,  suspicious  that  they  might  be  sacrificed 
for  food.  On  the  fifth  one  of  the  party  shot  a  deer,  and  that  day  there  was 
another  death.  Soon  after,  three  others  died,  and  every  death  served  to  pro- 
long the  existence  of  the  survivors.  On  the  seventh  all  but  one  gave  out. 
concluding  that  their  wanderings  were  useless.  This  one,  guided  by  two 
friendly  Indians,  dragged  himself  on  until  he  reached  a  settlement  on  Bear 
River.  By  midnight  the  settlers  had  found  and  were  treating  with  all  Chris- 
tian kindness  what  remained  of  the  little  company  that  after  a  month  of  most 
terrible  sufferings,  had  halted  to  die. 

"The  story  that  there  were  emigrants  perishing  on  the  other  side  of  the 
snowy  barrier  ran  swiftly  down  the  Sacramento  Valley  to  New  Helvetia,  and 
Captain  Sutter,  at  his  own  expense,  fitted  out  an  expedition  of  men  and  of 
mules  laden  with  provisions,  to  cross  the  mountains  and  relieve  them.  The 
story  ran  to  San  Francisco ;  and  the  people,  rallying  in  public  meeting,  raised 
$1500  and  with  it  fitted  out  another  expedition.  The  naval  commandant  of 
the  port  fitted  out  others. 

"The  first  of  the  relief  parties  reached  Truckee  Lake  on  the  19th  of 
February.  Ten  of  the  people  in. the  nearest  camp  were  dead.  For  four  days 
those  still  alive  had  fed  on  bullocks'  hides.  At  Donner's  camp  but  one  hide 
lemained.  The  visitors  left  a  small  supply  of  provisions  with  the  twenty- 
nine  whom  the}'  could  not  take  with  them  and  started  back  with  the  remain- 
der.  Four  of  the  children  they  carried  on  their  backs. 

"Another  of  the  relief  parties  reached  the  lake  about  the  first  of  March. 
They  at  once  started  back  with  seventeen  of  the  sufferers ;  but  a  heavv  snow- 


storm  overtaking  them,  they  left  all,  except  three  of  the  children,  on  the  road. 
Another  party  went  after  those  left  on  the  way,  found  three  of  them  dead  and 
the  rest  sustaining  life  by  eating  the  flesh  of  the  dead. 

"The  last  relief  party  reached  Donner's  camp  late  in  April,  when  the 
snows  had  melted  so  much  that  the  earth  appeared  in  spots.  The  main  cabin 
was  empty,  but  some  miles  distant  they  found  the  last  survivor  of  all  lying 
on  the  cabin  floor  smoking  a  pipe.  He  was  ferocious  in  aspect,  savage  and 
repulsive  in  manner.  His  camp  kettle  was  over  the  fire,  and  in  it  his  meai 
of  human  flesh  preparing.  The  stripped  bones  of  his  fellow  sufferers  lay 
around  him.  He  refused  to  return  with  the  party,  and  only  consented  when 
he  saw  there  was  no  escape.  Mrs.  Jacob  Donner  was  the  last  to  die.  Her 
husband's  body  was  found  at  his  tent.  Circumstances  led  to  the  suspicion 
that  the  survivor  had  killed  Mrs.  Donner  for  the  flesh  and  money,  and  when 
he  was  threatened  with  hanging  he  produced  $500,  which  he  had  probably 
appropriated  from  her  store." 

Many  books  have  been  written  on  the  subject,  no  two  giving  precisely 
the  same  facts.  One  of  the  most  interesting  accounts  is  that  of  James  F.  Reed, 
who  for  years  was  one  of  the  prominent  and  reputable  citizens  of  San  Jose. 
He  left  Springfield,  111.,  in  the  middle  of  1846  and  was  accompanied  by  George 
and  Jacob  Donner  and  their  families.  George  Donner  was  elected  captain. 
At  Fort  Bridger,  William  McCutcheon,  wife  and  family  joined  the  partv. 
Leaving  the  fort,  they  unfortunately  took  a  new  route,  and  had' man}-  vicissi- 
tudes, not  the  least  being  the  loss  of  cattle.  Other  would-be  settlers  joined 
them  before  they  reached  California.  The  narrative  now  continues  in  Air. 
Reed's  own  words  : 

"After  crossing  the  desert,  it  became  known  that  some  families  had  nut 
enough  provisions  to  carry  them  through.  As  a  member  of  the  company,  I 
advised  them  to  make  an  estimate  of  the  provisions  on  hand  and  what  amount 
each  family  would  need.  After  receiving  the  estimate,  I  then  suggested  that 
if  two  gentlemen  of  the  company  would  volunteer  to  go  in  advance  to  Sutter's 
Fort  near  Sacramento,  I  would  write  a  letter  to  the  Captain  for  the  whole 
amount  of  provisions  wanted,  also  stating  that  I  would  become  personally 
responsible  to  him  for  the  amount.  I  thought,  from  the  generous  character 
of  Captain  Sutter,  that  provisions  would  be  sent.  Mr.  McCutcheon  came 
forward  and  said  that  if  they  would  take  care  of  his  family  he  would  go.  This 
the  company  agreed  to.  Mr.  Stanton,  a  single  man,  volunteered  to  go  with 
McCutcheon  if  they  would  furnish  him  with  a  horse.  McCutcheon,  having 
a  horse  and  mule,  generously  gave  the  mule.  Taking  blankets  and  provisions, 
the  two  men  started  to  California.  After  their  leaving  us  we  traveled  for 
weeks,  none  of  us  knowing  how  far  we  were  from  California,  and  soon  all 
became  anxious  to  know  wdiat  had  become  of  McCutcheon  and  Stanton.  It 
was  now  suggested  that  I  go  in  advance  to  California  and  hurry  up  the  sup- 
plies. This  was  agreed  to  and  I  started,  taking  with  me  three  days'  provi- 
sions, expecting  to  kill  game  on  the  way.  The  Messrs.  Donner  were  two 
days  in  advance  of  the  party  when  I  overtook  them.  With  George  Donner 
there  was  a  young  man  named  Walter  Herren,  who  joined  me.  With  all  the 
economy  I  could  use,  our  provisions  gave  out  in  a  few  days ;  so  I  supplied  our 
wants  by  shooting  wild  geese  and  other  game. 

"The  day  after  I  was  joined  by  Herren  I  proposed,  as  I  had  the  only 
horse,  that  he  should  ride  half  the  time.  The  proposition  was  joyfully 
accepted.  Soon  no  game  was  to  be  seen,  hunger  began  to  be  felt,  and  for 
days  we  traveled  without  hope  or  help.  We  reached  the  Sierra  Nevada 
Mountains.  I  believed  I  could  have  made  a  stop  here,  hunted  and  found  game. 
But  as  this  would  have  delayed  our  progress  and  success  might  not  have 
rewarded  my  hunting  efforts,   I  kept  on.     The  second  day  before   we  found 


relief,  Herren  wanted  to  kill  the  horse.  I  persuaded  him  from  the  deed, 
promising  that  if  relief  did  not  come  soon  I  would  kill  the  horse  myself 
Soon  afterward  he  became,  delirious.  That  afternoon  I  found  a  bean  and  gave 
it  to  him,  and  then  never  was  a  road  examined  more  closely  than  this  one. 
We  found  in  all  five-beans.  Herren's  share  was  three  of  them.  We  camped 
that  night  in  a  patch  of  grass  a  short  distance  off  the  road.  Next  morning, 
after  traveling  a  few  miles,  we  saw  some  deserted  wagons. 

"We  soon  reached  and  ransacked  the  wagons,  hoping  to  find  something 
to  eat,  but  found  nothing.  Taking  the  tar  bucket  that  was  hanging  under 
one  of  the  wagons,  I  scraped  the  tar  off  and  found  a  streak  of  rancid  tallow 
at  the  bottom.  I  remember  well  that  when  I  announced  what  I  had  found, 
Herren,  who  was  sitting  on  a  rock  near  by,  got  up  hallooing  with  all  the 
strength  he  had  and  came  to  me.  I  handed  the  tar  paddle  to  him.  It  had 
on  it  some  of  the  tallow  about  the  size  of  a  walnut.  This  he  swallowed  with- 
out giving  it  a  smell.  I  then  took  a  piece  myself,  but  it  was  very  repulsive. 
Herren  craved  more  and  I  gave  him  another  piece.  Still  wanting  more,  I 
positively  refused,  stating  that  it  would  kill  him.  After  leaving  the  wagons, 
probably  fifty  yards,  I  became  deadly  sick  and  blind.  In  resting  myseif 
against  a  rock  I  leaned  my  head  on  the  muzzle  of  my  gun.  Herren,  seeing 
my  condition,  came  to  me  and  said,  'My  God,  Mr.  Reed,  are  you  dying?' 
After  resting  a  few  minutes  I  recovered,  much  to  his  joy. 

"The  wagons  were  within  a  short  distance  of  the  steep  hill  going  down 
into  Bear  Valley.  After  descending  the  first  steep  pitch,  I  discovered  wagons 
in  the  valley  below  us.  'Herren,'  said  I,  'there  are  wagons  in  the  valley.' 
When  he  saw  them  he  gave  vent  to  his  joy,  hallooing  at  the  top  of  his  voice ; 
but  on  account  of  weakness  he  could  not  have  been  heard  ten  rods  off.  On 
reaching  the  wagons  we  found  several  families  of  emigrants,  who  supplied  us 
with  bread.  I  here  met  Mr.  Stanton  with  two  Indians,  on  his  return  to  the 
company  with  provisions  supplied  by  Captain  Sutter.  Next  morning  they 
started  for  the  company  and  I  went  on  to  Sutter's  Fort." 

At  the  fort,  Reed  found  McCutcheon,  who  had  been  prevented  by  illness 
from  accompanying  Stanton.  Captain  -Sutter  furnished  horses  and  saddles 
with  which  to  bring  the  women  and  children  out  of  the  mountains.  The  expe- 
dition failed  on  account  of  the  snow,  which  at  some  points  was  eighteen  feet 
deep.  The  party  returned  for  more  help,  but  unfortunately  the  Mexican  War 
was  on  and  every  able-bodied  man  was  away.  At  Captain  Sutter's  sugges- 
tion Mr.  Reed  went  to  San  Francisco  to  see  if  he  could  not  procure  help  there. 
He  was  compelled  to  make  the  journey  by  land  and  reached  San  Jose  when 
it  was  in  a  state  of  siege.  Arrived  at  San  Francisco,  a  public  meeting  was 
held  and  relief  parties  fitted  out.  Mr.  Reed,  with  Mr.  McCutcheon,  accompa- 
nied the  first  of  these,  which  went  by  the  river.  On  the  route  he  met  his 
wife  and  children  rescued  by  a  relief  party  that  had  gone  ahead  of  them. 
He  only  stopped  a  few  minutes  for  greetings  and  then  pushed  on  to  the.  relief 
of  the  other  sufferers,  whom  they  reached  about  the  middle  of  the  next  day. 
The  first  camp  was  that  of  Mr.  Breen.     Mr.  Reed  says : 

"If  we  left  any  provisions  here  it  was  a  small  amount,  he  and  his  family 
not  being  in  want.  We  then  proceeded  to  the  camp  of  Mrs.  Murphy,  where 
Kessburg  and  some  children  were.  Here  we  left  provisions  and  one  of  our 
company  to  cook  for  and  attend  to  them.  From  here  we  visited  the  camp  of 
Mrs.  Graves,  some  distance  further  east.  A  number  of  the  relief  party 
remained  here,  while  Messrs.  Miller,  McCutcheon,  another,  and  myself  pro- 
ceeded to  the  Donner  camp.  We  found  Mrs.  Jacob  Donner  in  a  feeble  condi- 
tion. She  died  after  we  left.  Her  husband  had  died  early  in  the  winter.  We 
removed  the  tent  and  placed  it  in  a  more  comfortable  position.  I  then  visited 
the  tent  of  George  Donner,  close  by,  and  found  him  and  his  wife.     He  was 


helpless.  Their  children  and  two  of  Jacob's  had  come  out  with  the  party 
that  went  ahead  of  us.  I  requested  Mrs.  Donner  to  come  with  us,  stating 
that  I  would  leave  a  man  to  take  care  of  both  George  Donner  and  Mrs.  jacuii 
Donner.  She  positively  refused,  declaring  that  she  would  not  leave  her  hus- 
band in  his  enfeebled  condition. 

"We  took  the  remaining  three  children  of  Jacob  Donner,  leaving  a  man 
to  take  care  of  the  two  camps.  Leaving  all  the  provisions  we  could  spare. 
and  expecting  a  party  from  Sutter's  Fort  would  be  in  in  a  few  days,  we 
returned  to  the  camp  of  Mrs.  Graves.  Notice  was  given  in  all  the  camps 
that  we  would  start  on  our  return  to  Sutter's  early  next  day.  About  the 
middle  of  the  day  we  started,  taking  with  us  all  who  were  able  to  travel." 

The  relief  party  that  came  after  Mr.  Reed,  did  not  reach  the  sufferers  as 
soon  as  expected  and  disasters  occurred  in  consequence.  The  full  details  of 
the  sufferings  of  the  unfortunate  party  would  fill  a  book.  Each  of  the  relief 
parties,  especially  that  conducted  by  Mr.  Reed,  endured  sufferings  equal  to 
those  experienced  by  the  unfortunates  in  the  winter  camp.  History  has  no 
parallel  to  the  heroism  displayed  by  these  people  in  their  efforts  to  rescue 
suffering  relatives  and  friends. 



Of  the  splendid  army  of  pioneers  who  set  the  stakes  for  the  civilization 
of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties,  the  editor  of  this  history  can  find  but  one  who 
kept  a  diary  of  his  "ups  and  downs"  for  the  perusal  of  his  descendants.  That 
one  is  Joseph  Brown,  who  for  many  years,  until  his  death,  in  1917,  made 
Marysville  his  home,  and  who  left  a  family  of  sons  and  daughters  esteemed 
highly  in  the  community.  To  one  of  the  daughters.  Airs.  John  C.  Dooley  of 
this  city,  the  editor  is  indebted  for  the  interesting  account  contained  in  this 
chapter,  which  is  made  up  from  her  father's  diary. 

Joseph  Brown,  with  his  parents  and  500  others,  left  their  home  in 
Iowa,  May  15,  1849,  to  cross  the  plains  for  the  new  El  Dorado.  In  the 
party  were  many  women  and  children.  They  made  their  first  camp  in 
California  on  October  25,  1849.  The  Brown  family  consisted  of  the  father 
and  mother  and  six  children.  The  editor  uses  Mr.  Brown's  own  language 
in  following  his  trials  and  tribulations  while  on  the  way  to  the  Golden 
State.    The  story  follows  : 

"Our  train  consisted  of  about  110  wagons,  mostly  new,  all  covered  with 
heavy  white  canvas,  forming  a  line  about  two  miles  in  length,  and  making 
quite  a  display.  There  were  some  horses  and  mule  teams,  having  four 
animals  on  each  wagon,  the  ox  teams  having  from  two  to  four  yoke  of 
oxen,  with  one  exception.  An  old  Scotch  sea  captain  and  his  two  sons  had 
one  yoke  of  oxen  and  a  mare  on  their  team.  Their  oxen,  not  being  well 
broken,  lay  down,  and  in  getting  up  turned  the  yoke,  which  brought  the 
near  ox  on  the  off  side  and  the  yoke  underneath,  instead  of  on  top  of  then- 
necks.  The  mare  became  tangled'  in  the  harness  and  began  kicking  furiously. 
The  boys  had  never  before  experienced  anything  like  this,  and  calling  their 
lather,  explained  in  their  way  that  the  iarbert'  ox  was  on  the  'starbert  side 
and  the  'starbert'  ox  was  on  the  iarbert'  side,  and  the  mare  foul  in  the  rigging, 


and  all  going  to  hell  together.  Having  had  no  further  trouble,  we  reached 
the  Platte  River,  followed  it  a  number  of  days,  and  crossed  it  back  and 
forth.  Large  herds  of  buffalo  could  be  seen  at  any  time.  They  seemed  to 
care  little  for  us.  On  one  occasion  a  herd  ran  through  our  train,  stampeding 
some  of  our  cattle  and  creating  some  little  excitement,  especially  among  the 
women  and  children.  However,  little  damage  was  done.  Usually  we  trav- 
eled from  fifteen  to  twenty  miles  a  day,  one  or  two  men  going  ahead  to 
secure  suitable  camping  grounds,  where  water  and  grass  could  be  had. 
In  camping  at  nights,  our  wagons  would  be  brought  around  in  a  circle,  one 
behind  the  other,  making  a  large  yard  where  the  cattle  were  yoked  and 
hitched   each  morning. 

"Our  party  soon  became  dissatisfied,  some  anxious  to  make  better  time, 
while  others  declared  their  teams  could  not  stand  longer  drives.  The  follow- 
ing night  two  separate  camps  were  made,  and  all  in  favor  of  faster  driving 
camped  together.  The  following  morning  the  train  divided  up,  about  one- 
half  going  ahead.  My  father,  John  Kupser  (father  of  Bayard  Kupser,  who 
lived  near  the  Seven  Mile  House  in  this  county  until  his  death  recently), 
and  the  Burris  and  Cordell  families  decided  to  stay  with  the  party  behind. 
This  reduced  our  train  to  about  forty-five  wagons.  The  cattle  were  begin- 
ning to  wear  out,  and,  being  sore-footed,  travel  was  slow. 

"We  reached  Green  River,  a  beautiful  stream  rising  in  western  Wyo- 
ming and  flowing  south  through  Utah.  On  the  way  we  found  notices  to  the 
trains  behind  warning  them  against  Indians.  Cattle  that  gave  out  had  to 
be  left  behind  with  the  wagons  and  most  of  their  contents ;  and  almost  every 
day  we  would  pass  cattle,  from  twenty  to  thirty  in  number,  left  by  parties 
ahead  of  us,  which  were  unable  to  go  farther.  Some  of  our  party  exchanged 
their  wagons  for  lighter  ones,  as  many  of  the  wagons  left  behind  formerly 
belonged  to  the  train  that  had  left  us  and  gone  ahead. 

"In  November,  we  reached  Humboldt  River,  in  the  State  of  Nevada, 
followed  it  down  perhaps  ISO  miles  or  more,  passing  what  are  now  thriving 
mining  camps  and  railroad  towns,  namely,  Elko,  Carlin,  Battle  Mountain, 
Golconda,  Winnemucca  and  others.  Two  clays  before  reaching  Battle  Moun- 
tain, the  Indians  attacked  the  train  ahead  of  us,  driving  off  a  number  of 
their  best  cattle,  beside  killing  three  of  the  party  and  wounding  a  number 
of  others.  Eighteen  or  twenty  Indians  were  killed  in  the  battle,  which 
lasted  two  or  three  hours.  Had  the  immigrants  not  been  protected  by  their 
wagons,  they  undoubtedly  would  have  been  murdered.  The  three  men 
killed  were  buried  side  by  side,  with  their  names  on  their  headstones  and  the 
words:  'Killed  by  Indians  September  10,  1849.'  The  dead  Indians  were 
taken  away  by  their  tribe.  Arrows  almost  hid  the  ground  where  the  battle 
took  place.  Not  having  any  use  for  these,  we  passed  them  by  as  fast  as 
possible,  moving  on  until  almost  dark,  and  then  we  put  a  double  guard  on 
our  cattle. 

"After  following  the  river  for  a  number  of  days,  we  came  to  what  was 
called  the  'Lassen  Meadows,'  where  we  found  notices  to  emigrants  to  take 
the  Lassen  Cut,  a  very  dim  road,  or  trail,  turning  directly  west,  as  the  nearest 
and  best  road  to  California.  There  being  an  abundance  of  feed  and  water 
here,  we  stopped  for  a  day  to  rest  our  cattle.  The  following  morning  our 
party  divided  again,  some  following  down  the  Humboldt  River  to  the  Sink 
and  across  the  desert  known  as  the  'Hennis  Pass  Route.'  Father,  with  a 
number  of  others,  including  the  Kupser  and  Cordell  families,  took  the  Lassen 
Cut-off.  The  Burris  family,  which  later  settled  at  Browns  Valley  in  Yuba 
County,  recently  had  had  a  son  added  to  the  family.  They  started  off  on  the 
Cut-off,  but  after  driving  a  few  miles  wisely  turned  back  to  the  Hennis 
Pass.     The  road  was  very  difficult  and  dangerous  to  travel.     In  a  number 


of  places,  our  wagons  had  to  be  let  down  by  ropes  into  canyons,  requiring 
three  or  four  teams  to  draw  them  out  on  the  opposite  banks.  About  day- 
break one  morning,  Indians,  thirty  or  forty  in  number,  attacked  the  men  on 
guard  and  tried  to  drive  off  some  of  our  cattle,  but  failed  in  their  attempt. 
Being  fired  upon  from  different  points  by  the  men  on  guard,  they  left  for 
the  hills.  Three  Indians  were  seen  to  fall  from  their  horses,  and  undoubtedly 
a  number  of  others  were  wounded.  One  of  the  guards  was  slightly  hurt  by 
arrows.  The  "cattle  were  then  brought  to  camp,  and  without  waiting  for 
breakfast  we  took  to  the  road.  Here  another  of  the  men  had  to  leave  his 
wagon,  having  only  three  cattle  able  to  go  further.  These  three  oxen  were 
put  on  the  next  weaker  team  and  his  outfit  taken  along. 

"Our  provisions,  as  well  as  our  teams,  were  giving  out,  and  the  weather 
looking  as  though  winter  would  soon  overtake  us.  Everything  was  unfav- 
orable and  discouraging.  Our  only  hope  was  to  move  ahead,  which  we 
did.  Indian  campfires  could  be  seen  at  night.  With  the  knowledge  of  our 
previous  trouble,  we  did  not  know  at  what  hour  we  might  be  attacked,  and 
this  added  to  the  suffering  of  our  little  party.  There  were  now  but  six 
families,  perhaps  twenty-five  or  thirty  able  men  in  all.  They  could  make 
but  a  very  feeble  resistance  against  300  or  400  Indians  if  we  were  attacked, 
as  we  fully  expected  retaliation  for  the  killing  of  the  three  or  four  Indians 
who  had  attempted  to  drive  off  the  cattle  previously  mentioned.  However, 
we  moved  along  steadily  and  finally  reached  the  summit  of  the  Sierra 
Nevadas.  Father  was  appointed  to  go  ahead  and  look  over  the  road  and 
pick  a  camping  ground.  He  reported  that  night  that  we  had  reached  the 
summit  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains  and  the  valley  could  be  seen  be- 
low. These  were  the  first  words  of  encouragement  we  had  had  since  leav- 
ing our  homes  in  Iowa. 

"After  we  had  passed  over  the  summit  and  were  going  down  grade,  we 
made  much  better  time.  We  reached  Pitt  River,  the  headwaters  of  the  Sacra- 
mento River;  and  following  it  down,  we  came  to  the  Lassen  Ranch,  where 
we  found  a  party  that  had  gotten  in  a  few  days  ahead  of  us  and  had  driven 
their  cattle  toward  the  hills  for  feed.  AVhile  guarding  their  cattle,  they  saw 
another  large  band  of  cattle,  with  two  Indians  herding  them,  and  they 
recognized  some  of  them  as  cattle  that  had  been  taken  at  the  Battle  Mountain 
encounter,  but  said  nothing.  One  Indian,  who  spoke  a  few  words  of  English, 
said  that  Lassen  had  bought  the  cattle.  The  Lassen  Cut-off  was  at  least 
130  miles  or  more  out  of  our  way,  and  a  worse  road  could  not  be  found  in 
the  Sierra  Nevadas.  Our  party  went  to  the  ranch  to  buy  flour,  but  was 
refused  by  the  man  in  charge ;  but  each  man  helped  himself  to  some  wheat 
and  went  to  our  camp.  The  party  ahead  of  us  had  just  killed  a  fat  calf 
belonging  to  Lassen ;  and  dividing  with  us,  we  all  feasted  on  cracked  wheat, 
veal  and  acorns,  at  Lassen's  expense. 

"Early  the  next  morning  found  us  on  the  road  again.  It  had  rained 
during  the  night,  leaving  the  road  very  heavy.  We  traveled  a  number  of 
days  before  we  got  in  sight  of  Table  Mountain.  Here  we  found  a  notice 
to  emigrants  directing  them  to  different  mining  camps,  giving  the  name  and 
clislance  to  each  camp,  signed  "Bidwell,"  Morris  Ravine  being  the  nearest. 
After  a  long  talk,  my  father  decided  to  try  that,  the  others  deciding  to  go  on, 
saying  that  it  was  another  Lassen  Cut-off  fake.  However,  father  ordered 
me  to  turn  and  follow  him,  which  I  had  trouble  in  doing,  as  our  team  had 
been  used  to  following  in  line  and  refused  to  obey.  However,  being  an 
expert  with  the  whip,  I  brought  them  around,  following  father  along  the 
base  of  the  Table  Mountain,  where  we  made  our  first  camp  in  California. 
October  25,  1849. 


"After  arranging  our  camp,  the  following  morning  father  walked  clown 
to  the  Feather  River  and  to  the  Morris  Ravine,  where  he  found  a  few 
miners  at  work.  After  talking  with  them  and  seeing  them  wash  out  a  few 
pans  of  dirt,  he' returned  to  the  camp,  which  was  three  or  four  miles  distant. 
Next  morning  he  took  his  pan,  shovel  and  pick,  located  a  claim,  and  com- 
menced his  first  day's  work  in  California.  He  would  work  until  late,  lay 
the  gold  taken  from  each  pan1  of  dirt  on  a  flat  rock,  and  at  night  take  it  to 
camp  in  his  pan,  having,  he  thought,  about  two  ounces  of  gold,  or  about 
thirty  dollars,  for  his  clay's  work.  He  continued  walking  back  and  forth 
for  several  days,  rain  or  shine.  One  very  stormy  day,  a  stranger  on  horse- 
back came  to  our  camp,  driving  two  oxen.  He  talked  with  my  mother  and 
told  of  the  different  mining  camps  and  advised  us  to  move  our  camp  down 
the  river.  He  left  the  two  steers  with  my  brother  George  and  myself,  saying 
that  if  he  came  back  for  them  within  a  few  days  he  would  pay  us  for  our 
trouble  in  looking  after  them,  but  if  not,  we  could  keep  them.  He  said  that 
we  could  ride  or  lead  them  like  horses.     He  gave  his  name  as  Bidwell. 

"Father,  acting  on  Bidwell's  advice,  decided  to  move  our  camp  to  the 
river.  We  gathered  our  steers  and  packed  them  with  bedding  and  clothing. 
Father  took  the  lead  with  a  load  on  his  back,  and  my  brother  George  and 
I  took  charge  of  the  steers,  while  mother  and  my- oldest  sister  handled  the 
three  younger  children.  YVe  reached  the  river  with  little  trouble.  Some 
of  the  miners  came  and  assisted  us  in  arranging  our  camp.  The  next  day 
we  made  two  trips  to  our  wagon,  taking  all  of  our  plunder  and  part  of  the 
wagon  bed,  from  which  father  made  a  rocker  and  furniture.  Here  we  spent 
the  winter  of  1849. 

"Provisions  at  that  time  were  not  to  be  had.  We,  like  the  others,  lived 
mostly  on  game,  of  which  there  was  an  abundance  of  all  kinds.  However, 
after  a  few  days,  a  pack  train  of  eight  or  ten  mules  came  in  with  provisions, 
mostly  flour  and  beans,  and  some  bacon.  Flour  sold  at  that  time  for  $1.50 
per  pound ;  other  things  in  proportion.  Soon  another  and  larger  train  came 
in  with  a  general  assortment  of  provisions,  dry  goods,  etc.  Flour  then  took 
a  drop  to  $1  a  pound.  Mother  bought  a  pint  jar  of  pickles  and  two  sweet 
potatoes  for  $11;  a  paper  of  needles  and  two  spools  of  thread,  $7.50;  three 
pairs  of  shoes,  $10  and  $14  per  pair ;  rubber  boots  ran  $28  and  $30  a  pair. 

"We  worked  every  day  but  Sunday.  Father  would  dig  and  carry  dirt 
to  the  river  in  a  sack  while  I  handled  the  rocker,  often  making  as  high  as 
$100  or  $150  per  day;  but  this  did  not  last  long.  We  remained  here  until 
the  spring  of  1850,  when  we  moved  up  the  south  fork  of  the  Feather  River, 
where  father,  with  twelve  or  fifteen  others,  undertook  to  flume  and  turn 
the  river,  with  the  idea  of  getting'  rich  quick,  but  after  working  all  summer 
and  spending  their  money,  the  water  came  up  and  swept  away  in  a  night 
what  had  taken  them  all  summer  to  accomplish. 

"Our  next  move  was  to  a  new  camp  (afterwards  named  Forbestown), 
with  the  late  James  Forbes.  This  camp  proved  to  be  very  lively.  Forbes 
entered  into  the  mercantile  business.  Father  kept  public  house  later,  but 
mining  was  his  principal  occupation.  Soon  there  were  a  number  of  saloons, 
each  having  twro  or  more  gambling  tables.  The  principal  games  then  were 
monte,  faro  and  roulette.  Thousands  of  dollars  exchanged  hands  every 
night.  Stacks  of  gold  coin  and  sacks  of  gold  dust  were  on  the  tables.  There 
was  what  was  then  called  a  'slug,'  containing  $50,  with  other  smaller  coins. 

"There  were  a  few  older  settlers  of  Forbestown  besides  Forbes,  one  M. 
McMurtry  of  North  Butte,  Ed  Bogardus,  and  M.  Gaskell,  butchers;  three 
Turpire  brothers,  Dolph  and  Ed  Moses,  teamsters ;  and  John  Snell,  express- 
man, besides  the  noted  gambler,  V.  Hitchcock,  from  the  'Sunny  South,'  where 
'they  shoot,  cut,  and  drink  whiskey,'  this  being  his  usual  expression  when 


drunk.  At  his  table  he  usually  had  from  $5000  to  $10,000  in  coin  and  dust, 
with  his  loaded  revolver  always  at  hand. 

"The  miners  usually  left  the  gold  in  the  pans  in  front  of  their  camps  to 
dry,  unmolested ;  but  on  one  occasion  a  stranger  came  to  town,  and  seeing 
things  lying  around,  decided  to  help  himself,  which  he  did  by  entering  a  camp 
and  taking  clothing,  a  gold  watch,  and  $40  or  $50  in  gold.  He  was  found 
with  most  of  the  plunder  on  him,  was  taken  to  a  tree,  his  shirt  stripped  off, 
and  he  was  tied  with  his  arms  around  the  tree.  He  was  given  twenty-five 
lashes  with  a  rawhide,  and  ordered  to  leave  town,  which  he  did. 

"We  remained  in  Forbestown  until  the  fall  of  1852,  when  we  moved  to 
Sutter  County  and  located  a  few  miles  below  Captain  Sutter's  place,  now 
Hock  Farm.  Father,  after  getting  our  house  well  under  way  and  leaving 
men  to  finish  it,  returned  to  the  mine  in  Forbestown.  Our  nearest  neigh- 
bors were  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bader,  who  kept  the  public  house  and  sold  liquor. 
It  will  be  remembered  that  Mrs.  Bader  was  murdered  by  a  man  named 
Jackson,  and  thrown  into  the  slough  where  she  usually  did  her  washing. 
Jackson  had  come  there  the  evening  before.  The  following  morning,  Bader 
rode  up  to  Captain  Sutter's  place  of  business,  leaving  Jackson  with  Mrs. 
Bader.  During  his  absence,  Jackson  shot  and  killed  Mrs.  Bader,  and,  after 
secreting  her  body  in  the  slough,  went  through  the  house  in  search  of  money 
they  were  supposed  to  have.  On  Bader's  return,  Jackson  met  him  at  the 
door  and  fired  two  shots  at  him,  neither  taking  effect.  Bader  ran  down  to 
our  house,  inquired  for  his  wife  and  told  what  had  happened,  and,  after 
getting  together  a  few  of  the  nearest  neighbors,  returned  to  his  house. 
Jackson  had  taken  Bader's  horse,  and  rode  toward  Yuba  City.  A  party 
followed  him  and  found  him  about  four  miles  below  Yuba  City,  asleep,  with 
his  horse  tied  near  by.  He  was  taken  back.  In  the  meantime,  a  number 
of  people  had  heard  of  the  murder  and  collected.  Jackson  was  given  a  trial 
and  sentenced  to  be  hanged  the  following  evening.  Some  of  the  jurors  were 
Captain  Allender,  Stephen  Shores,  Ed  Tobin,  Captain  Sutter,  Jr.,  Jim  Hum- 
phreys, and  others,  with  Judge  Lynch  presiding.  .  He  was  taken  to  a  near-by 
tree  and  hanged.  The  news  had  reached  Yuba  City  by  this  time,  and  a 
number  came  down,  including  the  sheriff  and  other  officers,  but  they  were 
too  late.  There  was  quite  a  discussion  among  them  over  the  hasty  pro- 
ceedings, but  nothing  was  done.  Jackson  was  allowed  to  hang  there  until 
about  dark,  when  he  was  taken  down  and  buried  near  the  same  spot,  with 
his  boots  on.  This  all  took  place  the 'same  day.  Mrs.  Bader's  body  was 
found  in  the  slough,  was  taken  to  her  house  and  prepared  for  burial  by 
my  mother,  sister,  and  Mrs.  Brighton,  a  neighbor,  and  was  buried  at  Cap- 
tain Sutter's  place. 

"We  remained  there  until  the  winter  of  1852,  when  the  first  flood  that 
came  took  away  our  house  and  most  of  its  contents.  The  first  warning  we 
had  of  water  was  hearing  the  pans  and  kettles  floating  about  in  the  house. 
We  were  soon  up  and  hastily  dressed  with  whatever  we  could  find.  With 
the  wind  blowing  a  gale  and  the  water  two  feet  deep  in  the  house,  we  started 
for  a  high  knoll  about  300  or  400  yards  away,  where  we  remained  until  day- 
break, when  we  were  rescued  by  parties  camped  near  and  taken  to  Mrs. 
Brighton's,  on  high  ground.  As  she  had  a  large  family,  it  was  an  easy  matter 
for  us  to  get  dry  clothing.  When  father  heard  of  the  high  water  in  the 
valley,  he  came  down  and  removed  to  Yuba  City,  then  a  lively  camp  with 
one  or  two  grocery  stores,  two  saloons,  and  some  business  houses.  There 
were  two  ferries,  one  about  where  the  bridge  now  is,  known  as  Hanson  Ferry, 
and  handled  by  one  John  Frank;  the  other  was  a  ferry  about  half  a  mile 
above,  known  as  Webb  Ferry.     The  latter  was  of  short  duration.     The  road 


or  street  to  Marysville,  now  Fifth  Street,  was  then  much  the  same  as  Third 
Street  is  to  the  boat  landing. 

"The  second  flood,  which  came  in  1853,  covered  the  whole  country 
almost  to  the  Buttes.  Marysville  was  in  water  two  to  four  feet  deep ;  Yuba 
City  the  same,  with  one  exception,  the  Indian  mound,  where  fifty  or  seventy- 
five  Digger  Indians  were  camped  near  where  the  Dr.  J.  H.  Barr  residence 
now  is.  Plouses  and  stacks  of  hay,  with  pigs  and  poultry  on  top,  went  down 
the  river,  greatly  interfering  with  the  ferry  ropes.  Marysville  could  be 
reached  only  by  rowboats,  one  of  which  I  handled.  The  fare  from  Yuba 
City  to  Marysville  and  return  was  $1.  The  water  soon  went  down,  leaving 
the  roads  and  streets  in  bad  condition. 

"Marysville  was  then  perhaps  the  best  business  town  on  the  Coast.  Ten 
or  fifteen  large  teams  would  go  out  almost  daily,  loaded  with  supplies  for 
the  mines,  besides  a  number  of  stages  with  four  to  six  horses,  many  of  them 
only  partly  broken,  carrying  passengers.  Mail  and  express  went  to  all 
points  in  the  mountains  where  such  conveyances  could  reach.  There  were 
also  a  number  of  pack  trains  having  fifteen  to  twenty,  or  more,  mules,  loaded 
with  supplies,  that  went  to  the  mines  higher  up,  wdiere  wagons  could  not 
reach.  One  of  the  first  pack  trains  from  Marysville  was  run  by  the  late 
J.  Bustillos  of  La  Porte.  Most  of  the  freight  then  came  to  Marysville  by 
water,  there  being  five  or  six  boats  making  regular  trips.  There  was  one 
large-sized  wheel  boat  called  the  Comanche,  besides  the  Urilda,  J.  Bragdon, 
and  the  Governor  Dana.  The  last  two  boats  alternated,  making  trips  to 
Hammontown  and  Oroville,  the  latter  a  lively  mining  town,  where  a  number 
of  freight  teams  and  pack  trains  left  daily.  The  boat-landing,  or  wharf,  was 
near  and  below  where  the  W.  T.  Ellis  grocery  was  operated  for  years.  The 
Merchants'  Hotel,  then  operated  by  John  C.  Fall,  one  of  the  leading  mer- 
chants in  Marysville,  was  doing  a  wdiolesale  business  mostly ;  but  he  finally 
became  involved  and  broke  up,  losing  his  $50,000  residence  on  G  and  Seventh 
Streets,  now  owned  by  Richard  Belcher,  Marysville  attorney. 

"Marysville  had  its  first  State  Fair  in  1853,  same  being  well  attended. 
Many  of  the  older  settlers  were  there  with  their  stock  and  other  exhibits. 
Among  these  settlers  were  Captain  Sutter,  Major  Bidwell,  Charles  Covillaud. 
father  of  the  late  Charles  Covillaud,  Peter  Lassen,  and  others;  but  the  moat 
conspicuous  person  There  was  Kit  Carson.  He  could  be  known  by  his  dress, 
as  he  wore  a  buckskin  suit  with  red  stripes  and  tassels  down  the  back, 
Panama  hat  and  red  sash.  He  carried  with  him  a  general  assortment  of 
Indian  reiics,  bows  and  arrows,  beads,  moccasins,  and  many  other  curiosities, 
besides  two  Indian  scalps,  which  he  claimed  were  taken  from  an  Apache 
chief  and  warnor  in  a  battle. 

"We  remained  in  Yuba  City  until  the  fall  of  1854,  when  we  made  another 
move  to  West  Butte,  locating  two  miles  above  where  the  West  Butte  store 
now  is,  and  adjoining  the  property  of  the  late  Squire  Hamlin,  for  whom  I 
later  went  to  work,  remaining  with  him  for  a  number  of  years.  My  prin- 
cipal work  was  riding  after  stock,  which  he  dealt  in.  W.  H.  Parks  and 
Frank  Parks,  the  latter  the  father  of  the  late  William  H.  Parks  of  the  Decker 
&  Jewett  Company,  bankers,  had  a  large  number  of  cattle,  which  I  also 
looked  after.  Their  cattle  at  times  ranged  as  far  north  as  Chico  in  Butte 
County,  and  above,  which  was  then  a  small  place. 

'  "At  that  time  the  Indians  frequently  made  raids  through  and  around 
Chico,  driving  off  the  stock  and  murdering  whenever  an  opportunity  pre- 
sented itself.  The  Heacock  family  will  still  be  remembered.  They  were 
living  above  Chico,  when  one  day  three  of  the  family  and  a  man  named 
Thomas  Allen,  a  teamster,  were  murdered.  With  Allen  was  an  Indian  boy, 
raised   by   M.   Keefer,   who    saw   the    Indians    coming   down   towards    them. 


Realizing:  their  intention,  he  ran  to  the  Heacock  house,  telling  of  the  coming 
of  the  Indians.  He  insisted  that  Mrs.  Heacock  go  to  the  Sadorus  house; 
but  she  refused,  saying  that  her  two  girls  and  boy  were  gathering  blackber- 
ries on  the  creek,  and  she  would  wait  until  they  returned.  The  Indian  boy 
then  took  her  baby  and  ran  toward  the  Sadorus  place,  calling  her  to  come. 
Finally  she  followed,  and  when  they  reached  the  house,  the  boy  reported 
seeing  the  Indians.  Owing  to  Sadorus  not  being  home,  nothing  could  be 
done.  On  his  return,  however,  he  was  told  by  the  boy  that  the  Indians  were 
going  toward  Mr.  Allen's,  who  was  then  attaching  his  team  to  his  loaded 
wagon.  Sadorus  did  not  dare  to  leave  his  family,  which  consisted  of  his  wife 
and  three  daughters,  Mrs.  M.  J.  Bryden  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Brown  (still  resi- 
dents of  Marysville)  and  Mrs.  J.  P.  Cope  of  Central  House,  Butte  City,  and 
two  sons,  John  and  Charles  Sadorus,  now  of  Illinois.  After  sending  a  man 
to  warn  the  neighbors  along  the  creek,  he  sent  to  Chico  for  help.  A  party 
was  quickly  formed  and  started.  They  found  Allen  lying  near  his  team,  shot 
to  death  with  arrows.  After  caring  for  him,  further  search  was  abandoned 
for  the  night.  The  following  morning,  a  larger  party  started  in  search  of 
the  two  girls,  and  the  boy.  Late  in  the  day  the  two  girls  were  found  dead, 
their  clothing  stripped  from  their  bodies,  which  were  pierced  with  arrows. 
From  one  of  the  girls,  thirty-two  arrows  were  taken.  There  were  two  deep 
gashes  in  the  face  of  this  girl,  one  under  each  eye.  These  girls  were  fourteen 
and  sixteen  years  of  age.  The  girls'  remains  were  taken  to  the  home  of  the 
Sadorus  family,  where  their  mother  was  waiting  for  them.  Their  father, 
who  was  then  in  the  mountains,  was  sent  for,  and  arrived  in  time  to  attend 
the  funeral,  which  was  held  in  Chico.  Further  search  for  the  boy,  with  an 
additional  force  of  men,  was  made  for  a  number  .of  days,  but  without  success, 
as  the  Indians  were  alert,  wore  moccasins,  and  left  no  tracks  by  which  the 
men  in  search  could  follow.  However,  at  the  end  of  eight  or  ten  clays,  and 
perhaps  seventy-five  or  eighty  miles  from  the  scene  of  the  murder,  they  came 
to  where  the  Indians  had  camped  and  had  a  war  dance  over  their  victim. 
The  boy  had  been  forced  to  walk  the  entire  distance.  When  found,  he  had 
a  rope  around  his  neck  and  was  tied  to  a  stake.  He  had  not  been  shot,  but 
was  tortured  to  death  by  degrees  in  a  most  cruel  manner.  His  remains  were 
taken  back  and  buried  beside  his  sisters,  without  his  mother  seeing  them, 
as  they  were  so  badly  decomposed  and  otherwise  mangled  and  bruised. 

"I  remained  with  Squire  Hamlin  until  the  year  of  the  silver  excitement 
in  Nevada  State  in  1862,  when  the  Squire  decided  to  go  to  Nevada  and  locate 
a  stock  range  and  perhaps  a  silver  mine.  He  had  lost  very  heavily  in  cattle 
during  the  winter  and  spring  just  passed,  when  thousands  of  cattle  along 
the  river  were  drowned  and  those  in  the  Buttes  and  on  higher  ground  died 
from  lack  of  food.  The  Squire  purchased  a  large  wagon,  loading  it  mostly 
with  provisions,  and  with  four  yoke  of  cattle  started  for  Nevada,  taking 
along  about  100  head  of  stock.  Travel  was  rather  slow,  as  we  had  consid- 
erable trouble  with  the  stock.  AYe  had  reached  Dogtown  on  the  Honey 
Lake  route,  when  the  Squire  met  with  an  accident  from  which  he  never  fully 
recovered,  causing  us  to  lay  off  for  a  few  days.  He  grew  worse  daily,  and 
after  one  teamster  and  two  other  men  left  him,  he  decided  to  return  home. 
selling  the  whole  outfit  and  stock  to  a  Mr.  Miller,  of  Humbug  Yalley.  1 
then  took  the  Squire  to  Dogtown,  where  he  took  the  stage  for  Marysville. 
took  the  saddle-horse  back  to  \Yest  Butte.  Having  only  two  of  my  own,  I 
bought  two  more  and  with  a  light  wagon  made  the  trip  alone,  going  to  \  ir- 
ginia  City  and  across  the  desert  to  the  Sink  of  the  Humboldt  River,  where 
I  found  a  man  named  James  Emery  camping.  He  was  going  to  a  new  camp 
called  Trinity  District,  near  where  is  now  the  Rochester  Mine.  We  camped 
together  and  spent  the  first  month   in  prospecting.     As   Finery  was  an   old 


prospector,  I  depended  a  great  deal  on  him.  We  found  two  or  three  ledges 
that  we  considered  good,  which  we  located,  naming  one  the  West  Butte. 
There  was  only  one  mine  working,  and  turning  out  some  good  ore.  How- 
ever, for  lack  of  machinery,  it  could  not  be  worked  properly.  In  the  camp 
were  two  families,  Mr.  Lovelock  and  family,  and  Mrs.  Ellis.  Indians  were 
then  committing  murders  almost  daily.  There  were  three  or  four  Indians 
around  the  different  camps  who  were  supposed  to  be  peaceable.  They  were 
supplied  with  food  and  clothing,  even  with  powder  and  caps,  as  they  had  guns. 

"Emery  and  myself  decided  to  move  to  Unionville,  then  a  gold  mining 
camp,  with  a  number  of  mines  at  work.  However,  before  leaving  we 
thought  it  best  to  do  some  work  on  the  ledges  we  had  discovered,  and  set 
the  following  day  to  go  ;  but  as  Emery  met  with  a  slight  accident,  he  was 
unable  to  go.  A  friend  of  his,  Frank  Gregg,  was  anxious  to  go  along,  so  the 
following  morning  we  were  ready  to  start,  when  a  man  named  Joe  Bartlett, 
better  known  as  'Black  Rock  Joe,'  an  old  Indian  fighter,  advised  us  to  take 
a  gun  along.  He  gave  us  a  Henry  rifle  with  sixteen  cartridges  in  it  and  a 
belt  with  twenty  or  thirty  more  cartridges,  which  we  took  along. 

"They  had  noticed  our  pet  Indians,  as  we  usually  called  them,  were 
missing;  but  this  was  nothing  unusual.  As  it  was  only  three  or  four  miles 
to  the  first  ledge,  we  soon  reached  it,  commenced  work,  and  were  about 
ready  to  move  to  the  next  claim,  when  three  shots  were  fired  almost  at  once. 
I  saw  Frank  stoop  over  and  rise  again,  and  asked  him  if  he  were  hit,  and  he 
said  he  was.  I  ran  for  the  rifle,  which  lay  a  few  steps  away,  and  moved  up 
a  few  steps,  and  could  see  where  the  Indians  were  trying  to  reload  their 
rifles.  I  fired  two  or  three  shots  among  them.  When  they  arose  and  started 
to  run  over  a  short  rise,  I  fired  at  the  last  one,  and  when  they  came  in  sight 
again  there  was  one  Indian  missing.  Knowing  what  had  happened,  I 
directed  my  firing  at  the  next  one  behind.  After  two  or  three  shots,  he 
lagged  behind.  The  one  in  the  lead  came  back  to  assist  him,  but  could  not 
raise  him,  and  left.  He  was  then  250  or  300  yards  away,  but  in  plain  sight. 
I  fired  three  or  four  shots  at  him,  and  could  see  one  arm  hanging  at  his  side, 
and  knew  he  was  badly  wounded. 

"Running  back  to  where  Frank  lay,  and  examining  his  wound,  I  could 
see  that  he  was  fatally  shot.  Something  had  to  be  done  and  done  quickly, 
as  we  did  not  know  what  minute  we  might  be  attacked  by  other  Indians 
that  might  have  heard  our  shooting.  After  consulting  with  one  another, 
we  decided  that  I  should  go  to  the  camp  for  help.  Gathering  some  sage- 
brush and  making  a  temporary  shed  over  him,  I  started  for  camp  and  had 
gone  perhaps  a  half  a  mile,  when  I  saw  four  or  five,  as  I  supposed.  Indians 
coming  directly  toward  me  from  the  camp.  I  secreted  myself,  replacing  all 
my  empty  shells  with  loaded  ones,  and  determined  not  to  let  a  single  Indian 
pass  me.  (I  have  just  begun  to  realize  how  little  I  knew  about  Indians.) 
The  supposed  Indians  soon  came  in  sight  again.  I  then  realized  they  were 
white  men,  which  was  a  great  relief  to  me.  I  soon  met  them  and  told  them 
what  had  happened.  They  had  heard  the  report  of  our  guns,  and  knew  we 
were  in  trouble.  Black  Rock  Joe  was  with  them.  He  had  borrowed  a  rifle, 
for  I  had  his.  He  remarked :  'That  is  you  fellows'  pet  Indian  that  you  have 
been  feeding  and  furnishing  ammunition."  I  took  one  man  back  to  camp 
with  me,  after  showing  the  others  about  where  Frank  was.  We  made  a 
stretcher  with  sacks  and  two  poles  to  take  Frank  back  to  camp.  While  I 
was  gone,  Black  Rock  Joe  thought  he  would  see  if  the  first  Indian  that  fell 
was  still  there.  He  walked  carefully  around  where  he  could  see  the  Indian 
lying,  his  gun  a  few  feet  from  him.  He  was  still  alive.  Black  Rock  Joe 
recognized  him  as  'Billy,'  one  of  the  Indians  that  we  had  been  feeding  and 
clothing.     While  examining  the  Indian's  wound,  his  rifle  was  discharged,  the 


bullet  passing  through  Billy's  head,  accidentally,  I  suppose.  Billy  was 
buried,  but  the  men  did  not  look  after  the  other  Indian.  We  returned  with 
our  temporary  stretcher,  to  take  Mr.  Gregg  to  Mr.  Lovelock's  place,  where 
he  had  formerly  worked.     After  two  days'  suffering,  he  died. 

"A  number  had  already  left  the  camp  and  others  were  afraid  to  stay. 
Mr.  Emery  was  now  able  to  be  around;  so  we  decided  to  move  to  Unionville, 
then  a  lively  town  of  about  600  or  700  inhabitants,  and  a  number  of  mines 
at  work.  John  C.  Fall,  a  former  Marysville  merchant,  was  there  and  in  the 
same  business.  Being  interested  in  a  number  of  mines,  he  employed  me  to 
take  charge  of  one  called  the  'Gem,'  about  eighteen  miles  north  of  Unionville, 
where  Emery  and  myself  worked  for  about  two  years.  The  mine,  then  in 
litigation,  was  closed  down.  Emery  and  myself  decided  to  return  to  Trinity 
District  and  do  some  work  on  our  claims  there.  Before  reaching  our  desti- 
nation, we  met  a  party  of  four  men,  who  were  planning  to  go  on  a  ten-  or 
fifteen-day  prospecting  trip  ;  and  among  them  was  our  old  friend,  Black  Rock 
Joe,  who  was  anxious  to  have  us  go  along.  They  were  all  armed  with 
Henry  rifles.  Emery  was  anxious  to  go.  He  took  along  the  only  shotgun 
he  had.  I  had  always  kept  it  loaded  with  twelve  buckshot  in  each  barrel, 
which  he  fired  off,  reloading  it.  It  was  understood  among  us  that  any  dis- 
covery or  location  made  by  them  was  to  be  shared  equally  with  me.  The 
following  morning  they  started  on  their  trip,  and  I  went  back  to  Unionville 
for  another  outfit  and  a  man  to  do  our  work  in  the  Trinity  District.  Emery 
had  taken  our  outfit  with  him. 

"The  second  day  out,  they  camped  on  what  is  known  as  Willow  Creek, 
eighteen  miles  west  from  the  Humboldt  River.  At  daybreak  the  next  morn- 
ing, wdiile  some  of  them  were  still  in  their  beds,  they  were  attacked  by  In- 
dians, fifty  to  seventy-five  in  number.  Mr.  Arnold,  being  the  first  to  arise, 
was  looking  after  their  horses,  which  were  staked  near  by,  when  he  was  shot 
and  disabled.  The  others  in  the  party  were  soon  out  of  their  beds  and  ready 
for  action,  they  having  the  advantage  of  the  Indians  by  being  partly  pro- 
tected by  the  willows.  The  Indians  on  horseback  would  circle  around  them, 
firing  at  them  mostly  with  arrows,  but  some  had  rifles.  After  discharging 
them,  they  would  fall  back  out  of  sight,  reload  their  rifles,  and  make  another 
attack.  With  Arnold  wounded  in  the  first  attack,  they  were  left  with  but 
four  men  to  contend  with  perhaps  seventy-five  Indians.  The  Indians  made 
another  attack,  getting  very  close  and  firing  from  their  horses  on  the  run. 
Three  or  four  were  shot  within  a  few  steps  from  the  camp.  Emery  was 
fatally  shot  while  reloading  his  gun  after  killing  one  Indian  and  wounding 
another.  The  Indians  left  for  the  hills  after  about  ten  or  twelve  of  their 
tribe  were  either  killed  or  wounded.  After  attending  to  the  two  wounded 
men,  Bartlett,  following  his  usual  habit  of  taking  an  Indian's  scalp  whenever 
an  opportunity  offered,  took  six  scalps.  He  could  have  taken  more,  but  did 
not  molest  those  who  were  still  alive.  They  recovered  three  of  their  horses; 
one  was  taken  by  the  Indians. 

"The  wounded  men  were  placed  on  the  wagons  and  returned  to  Mill 
City  on  Humboldt  River,  then  owned  by  the  Thacker  Brothers.  John  Thacker 
was  later  a  detective  for  the  Wells  Fargo  Company.  Emery  died  the  fol- 
lowing day.  The  news  was  soon  spread  to  the  different  mining  camps.  Two 
others  and  myself  went  to  Mill  City,  getting  there  in  time  to  assist  in  the 
burying  of  Emery.  Arnold  was  taken  to  Unionville  for  treatment,  and  soon 
recovered.  Emery  was  buried  near  where  two  others  killed  by  Indians  were 
buried.  One,  a  minister  named  John  Kellogg,  formerly  of  Yuba  City,  was 
killed  near  Granite  Springs.  His  body  was  cut  in  many  pieces  and  hung 
on  sagebrush  along  the  road.  His  remains  were  found  and  brought  in  Mill 
City  by  the  Spence  brothers,  teamsters,  well  known  in  Butte  County.     Mill 


City  is  situated  on  the  Humboldt  River  and  was  formerly  known  as  Hum- 
boldt Meadows,  or  Lassen  Meadows,  where  many  immigrants  to  California 
were  led  perhaps  150  miles  out  of  their  way  by  the  Peter  Lassen  Cut-off. 

"Our  prospecting  trip  was  abandoned,  and  a  party  of  about  one  hundred 
determined  to  go  in  pursuit  of  the  Indians,  who  were  committing  devasta- 
tions. John  Bryden,  brother  of  the  late  James  Bryden,  of  Honcut.  acted  as 
our  leader,  taking  along  two  Indians  as  guides.  The  Indians  we  were  in 
pursuit  of  were  of  the  Shoshone  tribe,  then  at  war  with  the  Piutes,  each  tribe 
claiming  the  other  was  trespassing  on  its  hunting  grounds.  We  followed 
them  a  number  of  days  and  finally  reached  their  camp,  where  there  were 
twenty  or  thirty  women  and  children,  with  five  or  six  young  bucks,  who 
tried  to  escape,  but  were  shot  down.  The  able-bodied  men  and  warriors 
had  left  camp  the  evening  before.  For  several  days  we  followed  them, 
but  were  invariably  a  day  behind,  as  the  Indians  had  the  advantage 
of  us  in  knowing  the  country.  As  our  supplies  were  getting  short,  we 
decided  to  return. 

"To  illustrate  the  really  brutal  and  murderous  disposition  of  an  Indian. 
I  will  relate  an  incident  I  saw.  While  at  their  camp  gathering  up  the  women 
and  children,  who  were  scattered  and  in  hiding,  one  of  our  Indian  guides, 
seeing  a  child  near  by,  rode  up  to  it,  took  it  by  the  hair,  raised  it  into  his 
saddle,  and  then  took  it  by  one  leg  and  dashed  its  head  against  a  stone,  killing 
it  instantly.  This  was  reported  to  Mr.  Bryden,  our  captain,  who  repri- 
manded the  Indian  severely.  The  women  were  taken  to  Unionville  and 
held  as  prisoners,  but  were  soon  released. 

"I  then  branched  out  into  the  cattle  business.  Purchasing  a  small  band, 
I  remained  with  them,  occasionally  working  in  the  mines,  until  the  year  the 
Central  Pacific  Railroad  came  through  in  1869,  when  myself  and  A.  M. 
Sadorus  engaged  in  the  butchering  business,  furnishing  beef  for  the  graders 
and  construction  camps.  It  was  not  long  before  the  first  cars  came  through, 
and  we  shipped  our  beef  by  cars  until  the  camps  got  too  far  ahead.  We  then 
opened  a  shop  in  Battle  Mountain,  where  we  built  the  first  frame  or  lumber 
house.  It  was  then  a  lively  railroad  town  of  tents.  AYe  remained  in  the 
butchering  business  until  the  year  1872,  when  we  sold  our  shop  and  business 
and  went  back  into  the  cattle  and  sheep  business.  We  then  made  Golconda, 
on  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad,  our  headquarters.  Having  different  camps, 
our  cattle  ranged  in  Clover  Valley  and  Kelly  Creek,  while  our  sheep  were 
kept  mostly  in  Edin  and  Paradise  Valley.  Paradise  Valley  and  Clover  Val- 
ley are  now  two  of  the  most  highly  cultivated  valleys  in  Nevada,  running 
parallel  with  and  lying  on  the  west  side  of  Humboldt  River,  extending  north. 
In  Clover  Valley,  many  thousands  of  tons  of  alfalfa  are  put  up  yearly,  fed 
mostly  to  stock,  and  dairying  is  carried  on  extensively. 

"We  continued  in  the  cattle  and  sheep  business  until  the  fall  of  1880. 
when  we  closed  out  our  entire  business  in  Nevada.  My  family  and  I  then 
returned  to  Yuba  County,  where  I  purchased  what  was  then  known  as  the 
Fort  Hawley  place  (now  known  as  Olive  Hill),  with  its  entire  flock  of  sheep. 
We  remained  here  until  the  fall  of  1888,  when  I  disposed  of  my  place,  con- 
sisting of  980  acres  of  land,  to  Messrs.  H.  Juch,  Ehmann  and  Allen,  founders 
of  Olive  Hill  colony.  I  then  returned  to  my  old  home  in  Marysville,  after 
an  absence  of  eighteen  years  in  Nevada  State. 

"Mr.  Sadorus  returned  from  Nevada  to  his  home  farm  in  Champagne 
County,  111.,  in  1882,  where  he  remained  until  called  by  death,  October  13, 
1915.  He  had  crossed  the  plains  to  California  in  1849  by  ox  team  over  the 
extreme  southern  route,  landing  in  San  Diego  in  the  late  fall  of  1849.  where 
they  remained  about  two  years,  then  moving  to  Butte  County,  and  locating 
on  Rock  Creek,  above  Chico.     During  their  stay  in  San  Diego,  a  daughter 


was  born  to  them,  November  26,  1850,  now  Mrs.  Joseph  Brown,  of  H  Street. 
in  Marysville. 

"Among-  the  earliest  settlers  in  Marysville,  were  Capt.  John  Sutter,  who 
arrived  in  1839;  Gen.  John  Bichvell.  1841;  L.  W.  Hastings  of  Colusa.  F.  B. 
Redding  of  Shasta,  and  Peter  Lassen.  1844:  Fremont  and  Kit  Carson,  in  1845: 
Townsend.  and  Murphy  and  the  Covillauds  of  the  Donner  party,  in  1846. 
Mr.  W.  G.  Murphy  became  a  well-known  attorney  in  Marysville.  In  spite 
of  the  wild  and  uncivilized  nature  of  the  country  in  the  earlv  davs,  there 
were  many  good  men  among  the  settlers.  Many  acts  of  kindness  were  shown 
our  family  in  different  ways,  which  were  appreciated  and  never  forgotten 
by  my  mother  and  sister.  Captain  Sutter  was  one  of  the  most  liberal  and 
hospitable  of  men.  It  was  through  his  kindness  and  hospitalitv  that  he 
became  heavily  involved.  He  lost  his  lands,  together  with  his  vast  herds  of 
stock,  and  was  left  with  only  his  home  place,  Hock  Farm,  which  was  later 
taken  from  him.  Leaving-  Hock  Farm,  he  returned  to  Pennsylvania,  his 
former  home,  dying  in  "Washington.  D.  C.  January   19,   1888. 

"These  are  my  recollections  of  the  'days  of  49.*  They  were  indeed 
wonderful  days.  And  if  my  story  in  any  way  enables  you  to  appreciate 
them,  the  telling  has  been  worth  while." 

The  story  of  Joseph  Brown's  hardships  is  typical  of  the  life  and  adven- 
tures of  many  another  "forty-niner,"  and  for  that  reason,  as  well  as  for  its 
own  romantic  interest  and  fascination,  is  regarded  by  the  compiler  as  worth} 
of  permanent  record  in  full,  in  the  history  of  the  early  pioneer  days. 



The  year  1848  proved  to  be  of  unusual  importance  in  the  history  of  Yuba 
County.  The  discovery  of  gold  at  Coloma  in  Eldorado  County  was  followed 
in  less  than  four  months  by  the  finding  of  the  precious  metal  within  the  limits 
of  Yuba  County.  During  "this  year  Charles  Covillaud,  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  county,  married  Miss  Mary  Murphy,  sister  of  Mrs.  Michael  Nye  and 
Mrs.  William  Foster,  who  had  crossed  the  plains  to  the  new  Arcadia.  Marys- 
ville, two  years  later,  received  its  name  from  Mary  Covillaud.  The  details  of 
the  town  meeting  at  which  Mrs.  Covillaud  was  given  this  signal  honor  appeal- 
in  another  chapter  treating  specifically  of  the  history  of  Marysville  from  its 
birth  to  the  present  day.  It  was  during  the  year  1848,  also,  that  Rouelle 
abandoned  his  place  on  the  south  side  of  Yuba  River  and  settled  again  mi 
Feather  River,  near  Charles  Roether,  and  Nye  occupied  his  old  house.  Pat- 
terson sold  to  Sicard  the  land  he  had  purchased  in  1846  from  Smith.  In  the 
spring.  Foster  moved  his  family  from  Yerba  Buena,  and  in  partnership  with 
Nye  bought  Smith's  ranch. 

During  the  remaining  portion  of  this  year  nothing  of  note  occurred  in 
this  region  until  the  discovery  of  gold  on  the  American  River,  when  all  eyes 
were  turned  in  that  direction;  but  the  heat  of  the  mining  fever  was  nut  yet 
at  its  highest.  The  people  were  suspicious  regarding  the  quality  and  amount 
of  the  gold.  As  the  weeks  passed,  however,  confidence  was  gained  and  the 
belief  that  there  might  possibly  be  precious  minerals  in  other  localities  was 


strengthened.  Prospectors  gradually  pushed  out  beyond  the  narrow  limits 
of  the  first  mining  district,  and  thus  commenced  the  opening  up  of  the  vast 
mining  fields  of  California  and  the  Pacific  Coast. 

There  seems  to  be  some  dispute  regarding  the  first  discovery  of  gold 
north  of  the  American  River  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Marysville.  The  credit 
is  divided  between  Michael  Nye  and  his  party  and  an  early  settler  named 
Jonas  Spect.  The  discoveries  by  Nye  and  Spect  were  nearly  contemporane- 
ous. Spect  and  two  friends  were  on  their  return  to  the  Eastern  States,  rather 
discouraged  and  disappointed  at  their  success  in  California  as  gold  hunters, 
when  they  came  upon  a  party  of  Indians  on  their  way  to  Sutter's  Mill  to  dig 
gold.  The  Indians  reported  stories  of  fabulously  rich  diggings;  and  Spect 
and  his  party  thereupon  changed  their  minds  about  returning  East.  On 
reaching  Slitter's  Mill  they  found  that  several  rich  strikes  had  been  made,  but 
the  miners  there  at  work  did  not  average  $2.50  a  day.  Marshall  and  Sutter 
claimed  the  land  and  rented  the  mines  to  prospectors.  Every  one  supposed 
that  gold  was  confined  to  that  particular  section. 

Disgruntled,  Spect  then  tried  Bear  River,  near  what  is  now  known  as  John- 
son Rancho,  of  which  the  present  city  of  Wheatland  is  the  center.  There 
he  had  scarcely  any  better  success.  He  then  arranged  for  an  Indian  guide, 
who  encouraged  prospecting  on  the  Yuba  River.  On  the  1st  of  June  they 
struck  the  Yuba  near  Long  Bar,  then  a  small  mining  settlement  occupied 
by  the  hardy  adventurers  of  that  early  day.  On  June  2,  Spect  prospected 
up  the  stream,  finding  some  gold,  but  not  in  paying  quantities.  The  Indian 
was  well  acquainted  with  the  locality,  and  he  piloted  Spect  up  to  the  location 
of  Rose  Bar,  close  to  the  present  site  of  Smartsville,  where  they  met  a 
large  number  of  Indians,  all  entirely  nude  and  living  mostly  on  clover.  Here, 
again,  he  found  gold,  but  not  in  remunerative  quantities.  In  Timbuctoo 
ravine,  now  a  suburb  of  Smartsville,  though  but  a  ghost  of  its  former  self, 
he  washed  some  of  the  dirt  and  found  three  lumps  of  gold  worth  about  $7. 
A  week  later  Spect  met  Michael  Nye  and  William  Foster  prospecting  in 
the  same  vicinity. 

That  summer  Nye  and  his  party  found  paying  diggings  on  Dry  Creek, 
near  its  junction  with  the  Yuba  River,  and  commenced  working  on  an  exten- 
sive scale.  From  these  discoveries  the  search  for  gold  spread  to  every  creek 
and  rivulet,  and  Yuba  County's  reputation  as  a  gold  field  spread  and  grew. 

In  1849  the  United  States  government,  for  the  protection  of  the  early 
settlers,  established  Camp  Far  West  at  a  point  four  miles  east  of  the  present 
city  of  Wheatland,  Yuba  County's  hop  and  fruit  center.  Camp  Far  West 
is  now  indicated  to  the  tourist  by  a  marker  erected  by  the  Native  Sons  of 
the  Golden  West,  at  the  instance  of  Rainbow  Parlor  of  that  order  in  Wheat- 
land. Here  two  companies  of  soldiers  were  maintained  for  several  years 
under  Capt.  H.  S.  Day,  who  afterward  became  Major  Day,  and  whose  son 
became  Adjutant-General  of  the  State  of  Nevada.  Captain  Day  received  his 
supplies  from  San  Francisco  by  boats  to  Vernon  Landing  on  Feather  River, 
which  often  had  to  be  unloaded  under  many  disadvantages  on  account  of  the 
mud  and  muck  on  the  river  banks.  AVhen  not  unloading  boats  or  on  duty, 
the  soldiers  could  earn  from  $5  to  $6  a  day  mining  near  the  military  camp. 

Fred  H.  Greely,  present  auditor  and  recorder  of  Yuba  County,  and  a 
Past  Grand  President  of  the  order  of  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West, 
recently  presented  to  Rainbow  Parlor  of  the  order  at  Wheatland  a  relic  of 
Camp  Far  West,  which  is  dearly  treasured  by  the  members  of  that  body.  It 
consists  of  Captain  Day's  official  letter  book,  containing  copies  of  the  reports 
he  made  to  the  War  Department  while  in  charge  of  Camp  Far  AVest. 

Camp  Far  West  was  abandoned  in  May,  1852,  and  the  troops,  numbering 
about  forty  men  of  Company  E,  1st  Infantry,  under  the  command  of  Lieu- 


tenant  Davis,  were  ordered  to  set  out  for  the  upper  Sacramento,  with  a 
design  of  establishing  a  post  in  the  neighborhood  of  Cottonwood,  for  the 
purpose  of  protecting  the  settlers  from  hostile  Indians.  A  public  sale  of  the 
extra  stores  was  held  on  the  first  day  of  May.  Many  of  the  soldiers  were 
discharged,  some  of  these  going  to  the  mines  or  working  for  settlers,  others 
settling  on  lands,  and  the  remainder  going  to  their  homes.  There  were  left 
behind  the  log  structures  built  for  barracks  and  officers'  quarters,  and  also 
a  log  fort.  These  buildings  could  be  seen  there  for  many  years  after,  but 
no  trace  of  them  now  remains. 

The  year  of  1849  opened  with  but  little  visible  improvement  in  the 
future  city  of  Marysville,  and  without  many  additions  to  its  roll  of  inhab- 
itants. The  whole  current  of  travel  was  toward  the  mines  on  the  upper  parts 
of  the  rivers,  and  few  considered  it  necessary  to  remain  more  than  a  day 
or  two  at  the  old  ranch  on  the  Yuba.  On  the  4th  of  January,  Cordua  sold 
to  Michael  C.  Nye  and  William  Foster,  for  $20,000,  his  remaining  one-half 
interest  in  the  business  and  possessions  of  the  firm  of  Cordua  &  Company, 
Charles  Covillaud  retaining  the  other  half.  Nye  and  Foster  also  put  into 
the  partnership  their  previous  possessions,  in  view  of  which  they  each  were 
allotted  a  third  interest  in  the  joint  business.  Nye  managed  the  ranch  and 
stock  business,  while  Covillaud  had  a  store  at  Sicard  Flat,  and  Foster  one 
near  Foster's  Bar.  The  name  of  the  main  ranch  was  now  changed  to  "Nye's 
Ranch."  The  firm  found  a  ready  market  for  all  of  their  beef  in  the  mines,  or 
with  travelers  to  and  from  the  diggings.  In  April,  1849,  the  estimated 
amount  of  stock  on  the  ranch  was  5000  head  of  cattle,  600  horses,  500  hogs, 
and  a  small  collection  of  poultry.  Cordua,  having  sold  his  property,  moved 
to  the  mines,  opening  a  store  at  Cordua  Bar.  It  was  not  long  before  he  had 
spent  all  of  the  money  paid  him  by  Nye  and  Foster. 

In  the  spring,  Rose,  Reynolds  and  Kinloch  purchased  the  whole  tract 
owned  by  Nye  and  Sicard  on  Yuba  River.  George  Kinloch's  father  was  a 
Scotchman,  who  came  to  California  about  1825 ;  his  mother  was  a  native 
Californian.  George  received  his  education  in  the  Sandwich  Islands  under 
the  tuition  of  the  Missionaries,  there  being  no  opportunities  in  California 
excepting  the  Mission  schools  of  the  Catholic  Friars.  He  entered  into 
partnership  with  Messrs.  Rose  and  Reynolds  shortly  after  they  opened  their 
store  at  Rose  Bar  in  1848. 

During  the  spring  of  1849  a  board  of  commissioners  were  elected  at 
Sacramento  to  frame  a  code  of  laws  for  the  district.  The  following  were 
the  members:  Messrs.  Brannan,  Snyder,  Slater,  Hensley,  King,  Cheever, 
McCoover,  McDougal,  Barton  Lee,  Tetle,  Southard,  Fowler,  and  Dr.  Car- 
penter. The  committee  speedily  prepared  their  report  and,  calling  the  people 
together  under  the  shade  of  an  oak  tree  at  the  foot  of  I  Street,  Sacramento 
City,  submitted  to  them  the  result  of  their  labors.  It  provided  for  the 
election  of  one  alcalde  and  a  sheriff,  with  a  jurisdiction  extending  from  the 
Coast  Range  to  the  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains,  and  throughout  the  Sacra- 
mento Valley.  The  report  having  been  adopted,  H.  A.  Schoolcraft  was 
elected  alcalde,  and  A.  M.  Turner,  sheriff.  These  constituted  the  judiciary 
of  Northern  California  up  to   the  latter  part  of   1849. 

About  the  1st  of  April,  the  town  of  Vernon,  in  Sutter  County,  was 
started  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Sacramento  River  at  its  confluence  with  the 
Feather  River.  The  land,  comprising  two  sections,  had  been  purchased  by 
Franklin  Bates,  E.  O.  Crosby,  and  B.  Simons  from  Capt.  John  A.  Sutter, 
the  latter  retaining  a  quarter  interest  in  the  town.  Owing  to  the  fact  that 
it  was  considered  to  be  the  "head  of  navigation,"  its  rise  was  very  rapid. 
Three  or  four  wholesale  stores  were  established  in  tents,  or  in  board  struc- 
tures.    Ox  teams  and   pack   trains  were   loaded   here   with    supplies   fur   the 


mining  localities.  In  a  very  short  time  there  were  opened  several  hotels 
and  boarding  houses,  butcher  shops,  blacksmith  shops,  laundries,  and  even 
a  law  office  and  alcalde's  court.  Eight  or  ten  saloons  or  gambling  houses 
were  started,  and  the  town  presented  a  busy  appearance.  Among  the  busi- 
ness men  and  firms  were  Captain  Savage,  Bradbury  &  Company,  and  Will- 
iams &  Company.  Gilbert  A.  Grant  was  alcalde  and  agent  for  the  sale  of 
lots.  George  W.  Crane  was  the  attorney-at-law.  Jonas  Spect  had  settled  on 
the  west  bank  of  the  Feather  River  and  located  the  town  of  Fremont. 

As  soon  as  it  was  found  that  steamers  and  the  larger  sailing  vessels 
could  successfully  reach  the  landing  at  Marysville,  however,  Vernon's  fate 
was  sealed  and  soon  the  town  was  nearly  deserted.  It  was  at  one  time  the 
county  seat  of  Sutter  County.  Thinking  that  Vernon  was  to  be  the  city  of 
Northern  California,  and  that  the  limited  confines  of  the  first  map  would, 
in  the  rush  of  settlers,  be  insufficient  for  all  the  locations,  an  addition  called 
South  Vernon  was  laid  out ;  but  only  one  house  was  constructed  thereon. 
On  April  28  a  weekly  paper,  printed  upon  paper  of  the  size  of  foolscap,  and 
called  the  Placer  Times,  issued  its  first  number  at  Sutter's  Fort.  E.  C. 
Kimble  was  its  editor,  typesetter,  publisher  and  printer,  and  was  the  "pioneer 
newspaper  man"  of  the  valley. 

Reverting  to  Nye's  Ranch,  on  September  27,  1849,  Messrs.  Nye  and 
Foster  sold  to  Charles  Covillaud,  for  $30,000,  all  the  title  and  interest  in  the 
land,  improvements,  etc.,  which  had  been  conveyed  to  them  by  Cordua. 
Covillaud  was  now  the  sole  possessor  of  the  ranch,  but  his  tenure  was  to  be 
of  but  short  duration.  On  October  1,  1849,  Covillaud  sold  to  J.  M.  Ramirez 
and  J.  Sampson,  for  $23,300,  an  undivided  one-half  of  his  property,  $12,000 
to  be  paid  down  and  $11,300  to  be  paid  on  July  1,  1850;  and  during  the  same 
month  he  disposed  of  one-fourth  to  Theodore  Sicard,  for  $12,000,  the  firm 
name  being  Covillaud   &  Company. 

On  the  25th  of  October,  a  company  landed  in  Marysville  which  was 
destined  to  become  an  important  factor  in  the  more  close  settlement  of  Yuba 
County.  This  was  a  joint-stock  company,  composed  of  twenty-six  active 
and  ten  home  shareholders,  organized  in  Gardiner,  Maine,  and  called  the 
Kennebec  Company.  In  March,  1849,  the  company  went  to  New  Bedford, 
Mass.,  where  they  bought  a  vessel  and  loaded  a  cargo.  The  officers  were  :• 
C.  N.  Bodfish,  president ;  C.  M.  N.  Cooper,  captain ;  Leander  Cox  and  one 
other,  directors.  The  departure  was  made  on  the  1st  of  April,  the  extra 
accommodations  being  secured  by  passengers  not  members  of  the  organiza- 
tion. On  the  17th  of  September,  1849,  the  ship  arrived  at  San  Francisco, 
and  was  taken  up  to  the  "New  York  of  the  Pacific,"  the  prospective  metrop- 
olis on  the  lower  rivers.  A  house,  which  they  had  brought  with  them  in 
sections,  was  erected  at  the  town,  and  the  vessel  was  sold.  After  landing 
and  making  necessary  preparations,  the  company  started  for  the  northern 
mining  regions,  making  the  voyage  in  six  rowboats.  They  landed  at  the 
site  of  Marysville,  and  remained  on  the  night  of  October  25.  The  next  day 
they  resumed  the  trip,  passing  up  the  Yuba  River  two  miles  to  Simpson's 
Crossing,  where  they  pitched  a  tent  and  covered  their  provisions.  The  jour- 
ney was  renewed,  and  after  passing  ten  miles  up  the  river  they  discovered 
and  located  Kennebec  Bar,  during  the  last  days  of  October,  1849. 

In  November,  1849,  the  only  buildings  at  Nye's  Ranch  were  two  adobe 
structures  at  the  foot  of  D  Street,  about  two  or  three  rods  apart.  One  was 
used  as  a  boarding  house  and  the  other  as  a  lodging  apartment,  to  accom- 
modate the  local  travel.  No  furniture  was  placed  in  the  latter,  the  lodgers 
being  required  to  furnish  their  own  bedding.  The  brightening  prospects  of 
the  location,  and  the  certainty  that  it  would  be  the  head  of  navigation, 
caused   the  proprietors,   in   December,   to   have  a   survey  made   for  a  town. 


The  work  was  performed  by  August  Le  Plonjean,  who  segregated  the  tract 
into  ranges,  blocks,  and  lots.  The  incipient  city  was  called  "Yubaville," 
the  name  it  bore  till  the  beginning  of  the  next  year.  Some  of  the  early 
residents  stated  prior  to  their  death  that  it  was  a  common  rumor,  when  they 
arrived  in  1850,  that  the  streets  had  been  laid  out  and  the  lines  run  by  the 
use  of  a  ship's  quadrant.  This,  if  true,  accounts  for  the  irregularities  in 
direction  and  distance  existing  even  yet.  The  survey  was  speedily  followed 
by  a  lively  real-estate  market ;  lots  and  blocks  were  disposed  of  at  good 
round  figures,  and  the  attention  of  many  who  had  heretofore  thought  that 
all  the  wealth  of  the  State  lay  in  the  mines  was  called  to  this  new  money- 
making  investment.  There  was  one  obstacle  which  prevented  many  careful 
speculators  from  purchasing  lots  in  this  new  town,  and  that  was  the  doubt 
as  to  the  validity  of  the  title.  The  tract  had  been  secured  from  Captain 
Sutter  by  Cordua  through  a  lease  for  nineteen  years,  and  at  the  end  of  that 
period  the  land  would  revert  to  its  real  owner.  During  the  next  year  this 
matter  of  title  was  settled,  and  the  obstacle  removed.  Although  the  gen- 
erally accepted  name  at  this  time  was  Yubaville,  there  were  those  among 
the  people  who  had  other  favorite  titles,  and  who  persisted  in  applying 
them  to  the  new  town.  The  old  adobe  house  was  the  nucleus  about  which 
were  erected,  near  the  close  of  the  year,  a  number  of  shanties.  The  general 
style  of  habitation  was  the  tent  made  from  canvas,  cloth,  or  sacks.  There 
appeared  to  be  no  permanent  population,  everybody  being  on  the  move,  all 
full  of  life.  A  man  named  Osburn  had  a  store  on  Front  Street,  near  the  old 
adobe,  and  furnished  supplies  to  the  travelers  and  transient  settlers. 

During  this  year,  there  were  a  number  of  settlements  made  along  Bear 
River.  The  Johnson  Grant  fell  into  the  hands  of  Henry  Robinson  and 
Eugene  Gillespie,  who  laid  out  a  town  at  Johnson's  Crossing,  and  gave  it 
the  name  of  Kearney,  in  compliment  to  General  Kearney.  It  did  not  prove 
much  of  an  honor,  as  the  place  never  became  settled. 

In  November,  a  sawmill  was  built  on  Bear  River,  about  five  miles  above 
Johnson's  Crossing,  by  a  man  named  John  S.  Moore,  a  Missourian,  and  was 
known  as  Moore's  Mill.  This  energetic  individual  was  a  counterfeiter,  and 
had  in  his  possession  a  large  quantity  of  spurious  Missouri  bank-bills.  With 
these  he  paid  for  the  building  of  his  mill,  and  remunerated  his  employees. 
He  established  a  broker's  office  and  exchanged  his  bills  for  gold  dust  with 
the  returning  miners,  who  were  glad  of  an  opportunity  to  have  their  heavy 
wealth  converted  into  paper  money.  So  well  executed  were  these  bills, 
that  thousands  of  dollars  of  them  were  taken  by  the  Missouri  banks  before 
their  true  character  was  discovered.  When  their  real  nature  was  found  out, 
many  miners  who  arrived  in  Missouri  on  their  way  home,  thinking  them- 
selves to  be  rich,  found  that,  notwithstanding  the  toils  and  dangers  they  had 
passed  through,  they  were  as  poor  as  when  they  started.  When  Moore 
heard  of  the  discovery  he  decamped,  but  was  afterwards  apprehended  in 
South  America,  though  he  was  never  brought  back  to  this  country  for  trial. 

The  year  closed  with  little  to  foreshadow  the  events  and  startling 
developments  to  take  place  within  a  few  months.  The  mining  was  being 
actively  carried  on  in  the  mountains,  and  new  discoveries  and  locations  were 
constantly  being  made. 



The  era  of  growth  and  progress  had  now  arrived,  and  the  city,  which 
before  this  time  had  been  seen  only  in  dreams,  was  to  become  a  reality.  The 
possibility  of  uninterrupted  navigation  to  its  landings  gave  it  superiority 
over  the  other  towns  on  the  lower  parts  of  the  river.  The  distance  to  the 
mines  was  so  small  that  the  cargoes  of  the  steamers  and  sailing  vessels 
could  easily  be  transferred  to  the  camps  on  the  north  and  east.  The  mines 
were  in  active  operation  along  the  Yuba  River  and  its  tributaries,  from  ten 
miles  above  its  mouth  to  the  higher  ranges  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains. 
The  growth  of  the  town  had  just  commenced,  but  it  started  full-fledged. 
Lots  sold  rapidly,  for  the  first  object  of  the  merchant  on  arriving  was  to 
purchase  or  lease  a  suitable  location  for  erecting  his  store.  This  wonderful 
increase  in  the  number  of  business  houses  was  simply  the  outgrowth  of 
necessity.  The  mines  were  yielding  millions  of  dollars,  and  miners  must  have 
some  place  to  dispose  of  their  gold  dust  and  to  purchase  their  food,  clothes, 
and  supplies.  This  was  the  only  available  point,  and  it  became  the  business 
center.  It  is  estimated  that  on  the  1st  of  January  there  were  about  300 
inhabitants  in  the  town. 

A  tabulated  statement  made  at  that  time,  showing-  the  population  of 
California  at  the  beginning  of  1849  and  comparing  same  with  the  population 
of  the  State  on  Januarv  1,  1850,  showed  the  following:  January  1,  1849, 
Calif ornians,  13,000;  Americans,  8000;  foreigners,  5000;  total  26,000.  Janu- 
ary 1,  1850,  Californians,  13,000;  Americans,  76,069,  increase  in  one  year, 
68,069 ;  foreigners,  18,000,  increase  in  one  year,  13,000. 

Illustrative  of  the  unsettled  state  of  opinion  regarding  the  location  of 
the  principal  town  of  the  region,  the  following  may  be  mentioned.  About 
the  10th  of  February,  J.  H.  Jewett  and  Horace  Beach  arrived  at  Yuba  City 
with  a  train  of  pack  mules  from  Sacramento.  The  important  question  of 
settlement  then  presented  itself  to  them.  Being  undecided,  they  remained 
in  Yuba  City  about  a  week,  when,  fully  convinced  that  the  town  across  the 
river  was  to  be  the  fortunate  one,  they  crossed  in  a  canoe,  swimming  their 
mules.  The  result  showed  their  opinion  and  decision  to  be  correct.  During 
the  first  part  of  January,  the  second  steamer  on  the  river  arrived.  This 
was  the  Lawrence,  commanded  by  E.  C.  M.  Chadwick,  and  she  was  quickly 
followed  by  others.  There  "were  no  warehouses  in  which  to  store  the  abund- 
ant supplies  of  goods  and  merchandise  that  were  being  landed  from  the 
steamers  and  sailing  vessels,  and  so  they  were  deposited  on  the  plaza,  at  the 
foot  of  E  Street.  The  tent  stores  were  filled  to  their  utmost  capacity.  The 
only  means  of  transportation  to  the  mountain  camps  was  by  the  pack  trains. 
In  the  valleys  the  immense  freight-wagons,  often  referred  to  as  "prairie 
schooners,"  could  be  used. 

On  Saturday,  January  19,  1850,  the  following  advertisement  appeared 
in  the  Placer  Times : 

"Notice :  The  undersigned  take  this  method  of  informing  the  public 
that  the  new  town  of  Marysville,  at  the  mouth  of  Yuba  River,  formerly 
known  as  'Nye's  Ranch,'  is  now  undergoing  survey,  and  the  lots  will  be 
offered  for  sale  as  soon  as  the  map  can  be  prepared.     Persons  desirous  of 


visiting  this  place,  will  find  a  road  passable  at  all  seasons  of  the  year  from 
Sacramento  City,  by  way  of  Norris  Johnson's  old  ranch  (now  Gillespie's), 
thence  to  the  town.  The  steamers  Lawrence  and  Linda  are  also  making 
regular  trips  twice  a  week.  For  further  information,  inquire  of  Messrs. 
Covillaud,  Fajard  &  Company. 

"Signed:     Charles  Covillaud  &  Co.,  Proprietors." 

It  was  at  this  juncture  that  Stephen  J.  Field,  a  young  man  destined  to 
become  a  justice  of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court,  arrived  on  the  scene 
and  made  known  that  he  was  a  lawyer  from  New  York.  His  services  at 
once  were  enlisted  in  drawing  up  the  deeds  to  the  lots.  To  first  quiet  title 
to  the  whole,  Field  had  Captain  Sutter  sent  for.  Sutter  affixed  his  signature 
to  a  deed  which  conveyed  to  Covillaud,  Ramirez,  Sicard  and  Sampson  all 
his  right  and  title  in  the  tract  settled  upon  by  Cordua,  and  described  as 
follows :  "Bounded  southwardly  by  a  small  stream  emptying  into  Feather 
River,  called  Yuba  River ;  westwardly  by  Feather  River ;  and  northwardly 
by  a  line  forming  the  northern  boundary  of  the  property  of  the  party  of  the 
first  part,  which  line  is  in  latitude  39  degrees  33  minutes  and  45  seconds,  and 
which  line  commences  at  Feather  River  at  the  rancheria  of  Honcut,  and 
extends  to  the  lands  of  Theodore  Cordua's  ranch ;  eastwardly  by  a  straight 
line  running  from  the  lands  of  said  Cordua's  ranch,  at  right  angles  to  the 
above-mentioned  northwardly  line,  to  the  Yuba  River." 

The  tribunal  formed  by  the  selection  of  Stephen  J.  Field  as  alcalde,  and 
T.  M.  Twitchel,  sheriff,  caused  the  turbulent  element  that  had  found  its 
way  to  the  new  town  to  use  greater  discretion.  Gambling,  however,  was  an 
evil  with  which  the  law  was  incapable  of  dealing;  it  had  become  a  mania, 
and  policy  required  that  the  eyes  of  justice  should  be  turned  away  from  it. 
Hotels  were  established  to  accommodate  the  citizens  and  travelers.  The 
rates  charged  were  large;  yet  these  were  commensurate  with  the  price  at 
that  time  paid  for  provisions  and  labor. 

The  free  and  easy  morals  at  that  time  frequently  tended  to  the  com- 
mission of  criminal  acts,  the  most  common  being'  the  stealing  of  horses  and 
cattle  roaming  on  the  wide,  unfenced  tracts.  Following  is  an  account  of 
the  proceedings  to  force  the  discontinuance  of  this  custom,  published  in  the 
Placer  Times  of  Saturday,  February  2,  1850 : 

"Criminal  Court  of  Sacramento  District 

"At  a  term  of  this  court  held  for  the  District  of  Sacramento,  at  Marys- 
ville,  upon  the  Yuba,  this  28th  day  of  January,  1850,  present  R.  A.  Wilson, 
Judge  of  the  Criminal  Court  of  said  district.  It  having  been  made  to  appear 
to  this  court  that  there  was  a  combination  of  cattle  thieves,  with  extensive 
ramifications  through  this  district ;  and  it  further  appearing  to  this  court  that 
certain  evil  disposed  persons  have  industriously  circulated  the  report  that  it 
is  lawful  to  kill  unmarked  cattle  upon  the  ranches,  as  well  as  upon  the  public- 
lands,  and  that  thereby  many  misguided  persons  have  been  led  to  the  com- 
mission of  felony;  and  the  Grand  Jury  of  said  district  having  upon  their 
oaths  found  true  bills  for  grand  larceny  against  Samuel  Hicks,  Michael 
Watson,  Nelson  Gill,  and  James  Nicholson  for  cattle-stealing:  It  is  ordered 
by  the  court,  that  the  clerk  give  public  notice  warning  all  persons  that  may 
have  been  misled  by  such  misrepresentations,  of  the  consequence  of  the 
farther  commission  of  such  crime — that  the  stealing  of  beef  cattle,  whether 
branded  or  unbranded,  is  an  infamous  offense,  within  the  meaning  of  the 
constitution,  and  any  person  convicted  of  said  offense  is  deprived  of  all  the 
rights  of  citizenship  in  California,  and  liable  to  a  sentence  to  two  years 
confinement  in  the  chain  gang;  and  that  in  conducting  the  administration  Ol 


justice,  when  necessary,  the  court  is  authorized  to  call  upon  the  Command- 
ant of  the  United  States  troops  stationed  at  Johnson's  Ranch. 

"Signed  :     Stephen  J.  Field,  Clerk  of  said  Court 

and  Alcalde  of  Marysville." 

In  the  Placer  Times  of  Saturday,  February  16,  1850,  appeared  a  notice 
by  Nicolaus  Allgeier,  dated  January  17,  1850,  appointing  Charles  Berghoff 
his  agent.  Then  a  notice  appointing  Joseph  Grant  agent  to  sell  lots  in 
Nicolaus,  signed,  "Nicolaus  Allgeier,  by  Carl  Berghoff,  his  agent."     Then: 

"The  subscriber,  having  a  few  lots  undisposed  of  in  the  new  town  of 
Nicolaus,  will  offer  them  tq  this  community  for  a  few  days  longer,  when 
those  remaining  will  be  offered  to  the  citizens  of  San  Francisco.  The  terms 
are  easy  and  the  burden  light.     Strike  while  the  iron  is  hot. 

"Signed :     Joseph  Grant,  Corner  of  I  and  Front 

Streets,  over  Stevens  &  Co." 

In  the  middle  of  February,  the  appearance  of  Marysville  was  that  of  a 
huge  camp.  The  United  States  Hotel  was  a  canvas  structure  on  the  east  side 
of  D  Street,  between  First  and  Second  Streets,  where  a  large  garage  is  now 
located.  In  the  latter  part  of  this  month  and  the  early  part  of  the  following, 
this  canvas  structure  was  replaced  by  a  boarding  house.  The  City  Hotel, 
another  canvas  edifice,  was  located  on  the  northeast  corner  of  First  and  D 
Streets,  facing  the  Plaza.  On  E  Street  and  south  of  First  Street  were 
four  canvas  houses,  one  of  which  had  a  board  front.  They  were  all  occupied 
as  wholesale  and  retail  establishments.  On  the  north  side  of  First,  between 
E  and  F  Streets,  there  were  about  four  more  canvas  houses.  John  C.  Fall's 
establishment  was  on  F  Street.  Residence  tents  were  scattered  around  be- 
tween Second  Street  and  the  river,  most  of  the  people  boarding  in  the  two 
hotels.  Old  dry-goods  or  grocery  boxes  were  sold  for  two  or  three  dollars. 
Torn  apart  and  placed  on  the  ground  in  the  tents,  they  formed  excellent  floors. 

It  is  estimated  that  the  population  at  this  time  was  as  follows :  Num- 
ber of  permanent  inhabitants,  500;  floating  population,  including  travelers, 
teamsters,  packers,  etc.,  1000;  total,  1500. 

On  the  19th  of  February,  Theodore  Sicard  sold  to  R.  B.  Buchanan  and 
Gabriel  N.  Swezy,  for  $12,500,  a  large  number  of  lots  in  Marysville,  and 
also  the  undivided  one-fourth  of  the  land  deeded  by  Captain  Sutter,  January 
18,  1850,  to  Covillaud,  Ramirez,  Sicard,  and  Sampson,  and  the  same  interest 
in  the  Cordua  Grant.  Two  days  afterwards,  on  February  21,  Captain  Sutter 
conveyed  by  deed  to  Covillaud,  Ramirez,  Sampson  and  Sicard  the  tract  on 
the  south  side  of  the  Yuba. 

As  yet,  religious  services  had  not  been  held  in  the  town.  No  mission- 
aries had  visited  this  portion  of  the  county.  The  American  River  was  the 
line  beyond  which  they  had  not  dared  to  extend  their  operations.  The 
foreigners  in  the  north  were  mostly  Americans,  and  the  Indians  were  of  a 
more  savage  and  independent  nature.  They  wanted  no  missionaries.  In 
the  spring,  however,  the  Reverend  Washburn  inaugurated  the  religious 
movement  by  assembling  a  meeting  on  a  flatboat  near  the  Plaza.  He  went 
from  Maine  to  New  Bedford,  and  came  to  this  coast  on  the  Mayflower,  one 
of  the  three  vessels  starting  at  about  the  same  time  from  that  port,  the 
other  two  being  the  American  and  the  Obed  Mitchell.  Soon  after  his  arrival 
in  Marysville,  he  opened  a  store,  adjoining  which  was  a  saloon  kept  by  his 
son.  The  old  gentleman  was  very  much  opposed  to  the  business  carried  on 
by  his  offspring.  From  this  circumstance  has  been  heralded  the  statement 
that  the  pioneer  minister  in  Marysville  was  a  saloon-keeper,  a  charge  evi- 
dently without  foundation.  There  was  a  person,  however,  who  had  served 
in  the  ministry  in  the  Eastern  States,  and  who,  upon  arriving  here  in  the 
mixed   state  of  morals,   entered  into  business  in   the   capacity   of  a   monte- 


dealer.  When  called  to  account  by  his  friends  from  the  East,  he  replied  that 
he  had  "struck  a  better  thing" ;  and,  in  truth,  he  was  quite  lucky  at  gaming. 

The  scene  in  the  little  town  was  one  of  unusual  activity ;  every  person 
was  busy  building  tents,  selling  goods,  unloading  freight,  or  engaging  in  one 
of  the  hundred  other  occupations  incident  to  pioneer  life.  No  regard  was 
paid  to  the  Sabbath,  as  a  day  either  of  rest  or  of  devotion.  The  following  is 
illustrative  of  the  lack  of  respect  shown  to  the  day :  One  Sunday  a  ferry- 
boat was  being  constructed  near  the  river  bank  and  the  men  were  busily 
calking  the  seams.  A  steamer  lay  at  the  wharf  near  by,  the  deck  hands 
industriously  transferring  the  freight  to  the  landing.  It  was  a  scene  of 
bustle  and  noise ;  yet  in  the  midst  of  all  this  confusion,  a  chaplain  connected 
with  one  of  the  mining  companies,  desiring  to  preach,  selected  the  ferry-boat 
as  his  stand  and  pulpit.  A  few  men  quit  their  occupations,  and  with  the  idle 
persons  gathered  around  the  minister.  The  remainder  continued  their  pur- 
suits. Amid  all  this  noise  and  confusion,  and  with  frequent  interruptions 
from  a  drunken  sailor,  the  minister  delivered  his  discourse. 

By  March,  over  350  lots  had  been  sold  and  most  of  them  had  been 
located  upon.  Lumber  was  selling  at  from  $225.  to  $300  per  thousand  feet, 
a  price  too  high  for  the  ordinary  purchaser.  Among  the  principal  business 
houses  were :  John  C.  Fall  &  Company ;  Babb  &  Eaton ;  Cook,  Baker  & 
Company ;  A.  T.  Farish ;  Ford  &  Goodwin ;  Eaton  &  Green ;  S.  Sartwell ; 
Packard  &  Woodruff ;  Lowe  &  Brothers ;  Charles  Lambert ;  J.  H.  Adams ; 
Treadwell  &  Company;  John  H.  Jewett;  M.  Cheeseman;  William  B.  Thorn- 
burg;  George  H.  Beach;  and  Harrington  &  Hazeltine. 

Several  settlements  were  growing  in  the  days  when  Yuba  County  and 
Marysville  were  passing  through  their  infancy,  but  none  attained  large  pro- 
portions. The  pioneers  recall  the  town  of  Eliza,  which  at  one  time  made 
overtures  for  the  county  seat.  In  the  early  part  of  1850,  a  movement  was 
made  to  establish  this  town,  which  was  located  south  of  Marysville  on  the 
Feather  River,  and  flourished  only  a  short  time.  The  Kennebec  Com- 
pany had  purchased  of  John  A.  Sutter  the  Memal  Ranch  occupied  by  Jack 
Smith,  extending  a  mile  along  the  river  and  three  miles  back,  west  of  Rose's 
Ranch.  In  March,  1850,  the  company  removed  to  Downieville,  took  up  thir- 
teen river  claims,  dammed  and  turned  the  stream  out  of  its  channel,  and 
mined  until  the  1st  of  November,  when  they  disorganized.  This  dissolution 
was  not  caused  by  any  trouble,  but  was  thought  to  be  an  expedient  measure. 
The  property  was  sold  at  auction,  the  members  being  the  purchasers.  When 
it  was  found  that  the  parties  were  to  locate  on  land  in  the  vicinity  of  Marys- 
ville, the  owners  of  the  town  offered  one-fourth  of  their  lots,  if  the  company 
would  settle  there  and  aid  in  building  up  the  city.  Before  departing  on 
the  Downieville  trip,  Dr.  McCullough  was  appointed  their  attorney  to  con- 
clude the  bargain.  Before  consummating  it  the  doctor,  becoming  alarmed, 
went  to  Eliza  and  purchased  an  interest  there.  The  advantages  claimed  for 
this  place  were  that  boats  could  always  reach  it.  The  supposed  obstructions 
in  the  channel  below  Marysville,  and  the  grounding  of  several  boats  in  that 
portion  of  the  river,  caused  quite  an  alarm.  However,  the  town  of  Eliza 
never  realized  the  hopes  and  intentions  of  its  locators.  Judge  Phil  N\  . 
Keyser,  who  later  became  superior  judge  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties, 
was  chosen  alcalde,  and  a  few  buildings  were  erected  ;  but  in  June  the  place 
collapsed  and  sank  out  of  existence,  the  residents  removing  to  other  parts. 

The  town  of  Linda,  after  which  a  Yuba  County  judicial  township  was 
named,  was  also  short-lived.  It  was  started  ,';i  the  spring  of  1850.  After  the 
arrival  of  the  party  in  the  little  steamer  Linda  at  Rose's  Ranch,  the  members 
of  the  company  persuaded  Mr.  Rose  to  lay  out  a  town.  Land  was  surveyed 
and  a  number  of  lots  were  sold.     After  the  survey,  the  steamer  Linda  went 


up  to  the  location  with  a  large  party  of  excursionists  to  inaugurate  the  new- 
town.  The  party  enjoyed  themselves  greatly,  partaking  freely  of  the  refresh- 
ments provided.  Charles  Lupton  built  a  house  there ;  and  a  few  shanties 
and  a  small  store  were  also  erected.  These,  with  the  two  old  cabins  of 
Smith  and  Nye,  comprised  the  settlement.  Rose  kept  a  ferry  at  that  point, 
and  at  a  later  date  a  bridge  was  built.  In  about  two  years  the  town  was 
abandoned.  Its  site  now  lies  about  thirty  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  tail- 
ings, where  once  grew  the  finest  grain  raised  in  Yuba  County. 

In  the  month  of  April,  1850,  the  proprietors  of  Marysville  yielded  to 
the  popular  passion  for  city-making,  and  laid  out  the  town  of  Featherton, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Honcut.  The  following  advertisement  in  the  issue  of 
May  3,  1850,  of  the  Sacramento  Placer  Times,  explains  their  intentions : 

"The  undersigned  proprietors  of  Marysville  would  inform  the  public 
that  they  have  located  and  laid  out  a  city,  to  be  called  Featherton,  at  the 
loot  of  the  Willow  Rapids  and  the  head  of  low-water  navigation  on  Feather 
River,  and  being  at  the  junction  of  the  Honcut  with  Feather  River,  and 
between  fifteen  and  twenty  miles  above  Marysville,  the  shares  of  which  they 
now  offer  to  sell.  From  the  advantageous  situation  of  said  city ;  its  eleva- 
tion above  high  water ;  located  in  a  dense  and  lovely  grove  of  evergreen 
oak ;  the  head  of  navigation  on  Feather  River,  except  in  times  of  unusual 
freshets ;  lying  along  the  great  trail  to  the  Feather  River  and  Upper  Trinity 
mines,  and  within  ten  miles  of  the  newly  discovered  mines  on  the  Honcut, 
the  undersigned  feel  free  to  recommend  the  new  city  for  beauty  of  scenery 
and  location,  business  advantages  and  permanent  security  of  capital  invested, 
equal  to  any  up-river  city  in  California. 

"Any  person  desirous  of  procuring  shares  in  said  city,  can  do  so  by 
applying  to  E.  Gillespie,  Sacramento  City,  in  brick  building,  corner  Second 
and  J  Streets ;  to  Barton  Lee,  of  same  place,  third  door  on  Second  Street 
from  J;  or  to  the  proprietors,  at  their  old  office  in  Marysville,  where  the 
terms  and  conditions  may  be  known.  It  is  the  desire  of  the  undersigned  that 
all  who  feel  inclined  to  become  interested  in  the  said  city  would  go  upon 
the  ground  and  see  the  same  for  themselves,  and  the  undersigned  would 
gladly  offer  any  aid  to  persons  wishing  to  visit  Featherton,  if  they  will  call 
at  their  ranch  building  in  Marysville.  The  drawing  will  take  place  on  the 
15th  day  of  May  next,  at  Featherton,  when  the  unsold  shares  will  be  pur- 
chased. A  steamer  will  leave  Marysville  on  the  morning  of  the  said  15th 
day  of  May  for  Featherton,  passage,  etc.,  free.  The  map  of  said  city,  and 
one  of  the  proprietors,  may  be  seen  on  Thursday  and  Friday,  the  second 
and  third  of  May  next,  at  said  Gillespie's  office,  or  at  the  Sutter  House. 
Signed,  C.  Covillaud  &  Company." 

The  new  town  met  with  such  faint  encouragement  that  the  project  was 
shortly  abandoned  by  the  promoters. 

More  enduring  were  such  places  as  McCouftney's  Crossing,  McDonald's 
Mill,  Parks  Bar  and  Rose  Bar — mining  camps,  only  scant  relics  of  which, . 
however,  remain  at  the  present  time. 

In  the  middle  of  March,  Charles  Vero  was  born.  His  mother,  whose 
maiden  name  was  Mary  Luther,  came  across  the  plains,  arriving  here  in 
September,  1847,  and  was  married  in  June  or  July,  to  Joseph  Vero.  It  is 
claimed  that  this  was  the  first  white  child  born  in  the  county;  and  there 
is  no  doubt  but  that  he  was  the  first  white  child  born  of  parents  married 
within  the  present  limits  of  the  county. 

The  first  legislature  named  the  first  Monday  in  April  for  the  election 
of  county  officers ;  and  as  the  day  approached,  political  matters  became  lively. 
The  canvass  developed  a  horde  of  candidates,  and  a  lively  contest  ensued. 
The  election  resulted  in  the  selection  of  the  following:     County  judge,  Henry 


P.  Haun ;  county  attorney,  Samuel  B.  Mulford ;  county  clerk,  Edward  D. 
Wheeler;  sheriff,  Robert  B.  Buchanan;  county  recorder,  Alfred  Lawton; 
county  surveyor,  J.  B.  dishing;  county  treasurer,  L.  W.  Taylor;  county 
assessor,  S.  C.  Tompkins ;  coroner,  S.  T.  Brewster.  It  is  stated  that  about 
S00  votes  were  cast  at  the  election,  700  of  these  being  cast  in  Marysville. 

The  district  court  of  the  eighth  judicial  district,  presided  over  by  Judge 
William  R.  Turner,  held  its  first  session  in  Marysville  on  the  3rd  of  June. 
H.  P.  Watkins  was  appointed  district  attorney  by  the  court.  The  next  day 
the  first  grand  jury  was  drawn. 

In  August  the  "Squatter"  movement,  which  was  progressing  in  the  lower 
cities,  gained  a  foothold  in  Marysville.  A  Squatters'  meeting  took  place  in 
the  courthouse,  and  the  subject  of  land  titles  and  occupation  was  discussed. 
The  attendance  adopted  a  series  of  resolutions,  deprecating  any  unlawful 
acts,  and  among  other  things  resolving  that  it  was  wrong  to  settle  upon  city 
property,  as  it  conflicted  seriously  with  the  rights  of  third  persons  who  pur- 
chased for  a  valuable  consideration. 

The  town  had  now  become  of  such  a  size,  and  the  surrounding  county 
so  far  developed,  that  the  success  of  a  newspaper  seemed  assured.  Accord- 
ingly, Col.  Robert  H.  Taylor,  on  the  6th  of  August,  issued  the  first  number 
of  the  Marysville  Herald,  the  first  newspaper  north  of  Sacramento.  The 
possession  of  a  journal  for  the  dissemination  of  news  gave  new  dignity  to 
the  town  and  county.  It  served  to  herald  their  condition  and  resources 
through  different  parts  of  the  territory  and  the  Eastern  States. 

The  news  of  the  death  of  President  Zachary  Taylor  at  Washington, 
July  9,  1850,  reached  Marysville  in  September,  and  funeral  obsequies  were 
appropriately  observed,  S.  M.  Miles  (who  afterward  became  the  first  mayor) 
acting  as  grand  marshal. 

In  the  first  part  of  September,  1850,  there  came  on  three  days  of  the 
hardest  rain  that  had  yet  fallen.  It  raised  the  rivers  and  drove  the  miners 
out.  Supposing  that  another  wet  season  had  set  in,  the  men  in  the  mountains 
laid  in  a  heavy  stock  of  supplies  for  the  winter  at  enormous  prices.  The 
weather  became  pleasant  again,  however,  and  there  was  no  further  rain  of 
any  account  until  the  following  March.  As  a  consequence,  during  the  winter 
these  extra  quantities  of  food  and  supplies  were  sent  back  to  Marysville, 
and  disposed  of  at  great  sacrifice,  the  merchants  being  undersold  one-half. 

The  State  election  was  held  in  October,  and  Judge  Stephen  J.  Field  was 
elected  to  represent  Yuba  County  in  the  Assembly,  receiving  a  large  majority 
of  the  votes  cast.  It  was  at  this  election  that  Jesse  O.  Goodwin  was  chosen 
district  attorney. 

The  epidemic  of  cholera  broke  out  in  California  at  about  this  time,  and 
swept  over  many  parts  of  the  State.  Marysville  was  singularly  free  from 
this  scourge,  as  only  one  case  was  reported  within  its  limits.  Yuba  City 
had  also  only  one  person  afflicted. 

During  the  summer  of  this  year,  the  water  in  the  Feather  River  became 
so  low  that  it  was  impossbile  for  steamers  to  ascend  to  Marysville.  This 
interruption  nearly  suspended  business  transactions,  and  threatened  to  seri- 
ously affect  the  progress  of  the  town ;  but  in  November  the  Governor  Dana 
appeared,  and  as  she  steamed  up  the  river  the  enthusiasm  of  the  people  was 
almost  boundless.     It  was  an  occasion  to  be  celebrated  with  festivities. 

A  feeling  had  long  been  gaining  ground  relative  to  the  probability  oi 
Marysville  becoming  the  principal  of  the  "up-river"  towns.  As  the  popula- 
tion became  larger,  the  citizens  decided  to  avail  themselves  of  the  benefits 
and  privileges  gained  by  incorporating.  Accordingly,  on  December  3,  a 
mass-meeting  was  held  in  the  United  States  Hotel  on  D  Street,  of  which 
Gabriel  N.  Swezy  was  chosen  chairman.     A  discussion  followed  as  to  the 


practicability  of  petitioning  the.  legislature  to  pass  the  necessary  act  to  incor- 
porate the  town.  This  meeting  adjourned  to  meet  on  the  5th,  after  appoint- 
ing a  committee  to  prepare  a  set  of  resolutions.  The  next  meeting,  held  on 
the  appointed  evening,  received  the  report  of  the  committee  and  instructed 
them  to  pursue  their  labors  further,  and  make  a  draft  for  a  special  act  for 
the  city  charter.  The  next  meeting  was  held  on  the  14th,  but  was  so  slimly 
attended  that  action  was  delayed  until  the  17th,  when  a  large  gathering 
assembled.  The  draft  of  the  city  charter  was  adopted  and  forwarded  to  the 
legislative  representative.  Hon.  Stephen  J.  Field,  who  finally  secured  the 
passage  of  the  act  in  the  following  February. 

In  1850  Ramirez  settled  the  Quintay  Ranch,  just  east  of  Marysville, 
and  put  a  man  named  Quintay  upon  the  tract  to  take  care  of  it. 

The  first  crop  of  corn  to  be  grown  in  Yuba  County  was  planted  as  early 
as  1850  by  John  Morriet,  who,  in  the  previous  year,  had  bought  from  the 
grant-owners  two  miles  of  land  along  the  river,  and  engaged  in  cattle-rais- 
ing, using  the  Indians  as  assistants.  In  the  fall  of  1851  he  sold  to  M.  C. 
Nye  and  removed  from  the  county.  Nye  settled  on  the  place  and  soon  after 
sold  to  Charles  Covillaud  and  J.  G.  Cornell.  The  place  was  known  for  a 
long  time  as  the  Morriet  tract.  For  years  it  was  occupied  by  Cornell.  In 
1852  Nye  and  Cornell  raised  a  crop  of  barley,  the  first  in  the  history  of 
the  county,  so  far  as  is  known.  They  purchased  seed  in  San  Francisco  at 
seven  cents  per  pound  and  paid  $100  for  a  plow.  They  paid  a  man  named 
EaMalfa,  of  Marysville,  twelve  and  one-half  cents  a  bushel  for  threshing  it 
with  a  small  machine  which  he  owned,  and  also  paid  seven  and  one-half  cents 
for  cleaning.  The  grain  sold  for  from  four  to  five  cents  per  pound.  Hay- 
cutting  along  the  river  was  a  great  industry  at  that  time,  many  parties  engag- 
ing in  it  who  made  no  permanent  settlement. 

R.  F.  Piatt,  H.  F.  Sadorus,  and  George  Matsler  settled  on  the  south 
Honcut  in  1850  on  Section  24,  Township  17  north,  Range  4  east,  and  engaged 
in  stock-raising.  Piatt  built  a  house  in  that  year.  James  Bryden,  whose 
descendants  still  own  most  of  this  land,  soon  afterward  settled  along  the 
Honcut.  Early  in  1850  Bryden  and  Piatt  sowed  about  ten  acres  of  land  in 
barley.    A  fine  crop  was  the  result,  but  most  of  it  was  seized  by  the  Indians. 

In  1851  Richard  Pegrim  and -Dr.  E.  T.  Wilkins  settled  on  the  river.  Dr. 
Wilkins  had  a  fine  library,  which  was  scattered  all  over  the  surrounding- 
country  by  the  flood  of  1851.  This  was  the  first  "circulating  library"  in  the 
county  of  Yuba.  Dr.  Wilkins,  who  practiced  many  years  in  Marysville, 
and  owned  a  drug  store  there,  later  became  superintendent  of  the  State 
Hospital  at  Napa.  Richard  Pegrim  had  a  narrow  escape  during  the  flood 
of  1851.  He  was  carried  down  the  stream  while  on  horseback,  but  succeeded 
in  clinging  to  the  branches  of  a  tree  as  he  passed.  He  remained  in  the  tree 
several  hours,  until  assistance  Came. 

The  early  comers  were  all  greatly  troubled  with  scurvy  and  other  dis- 
orders, many  dying  from  the  effects  of  the  disease,  which  was  caused  by  a 
lack  of  vegetables  and  acid  foods.  To  supply  this  want,  in  1850  and  1851 
vast  quantities  of  lime  juice  were  imported  in  barrels;  and  in  every  saloon 
the  traveler  and  miner  could  be  found  imbibing  the  healthful  drink. 

Yuba  County  had  now  fairly  entered  upon  its  career  of  advancement. 
As  set  off  by  the  first  legislature,  February  18,  1850,  the  territory  was  des- 
cribed as  follows:  "Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Honcut  Creek,  and  running 
up  the  middle  of  the  same  to  its  source ;  thence  following  the  dividing  ridge 
between  Feather  and  Yuba  Rivers  to  the  summit  of  the  Sierra  Nevadas ; 
thence  east  to  the  boundary  of  the  State ;  thence  south  following  said  bound- 
ary to  the  northeast  corner  of  El  Dorado  County ;  thence  in  a  westerly  direc- 
tion, following  the  northern  boundary  of  said  county,  to  the  junction  of  the 


north  and  middle  forks  of  the  American  River ;  thence  in  a  northwestern 
direction,  following  the  boundary  of  Sutter  County  to  the  mouth  of  Bear 
Creek ;  thence  running  up  the  middle  of  Feather  River  to  the  mouth  of  Hon- 
cut  Creek,  which  was  the  place  of  beginning."  The  seat  of  justice  was 
located  at  Marysville. 

On  August  24,  1850,  the  first  division  of  the  county  into  townships  was 
made  by  the  court  of  sessions.  Fifteen  large  subdivisions  were  established. 
Marysville  Township  No.  1,  Long  Bar  No.  2,  Rose  No.  3,  Foster  No.  4,  and 
Townships  11  and  12  were  within  the  present  limits  of  Yuba  County;  the 
first  four  were  north  of  the  Yuba  River,  the  last  two  south  of  that  stream. 

On  February  5,  1851,  the  legislature  passed  a  bill  incorporating  the  City 
of  Marysville,  dividing  it  into  four  wards  and  fixing  the  first  Monday  of  the 
following  March  as  the  day  for  the  election  of  the  city  officers — a  mayor 
and  eight  alderman.  The  election  resulted  in  the  choice  of  the  following: 
S.  M.  Miles,  mayor ;  and  L.  W.  Ransom,  S.  C.  Stambaugh,  F.  Schaeffer, 
B.  Tallman,  J.  G.  Smith,  D.  W.  C.  Rice,  S.  C.  Tompkins,  and  Charles  Covil- 
laud,  aldermen.  On  the  10th  the  board  met  and  organized.  R.  H.  Taylor 
was  made  clerk;  Lewis  Cunningham,  treasurer;  R.  S.  Olds,  assessor;  F.  J. 
McCann,  city  attorney;  Albert  Miller,  city  marshal. 

The  boundaries  of  the  City  of  Marysville,  as  laid  down  in  the  original 
charter,  were  as  follows':  "Commencing  at  high-water  mark  on  the  southern 
bank  of  Yuba  River,  at  a  point  one  mile  east  of  the  public  plaza,  and  run- 
ning thence  north  two  miles ;  thence  west  to  Feather  River ;  thence  south, 
following  Feather  River  to  high-water  mark  on  the  southern  bank  of  Yuba 
River ;  thence  east  along  the  southern  bank  of  Yuba  River  to  the  place  of 
beginning."  The  common  council  was  authorized  to  establish  a  recorder's 
court,  but  this  power  was  taken  away  by  the  act  passed  April  10,  1852, 
when  the  recorder's  court  was  abolished  as  well  as  the  office  of  recorder, 
city  attorney  and  city  assessor. 

The  original  Yuba  County  had  embraced  the  territory  now  included  in 
Sierra  and  Nevada  Counties ;  but  as  the  legal  and  county  business  increased, 
it  was  found  that  the  distances  from  the  county  seat  were  too  great  to  accom- 
modate the  inhabitants.  On  April  25,  1851,  an  act  entitled,  "An  Act  dividing 
the  State  into  counties  and  establishing  the  seats  of  justice  therein,"  was 
passed,  which  made  the  new  county  of  Nevada,  taking  away  a  portion  of 
the  territory  of  Yuba  County. 

The  winter  of  1850-1851  was  extremely  dull.  Money  was  scarce,  and 
business  was  greatly  depressed. 

With  the  coming  of  spring,  business  again  assumed  its  former  propor- 
tions, and  building  commenced  with  renewed  activity.  In  July,  1851,  Cap- 
tain Sutter  had  200  acres  under  cultivation  on  Hock  Farm.  He  was  pursuing 
the  business  of  farming  systematically  and  vigorously.  In  1865  he  left  the 
Coast;  and  thereafter  he  resided  in  Pennsylvania  until  his  death. 

On  Monday,  August  4,  1851,  prospectors  began  work  on  the  bar  of  the 
Yuba  River  between  the  upper  and  lower  landings  of  Marysville.  A  panful 
of  earth  from  the  surface  yielded  seventy-five  cents ;  and  a  notice  of  claim 
was  immediately  put  up  by  the  following  gentlemen :  T.  Lowe,  C.  Lowe. 
F.  Lowe,  S.  R.  Tribble,  M.  C.  Nelson,  J.  J.  Mechling,  W.  R.  Taylor,  J.  J. 
McLeary,  L.  B.  Farish,  L.  S.  Priddy,  W.  Meyers,  T.  Hispanger,  and  J.  J. 
Wellinton.  Thinking  that  the  operations  on  a  mining  location  so  near  the 
city  would  seriously  affect  the  interests  of  the  citizens,  the  following  order 
was  issued  by  Mayor  Miles : 

"Proclamation,  Mayor's  office,  August  11,  1851:  It  having  been  repre- 
sented to  me  that  sundry  persons  have  laid  out  and  staked  off  claims  on  the 
bar  in  front  of  the  landing  for  mining  purposes;  Now,  therefore,   I,   S.   M. 


Miles,  Mayor  of  the  City  of  Marysville,  do  hereby  caution  all  persons  against 
trespassing  on  or  injuring  the  public  grounds  within  the  limits  of  the  City 
of  Marysville,  in  any  manner  whatever.     S.  M.  Miles,  Mayor." 

On  August  9,  1851,  the  court  of  sessions  divided  the  county  into  eleven 
townships,  the  first  six  of  which  were  within  the  present  boundaries  of  Yuba 
County,  and  the  remaining  five  in  what  is  now  Sierra  County. 

Besides  the  regular  business  houses  in  Marysville  in  1851,  a  profitable 
trade  was  carried  on  by  a  large  number  of  outdoor  coffee  ^stands.  These 
were  located  on  the  sidewalks  along  First  Street,  from  the  Plaza  to  C  Street, 
many  of  the  proprietors  paying  as  high  as  $150  per  month  for  their  locations. 
Another  illustration  of  the  high  rents  paid  during  that  early  period,  and 
of  the  profits  realized,  is  the  following:  In  November,  1851,  a  gentleman  was 
paying  $250  per  month  for  an  office  five  feet  in  width  and  twelve  feet  in 
depth,  and  still  made  money  notwithstanding.  The  commercial  importance 
of  Marysville  was  now  recognized  by  the  outside  world,  for  in  1851  Dr.  J.  B. 
Pigne-Dupuytren  was  located  there  as  vice-consul  of  France. 

On  Sunday  afternoon,  March  1,  1852,  Eliza  Sutter,  the  daughter  of  the 
Captain,  was  married  to  George  Engler  of  Marysville.  The  ceremony  took 
place  at  Hock  Farm,  and  was  performed  by  Judge  Cushing  of  Marysville. 
Visitors  were  present  from  nearly  all  parts  of  the  State,  and  enjoyed  fully 
the  celebrated  hospitalities  of  Hock  Farm. 

In  January,  1852,  a  movement  was  inaugurated  to  repeal  the  city  charter. 
The  petition  was  drawn  up  and  placed  before  the  citizens  for  signatures ; 
and  a  remonstrance  wras  also  prepared.  On  Thursday,  February  12,  Hon. 
John  A.  Paxton  presented  the  first  petition  to  the  Assembly.  The  opposing 
petition  was  offered  by  Hon.  J.  H.  Gardner.  Great  exertions  were  put  forth 
on  each  side,  but  the  act  was  finally  passed  on  April  10.  It  was  entitled, 
"An  Act  supplementary  to  An  Act  incorporating  the  City  of  Marysville." 
On  March  7,  1876,  an  act  to  reincorporate  the  City  of  Marysville  was  ap- 
proved. The  boundaries  as  laid  down  in  this  charter  were  as  follows : 
"Commencing  on  the  south  bank  of  Yuba  River,  opposite  D  Street  in  said 
city;  thence  down  the  south  bank  ef  said  river  to  the  center  of  Feather 
River ;  thence  up  the  center  of  Feather  River  to  a  point  opposite  Sixteenth 
Street  in  said  city ;  thence  easterly  along  the  north  line  of  said  Sixteenth 
Street  to  E  Street  in  said  city;  thence  northerly  along  the  west  line  of  E 
Street  to  the  northwest  corner  of  suburban  Lot  5,  Range  D ;  thence  easterly 
to  the  outer  side  of  the  levee  as  now  located  by  said  city ;  thence  along  the 
outer  side  of  said  levee  until  it  intersects  the  Browns  Valley  road  or  grade ; 
thence  along  the  extreme  southeasterly  side  of  said  Browns  Valley  road  or 
grade  to  a  point  where  said  Browns  Valley  grade  or  road  intersects  Swezy 
Street;  thence  due  south  to  the  south  bank  of  Yuba  River;  thence  along  the 
south  bank  of  Yuba  River  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

In  1852,  a  census  of  the  inhabitants  in  the  county  showed  the  population 
to  be  22*005.  The  eighth  United  States  census,  in  1860,  credits  the  county 
with  a  population  of  13,668.  The  ninth  census,  in  1870,  fixed  the  population 
at  10,851,  the  county  ranking  twelfth  in  the  State,  while  the  estimated  popu- 
lation in  1877  was  11,000.     It  has  varied  little  since. 

After  1852  the  Township  of  Marysville,  which  was  bounded  on  the  north 
by  Honcut  Creek,  was  settled  up  rapidly  and  became  well  developed  agri- 
culturally. At  present  it  is  for  the  most  part  located  within  a  reclamation 
district  known  as  District  No.  10,  rich  in  orchards,  vineyards  and  grain  fields. 
The  first  schoolhouse  was  built  on  the  Nelson  place  near  the  Honcut.  The 
school  was  attended  by  all  the  children  in  this  part  of  the  township.  The 
first  bridge  across  the  Honcut  was  built  in  1855  by  Jesse  Mayhew.  The 
Honcut  Hotel  was  built  near  the  south  end  of  the  bridge.     The  Eight-mile 


House,  the  Prairie  House  and  a  few  other  places  were  opened  for  the  accom- 
modation of  travelers. 

Marysville's  first  private  hospital  was  known  as  Gray's  City  Hospital, 
and  was  conducted  by  Dr.  J.  B.  Gray,  who  advertised  that  he  had  leased  for 
hospital  purposes  the  "large  new  house  of  Dr.  Warfield  on  the  corner  of 
Third  and  A  Streets." 

S.  M.  Miles,  Marysville's  first  mayor,  had  a  notary-public  office  at  the 
mayor's  office.  Among  the  practicing  attorneys  at  that  time  were  Jesse  O. 
Goodwin,  S.  B.  Mulford,  E.  D.  AVheeler,  Charles  H.  Bryan,  R.  S.  Messick, 
and  McCarty  &  Swezy. 

Between  1850  and  1860  Yuba  County  had  its  full  share  of  newspapers, 
as  follows :  Marysville  Herald,  1850  to  1858 ;  Marysville  Daily  News,  short- 
lived; Daily  National  Democrat,  1858  to  1860;  and  the  California  Express, 
1850  to  1863.  These  are  more  fully  described  in  the  chapter  on  The  City 
of  Marysville. 

Cunningham  &  Brumagim  were  among  Marysville's  first  bankers,  occu- 
pying a  fireproof  building  on  D  Street,  three  doors  south  of  the  United  States 
Hotel,  which  was  then  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Third  and  D  Streets. 

Ira  A.  Eaton,  L.  H.  Babb  and  William  Hawley  are  among  the  early-day 
merchants  of  Marysville  whose  memories  lived  long  after  them.  Eaton, 
in  1852  at  the  head  of  the  mercantile  firm  of  Eaton,  Babb,  &  Hawley,  became 
a  prominent  grower  and  stock-raiser  of  Yuba  County ;  Babb  became  prom- 
inently connected  with  the  Marysville  Water  Company;  and  Hawley  con- 
tinued in  the  grocery  and  hardware  business  until  his  death.  Others  at  that 
time  prominent  in  the  mercantile  life  of  Marysville  were :  John  C.  Fall  & 
Company;  Cook,  Baker  &  Company;  A.  T.  Farish ;  Ford  &  Goodwin;  Eaton 
&  Green ;  S.  Sartwell ;  Packard  &  Woodruff ;  Lowe  &  Brothers ;  Charles  Lam- 
bert; J.  H.  Adams;  Treadwell  &  Company;  John  H.  Jewett ;  M.  Cheeseman ; 
William  B.  Thornburg;  George  H.  Beach;  Harrington  &  Hazeltine;  Bryant 
&  Company ;  Shaffer  &  Addison ;  and  Hochstadter  &  Brother. 

The  early-day  merchants  often  were  compelled  to  play  hosts  to  their 
patrons,  as  witness  the  following  from  a  directory  published  in  1856  with 
historical  sketches : 

"During  the  summer  and  fall  of  1850,  the  Marysville  merchants,  by 
their  energy,  liberality,  and  fair  dealing,  secured  the  trade  which  has  made 
the  city  what  it  now  is.  They  omitted  no  exertions.  Their  customers  were, 
in  a  great  measure,  their  guests  while  in  town,  eating  and  lodging  in  their 
stores.  The  sick  were  cared  for;  the  wants  of  all  were  judiciously  antici- 
pated; and  Marysville  grew  beyond  precedent,  because  it  was,  as  was  said, 
'lively  as  a  cricket,'  and  because  its  business  men  were  glad  to  see  every 
new  visitor.  Steamboats  plied  regularly  to  and  from  Sacramento,  bringing 
heavy  freights,  and  giving  our  levee  a  brisk  and  busy  appearance.  The 
stores  were  nearly  all  on  the  Plaza,  within  a  stone's  throw  of  the  landing, 
and  the  goods  were  generally  carried  to  the  doors  by  Indians.  A  brick 
building  was  built  during  the  summer  by  G.  N.  Swezy,  Esq..  on  the  south 
side  of  Second  Street,  between  D  and  High  Streets. 

"Rapid  as  was  the  progress,  much  capital  was  diverted  from  Marysville 
by  the  mania  for  new  towns,  which  raged  extensively  at  that  time.  In 
our  immediate  neighborhood,  elegant  cities  without  number,  among  which 
were  Plumas,  Eliza,  Veazie  City,  Hamilton,  Linda,  Featherton  and  Yateston, 
were  laid  out  upon  paper,  with  public  squares,  halls,  theaters,  colleges,  gar- 
dens, parks,  etc.  They  were  divided  generally  into  forty  to  fifty  shares, 
which  were  readily  disposed  of  at  $1000  per  share,  half  cash,  and  the  balance 
at  most  any  time.  Nearlv  every  man  who  had  means  bought  a  share  in  some 
town  which  he  could  not  have  found  with  the  aid  of  all  the  civil  engineers 


in  the  State.  Without  a  single  exception,  the  towns  above  mentioned  be- 
came  exploded   humbugs." 

The  favorite  material  for  the  construction  of  permanent  buildings  and 
dwellings  in  the  early  fifties  was  brick ;  as  early  as  1852  several  kilns  were  in 
active  operation.  This  led  for  a  time  to  Marysville  being  known  as  "the  city 
of  bricks."     Brick  is  still  the  favorite  material  where  permanency  is  sought. 

The  literary  and  musical  talent  of  these  early  days  was  shown  in  con- 
tributions to  newspapers  and  periodicals,  and  the  frequent  private  musical 
entertainments.  In  July,  1851,  a  song  entitled  "The  Love-Knot,"  composed 
by  Stephen  C.  Massett,  with  words  by  Hon.  Mrs.  Norton,  was  published 
in  New  York.  Massett,  after  disposing  of  his  interest  in  the  Herald,  and 
before  departing  on  his  Eastern  trip,  in  December,  1851,  gave  an  excellent 
entertainment,  bringing  out  the  local  talent  in  recitation  and  music,  both 
vocal  and  instrumental.  About  the  middle  of  February,  1852,  a  work  was 
issued  upon  whose  title  page  appeared  the  following:  "Entewa,  the  Moun- 
tain Bird,  a  Romance  Founded  on  Facts,  by  J.  R.  Poynter,  M.  D.,  Marys- 
ville, California,  1852."  This  was  claimed  to  be  the  first  California  novel. 
The  scene  was  laid  in  this  State  and  opened  in  the  summer  of  1849.  The 
newspapers  frequently  contained  able  contributions  in  prose  and  poetry 
from    local    writers. 

The  bank  failures  in  San  Francisco,  in  1855,  affected  business  in  Marys- 
ville quite  seriously,  but  it  quickly  recovered.  In  November,  1852,  the  county 
surveyor,  B.  D.  Scott,  in  his  report  to  the  State  surveyor  general,  stated  that 
the  total  yield  of  gold  in  Yuba  County,  during  the  preceding  year,  was 
$16,000,000.  The  total  amount  of  gold  shipped  to  San  Francisco  in  1857  by 
Lowe  Brothers  &  Company,  Reynolds  Brothers,  and  Mark  Brumagim  & 
Company  was  $10,175,000;  and  from  January  1  to  June  30,  1858,  it  was 
$4,350,000,  making  the  total  shipment  in  a  year  and  a  half,  $14,525,000. 

The  wonderful  prosperity  of  Yuba  County  was  seriously  affected  in 
1858,  when  the  Fraser  River  excitement  occurred  and  took  out  about  20,000 
people  from  California.  In  1860  and  1861  about  the  same  number  crossed 
the  Sierras  to  the  Washoe  diggings  in  Nevada  State.  These  excitements 
tended  to  depopulate  the  county  and  retard  its  progress.  Buildings  which 
before  were  renting  for  $600  would  not  sell  for  that  amount  after  the  exodus; 
but  soon  matters  became  more  tranquil  and  equalized,  and  the  county  began 
to  grow  and  prosper  again. 

In  1858,  the  State  Fair  was  held  for  five  days  in  Marysville,  commenc- 
ing on  August  23. 




Previous  to  the  year  1849,  the  navigation  of  the  rivers  above  Sacramento 
City  was  confined  to  the  voyages  of  canoes,  whaleboats  and  small  sailboats. 
These  were  used  by  the  settlers  to  facilitate  their  journeys  from  one  settle- 
ment to  another,  and  to  transport  the  supplies  from  the  depots  nearer  the 
metropolis.  Illustrative  of  the  difficulties  attending  early  navigation  and 
transportation,  the  following  may  be  mentioned.  In  1848,  by  the  aid  of  an 
Indian,  a  man  living  in  this  vicinity  felled  a  sycamore  tree  and  with  axes 
fashioned  it  into  the  form  of  a  canoe.  In  this  frail  and  clumsy  vessel  he 
made  the  voyage  to  San  Francisco,  taking  with  him  a  barrel  of  corned  beef, 
a  present  from  Michael  Nye  to  his  brother-in-law,  William  Foster.  Cordua 
started  a  trading  post  at  his  ranch  and  brought  goods  from  San  Francisco 
up  the  Sacramento  and  Feather  Rivers  in  a  boat. 

The  winter  of  1848-1849  was  dry,  and  during  the  first  part  of  the  season 
the  water  in  the  Feather  River  was  extremely  low.  Vernon,  in  Sutter 
County  at  the  junction  of  the  Sacramento  and  Feather  Rivers,  was  then  sup- 
posed to  be  the  head  of  navigation,  and  it  was  at  this  point  that  most  of  the 
supplies  for  the  northern  mines  were  unloaded  from  the  sailing  vessels.  It 
is  said  that  after  the  location  of  the  town,  in  April,  1849,  several  ships  from 
Eastern  ports  discharged  their  cargoes  at  the  landing-.  In  the  spring  of  this 
year  whaleboats  went  up  Bear  River  as  far  as  Johnson's  Crossing,  loaded 
with  miners.  They  passed  over  the  overflowed  lands,  and  not  up  the  stream, 
as  the  current  there  was  too  rapid.  As  yet  the  steamers  had  not  visited  the 
incipient  city  on  the  Yuba,  the  carrying  trade  being  confined  to  sailing  ves- 
sels. About  the  first  of  July,  1849,  the  river  was  so  low  that  they  grounded 
on  Russian  Crossing,  a  shoal  about  fifteen  miles  below  Vernon.  In  the 
summer  of  1849,  Nicolaus  Allegeier  had  a  launch  which  he  employed  in  trans- 
porting goods  from  San  Francisco  to  supply  his  store  at  Nicolaus.  It  regis- 
tered about  fifteen  tons  and  was  propelled  by  oars  and  the  wind ;  an  old 
sailor,  Jacob  Walldorff,  commanded,  and  had  a  crew  of  half  a  dozen  Indians. 
During  the  last  portion  of  1849,  a  large  number  of  whaleboats  plied  between 
Sacramento  and  Marysville,  carrying  goods  and  provisions.  In  the  fall  of 
this  year  and  the  spring  of  the  next,  large  steamers  came  around  the  Horn 
and  went  up  Feather  River  as  far  as  Nicolaus.  In  1849,  a  government  vessel, 
with  supplies  from  Camp  Far  AVest,  came  to  Nicolaus,  and  the  cargo  was 
hauled  in  wagons  to  the  fort. 

The  winter  of  1849-1850  was  exceedingly  wet,  the  whole  country  being 
flooded.  The  Feather  River  was  high  and  the  river  steamers  made  their 
advent  just  in  time  to  ascend  the  channel  as  far  as  Cordua's  Ranch,  or  Yuba- 
ville,  as  it  was  called  shortly  after,  and  before,  the  adoption  of  the  name 
Marysville.  This  change  of  the  terminal  point  of  navigation  from  Vernon 
caused  its  fall,  the  rise  of  the  upper  town  proving  the  destruction  of  the 
lower.  In  the  latter  part  of  1849,  the  Linda  Company,  in  a  vessel  called  the 
Linda,  arrived  after  a  passage  around  the  Horn,  and  took  the  ship  to  Sacra- 
mento. They  brought  with  them  the  machinery  for  a  small  stern-wheel 
steamer.     This  was  transferred  to  a  scow  at  that  place,  and  the  crude  and 


diminutive  steamer  was  named  the.  Linda.  As  soon  as  it  was  constructed,  a 
cargo  of  freight  was  loaded  for  a  man  named  Ferguson,  who  kept  a  store  at 
Barton's  Bar.  In  the  last  part  of  1849,  about  December,  the  little  steamer 
came  up  the  river  and  went  as  far  as  the  location  of  Rose's  Ranch.  When 
the  Indians  along  the  river  saw  this  strange  object  ascending  the  stream, 
propelled  by  an  unseen  power,  and  heard  it  puff,  they  thought  an  evil  spirit 
was  pursuing  them  and  fled  to  the  woods.  After  seeing  it  land  at  the  bank, 
and  on  perceiving  that  the  whites  were  not  at  all  afraid,  they  came  out  and 
expressed  themselves  much  pleased  with  the  new  and  strange  kind  of  boat. 

During  January,  1850,  a  small  side-wheel  steamer,  the  Lawrence,  under 
command  of  Capt.  E.  C.  M.  Chadwick,  made  her  appearance  at  Marysville. 
She  had  been  built  in  the  East,  and  was  shipped  around  the  Horn  in  sections. 
There  seems  to  be  some  difference  in  opinion  as  to  which  steamer,  the  Linda 
or  the  Lawrence,  deserves  the  credit  of  being  the  pioneer;  but  there  appears 
no  reasonable  doubt  that  the  Linda  was  the  first  to  ascend  the  Feather  and 
Yuba  Rivers.  The  Lawrence  continued  to  make  regular  trips  between 
Marysville  and  Sacramento,  proving  exceedingly  profitable  to  her  owners, 
and  very  convenient  to  the  traveling  public.  The  fare  to  Sacramento  was 
$25 ;  and  freight,  including  the  blankets  of  the  passengers,  was  eight  cents 
a  pound.  For  $1.50  a  berth  could  be  secured,  but  the  occupant  was  obliged 
to  furnish  his  own  bedding.  The  success  of  this  boat,  and  the  immense 
amount  of  travel,  soon  brought  other  steamers  onto  the  route.  The  third 
boat  to  appear  was  the  Governor  Dana,  in-  April,  1850.  She  was  a  stern- 
wheeler,  of  about  eighty  tons  register.  In  April,  1850,  the  fare  from  Marys- 
ville to  San  Francisco  was  $35. 

About  the  middle  of  1851,  it  was  found  that  the  snags  imbedded  in  the 
bottom  of  the  river  were  likely  to  prove  serious  impediments  to  its  naviga- 
tion, and  might  stop  it  altogether,  a  result  that  would  prove  extremely  disas- 
trous to  Marysville.  The  business  men,  as  well  as  other  prominent  citizens, 
met,  and  agreed  to  pay  by  subscription  for  the  removal  of  the  obstructions. 
The  contract  was  let,  and  the  labor  commenced.  The  work  was  completed 
before  the  rainy  season  set  in,  but  the  subscribers  to  the  fund  were  not  all 
.  prompt  in  fulfilling  their  promises.  It  was  only  by  great  exertions  that  the 
amounts  subscribed  could  be  collected. 

On  August  16,  1851,  the  steamer  Fawn  was  blown  up  on  the  river,  sev- 
eral miles  below  Marysville. 

In  1854,  despite  the  fact  that  river  transportation  between  San  Francisco 
and  Marysville  was  sought  by  many  vessels,  the  California  Steam  Navigation 
Company  and  the  Citizens'  Steam  Navigation  Company  were  formed  to 
compete  for  the  business.  Of  the  latter  concern,  John  H.  Jewett  and  Peter 
Decker,  who  formed  the  well-known  banking  firm  of  Marysville,  were  presi- 
dent and  trustee,  respectively. 

In  1874  a  new  line  of  steamers  was  started  by  D.  E.  Knight,  W.  T.  Ellis, 
and  J.  R.  Rideout.  The  steamer  C.  M.  Small  was  purchased  and  placed  on 
the  route  to  San  Francisco.  In  1875  the  company  built  the  D.  E.  Knight  at 
Marysville.  These  two  steamers  carried  freight  up  the  Feather  River  until 
the  early  nineties,  when  the  filling  of  the  channel  with  mining  detritus, 
pouring  in  from  the  mountains  at  each  freshet,  caused  navigation  to  cease. 

A  movement  is  on  foot  at  the  present  time  to  induce  the  United  States 
government  and  the  State  of  California  to  interest  themselves  in  the  reestab- 
lishment  of  navigation  on  the  Feather  River.  The  success  of  the  C.  M. 
Small  and  of  the  D.  E.  Knight  is  being  used  as  proof  of  what  can  be  done  if 
navigation  is  restored  on  the  stream.  The  C.  M.  Small  was  built  in  this 
State,  and  was  of  120  tons  register.     She  was  a  stern-wheel,  low-water  boat. 


The  Knight  was  of  160  tons  register,  and  also  a  stern-wheel,  low-water  boat. 
Both  were  freight-boats,  carrying  grain  and  produce  to  San  Francisco  and 
returning  loaded  with  merchandise.  Four  barges  were  operated  in  connec- 
tion with  these  boats.  They  were  the  Hope,  Marysville,  Sutter,  and  Para- 
dise. During  the  period  just  prior  to  the  withdrawal  of  the  boats  on  account 
of  the  condition  of  the  channels  of  the  Yuba  and  Feather  Rivers,  all  mer- 
chandise destined  for  Marysville  was  landed  either  at  Yuba  City  'or  on  the 
opposite  bank  of  the  Feather  River,  where  a  small  freight-shed  was  main- 
tained. From  this  point  the  freight  was  hauled  into  Marysville  by  teams. 
During  the  winter  and  seasons  of  high  water,  however,  the  boats  were  able 
to  reach  the  foot  of  D  Street  and  land  at  the  levee,  a  great  accommodation 
and  saving  to  the  merchants  of  Marysville. 



The  passengers  and  goods  having  been  landed,  the  next  question  which 
arose  in  the  early  days  was  the  best  manner  of  conveying  them  to  the  moun- 
tain camps.  In  the  absence  of  more  modern  methods,  the  mules  were 
brought  into  requisition,  and  upon  the  backs  of  these  animals  vast  quantities 
of  merchandise  were  placed,  securely  bound  and  tightly  fastened  to  the  pack- 
ing saddle.  The  more  wealthy  class  of  travelers  were  able  to  afford  the 
luxury  of  a  mule-back  ride  in  preference  to  the  tiresome  and  unpleasant 
jaunt  on  foot. 


The  lack  of  roads  in  the  mountains  and  hills  made  packing  by  mules  an 
imperative  necessity.  This  method  of  transporting  was  early  resorted  to. 
In  the  latter  part  of  1849  and  the  early  part  of  1850,  W.  H.  Parks,  who  later 
represented  Yuba  County  in  the  State  Senate  and  who  became  a  prominent 
and  influential  resident  of  Marysville,  ran  a  pack  train  from  Marysville  to 
Foster's  Bar.  In  February  of  the  latter  year  he  sold  out  to  J.  B.  Whitcomb 
and  Charles  Daniels.  During  the  summer  of  1850,  John  Seaward,  who  a  few 
years  ago  died  at  his  home  in  Linda  Township,  ran  a  pack  train  from  Downie- 
ville  to  Foster's  Bar.  He  connected  with  an  ox  team  from  Marysville.  In 
1850  there  were  five  or  six  trains,  some  including  as  many  as  eighty  or  ninety 
mules.  In  November,  1852,  a  train  of  over  100  pack  mules  left  Marysville 
for  the  extreme  northern  mines.  For  years  these  trains  were  passing  to  and 
from  Marysville. 

As  soon  as  wagons  could  be  imported  or  manufactured,  they  were  placed 
on  the  roads  in  the  valleys  and  on  the  lower  hills.  With  from  two  to  four 
wagons  attached  to  each  other  (they  were  often  referred  to  as  "prairie 
schooners"),  vast  quantities  of  freight  were  conveyed  to  the  various  stores 
and  camps.  Oxen  were  brought  into  requisition  and  the  wild  horses  were 
trained  for  use  in  the  lengthy  teams  required.  The  whole  number  of  mules 
owned  in  Marysville,  and  which  were  packed  in  this  city  for  the  adjacent 
towns,  was  above  4000  at  one  time,  and  the  wagons  employed  in  transporting 
merchandise  numbered  over  400. 



Stage  lines  were  inaugurated  at  an  early  date,  the  principal  run  being 
from  Sacramento.  During  the  summer  of  1850  it  was  with  difficulty  that 
passengers  sufficient  to  fill  one  stage  daily  on  this  route  could  be  found.  A 
year  from  that  time  five  stages  and  one  omnibus  capable  of  carrying  twenty 
persons  were  daily  crowded  with  passengers.  In  December  the  stage  made 
the  run  from  Marysville  to  Sacramento  in  four  hours  and  twenty-five  minutes. 
An  automobile  now  covers  the  same  route  in  less  than  two  hours.  Another 
line  was  running  daily  between  Marysville  and  Parks  Bar,  the  fare  being 
$4.  Later  the  stage  routes  \vere  extended  to  Downieville  and  to  La  Porte. 
Another  line  served  the  Smartsville,  Grass  Valley  and  Nevada  sections. 
Auto  stages  now  have  taken  their  place,  touching  at  many  mountain  points 
out  of  Marysville. 

The  California  Stage  Company 

The  California  Stage  Company,  which  dated  its  inception  from  1853,  and 
which  had  its  Marysville  headquarters  where  the  ruins  of  the  Marysville 
Woolen  Mills  now  stand,  had  a  capitalization  of  $1,000,000.  The  company, 
comprised  of  pioneer  stage  men,  ran  stages  from  Sacramento  to  Portland. 
Ore.,  receiving  patronage  from  a  number  of  way  stations.  They  also  had 
lines  from  Marysville  to  the  various  mining  districts.  The  advent  of  rail- 
roads proved  the  means  of  breaking  up  this  organization. 

An  Old  Landmark 

An  interesting  relic  of  the  days  of  the  stagecoach  and  the  six-in-hand  is 
the  old  stable  still  standing  in  a  remarkable  state  of  preservation  on  the  side 
of  the  road  at  the  Empire  Ranch  near  Smartsville.  Across  the  road  from 
the  old  "change  station"  still  stands  the  road-house  where  the  passengers 
were  served  meals  and  refreshments  in  Argonaut  days.  Living  here  are  the 
children — a  son  and  two  daughters — of  Thomas  Mooney,  who  for  many  years 
was  "mine  host"  at  the  Empire  Ranch  station.  It  is  claimed  that  this  is  the 
only  remaining  stage  station  used  by  the  California  Stage  Company,  which 
before  the  advent  of  the  railroad  handled  all  passenger  traffic  from  one  end 
of  California  to  the  other,  and  into  the  mining  sections  of  the  Sierra  Nevadas. 

The  timbers,  placed  in  the  barn  in  1852,  the  year  Thomas  Mooney  settled 
at  Empire  Ranch,  are  seemingly  as  substantial  as  ever.  These  timbers  were 
hewn  from  the  tree,  and  two  only  were  necessary  to  reach  the  entire  length 
of  the  gable,  about  100  feet.  No  nails  were  used  in  the  placing  of  these 
timbers,  and  they  are  still  held  together  by  the  wooden  pegs.  The  mangers 
where  the  stage  horses  rested  up  for  the  next  day's  relay  are  still  intact. 


One  day  in  the  spring  of  1923  there  was  placed  on  the  side  of  a  building 
on  Second  Street,  in  Sacramento,  a  bronze  marker  carrying  this  legend : 
"Site  of  Terminal  of  Pony  Express,  1860-1861.  Marked  by  Daughters  of  the 
American  Revolution,  Sacramento  and  San  Francisco  Bay  Chapters,   1923." 

Early  days  of  the  Civil  War  were  lived  again  in  spirit  when  this  marker 
of  the  Western  terminal  of  the  famous  old  pony  express  was  unveiled.  The 
significance  of  the  pony  express,  and  its  contribution  to  civilization,  were 
recounted  by  speakers  who  recalled  the  days  when  the  riders  galloped  at 
breakneck  speed  through  the  streets  of  Sacramento  on  their  way  to  Hang- 
town,  now  Placerville,  and  thence  East.  It  was  recalled  how  Marysville, 
and  way-places  between  Sacramento  and  Marysville,  were  eventually  added 
to  the  route  covered  by  these  riders. 

Early  in  May,  1860,  the  overland  pony  express  was  inaugurated.  This 
was  a  matter  of  absorbing  interest  to  everybody  on  the  Pacific  Coast,  and 


particularly  to  the  tradespeople  of  California.  Be  it  remembered  that  the 
pony  express  preceded  the  telegraph  as  well  as  the  railroad.  It  opened  up 
communication  with  the  Atlantic  seaboard  in  the  wonderfully  short  time,  as 
was  then  thought,  of  ten  days.  Prior  to  that,  the  speediest  way  of  transmit- 
ting intelligence  from  one  side  of  the  continent  to  the  other  was  by  steamship, 
by  way  of  Panama,  and  that  consumed  often  four  and  never  less  than  three 
weeks.  The  mail  steamers  at  first  arrived  only  monthly,  but  later  perhaps 
oftener ;  and  the  time  between  steamers,  when  great  events  were  transpiring 
in  other  parts  of  the  world,  seemed  distressingly  prolonged. 

The  advent  of  the  pony  express,  therefore,  was  hailed  with  great  delight 
by  the  newspaper  men  of  the  Coast,  as  well  as  by  the  merchants  and  others 
having  close  business  relations  with  the  East.  Shortening  the  time  of  com- 
munication across  the  continent  to  less  than  one-half  was  regarded  as  some- 
thing extraordinary,  as  it  really  was,  considering  the  manner  in  which  the 
feat  was  accomplished. 

For  the  purposes  of  this  express  a  line  of  nearly  200  stations  was  estab- 
lished on  the  shortest  practicable  route  between  St.  Joseph,  on  the  Missouri 
River,  and  Sacramento.  These  stations  were  well  supplied  with  the  fleetest 
horses  that  could  be  procured.  There  were  three  or  four  at  each  station,  and 
many  hundreds  in  all. 

Besides  the  keepers  of  the  stations,  the  requisite  number  of  daring-  boys 
of  light  weight  were  employed  for  riders.  Of  these  there  were  more  than 
half  a  hundred,  and  among  them,  young  William  Cody,  afterwards  better 
known  as  Buffalo  Bill.  He  was  then  but  fourteen  years  of  age,  but  a  man 
in  courage.  George  Smethurst,  farmer-miner,  who  resides  at  this  time  near 
Browns  Valley,  in  Yuba  County,  was  also  one  of  these  lads. 

Each  rider,  for  his  run,  would  make  a  hundred  miles,  a  little  more  or  less, 
without  stopping  a  moment  for  rest,  changing  horses  perhaps  a  dozen  times 
on  his  stretch,  jumping  from  one  foaming  steed,  with  his  light  letter  pouch, 
to  the  back  of  a  fresh  one  already  saddled  and  awaiting  him — and  away  he 
would  speed  like  the  wind.  The  ride  of  John  Gilpin  was  not  to  be  compared 
with  the  ride  of  those  brave  boys.  Some  of  them  were  killed  by  the  Indians, 
but  that  did  not  deter  others  from  taking  their  places.  They  were  ordered 
to  make  time,  and  they  always  made  it. 

The  Arrival  of  the  First  Rider 

Those  who  were  here  to  witness  it  will  never  forget  the  arrival  of  the 
first  of  these  express  messengers  in  Sacramento.  It  was  an  occasion  of  great 
rejoicing;  and  everybody,  big  and  little,  old  and  young,  turned  out  to  see  the 
fun.  All  business  for  the  time  was  suspended ;  even  the  courts  adjourned,  in 
celebration  of  the  event. 

A  large  number  of  the  citizens  of  all  classes,  grave  and  gay,  mounted  on 
fast  horses,  rode  out  some  miles  on  the  line  to  meet  the  incoming  wonder. 
The  waiting  was  not  long.  The  little  rider  upon  his  blooded  charger,  under 
whip  and  spur,  came  down  upon  them  like  a  meteor,  but  made  not  the  slight- 
est halt  to  greet  his  many  visitors. 

Then  began  a  race  of  all  that  waiting  throng,  over  the  stretch  back  to  the 
city,  the  like  of  which  has  never  been  seen.  It  may  have  been  rivaled  in 
speed  and  confusion  by  some  of  the  cavalry  disasters  during  the  war  that 
presently  followed;  but  the  peaceful  people  of  Sacramento,  I  am  sure, 
never  beheld  anything  of  the  kind  before  or  afterwards.  The  whole  caval- 
cade, shouting  and  cheering,  some  waving  banners  and  bareheaded,  riding 
at  the  top  of  their  speed,  dashing  down  J  Street,  might  have  been  taken,  had 
it  occurred  on  the  plains,  for  a  band  of  wild  Comanches ;  but  the  little  mail- 
carrier  paid  no  attention  to  them  and  kept  in  the  lead. 


If  there  was  one  in  the  whole  throng  more  conspicuous  than  the  rest, 
and  who  might  have  been  taken  for  the  chief  of  the  tribe,  it  was  Charles 
Crocker,  who  was  afterwards  so  prominently  associated  with  the  great  Cen- 
tral Pacific  Railroad  enterprise. 

Regulations  and  Service 

It  ought  to  be  noted  here  that  all  letters  to  be  sent  by  the  pony  express 
were  required  to  be  written  on  the  thinnest  of  paper.  Even  newspapers  to 
be  sent  by  that  express  were  printed  on  tissue  paper  and  sent  as  letters. 
But  light  as  they  were,  the  charge  upon  each  was  $5  ;  and  at  that  high  rate 
of  postage  the  enterprise  continued  to  be  well  patronized  until  its  usefulness 
was  finally  cut  off  by  the  completion  of  the  overland  telegraph. 

The  pony  express  was  the  conception  of  Alexander  Majors,  one  of  the 
most  energetic  of  all  the  far-seeing  men  of  that  period.  Whether,  during 
the  two  years  or  less  of  its  existence,  its  revenues  met  the  heavy  outlay  of 
the  enterprise  is  not  now  known;  but  that  they  did,  is  to  be  inferred  from  the 
fact  that  before  the  service  ceased,  the  government,  assuming  control  over  it, 
reduced  the  rate  of  postage  from  $5  to  $1  on  each  half-ounce  of  mail  matter 
carried  by  the  pony  express. 

The  pony  express  required  to  do  its  work  nearly  500  horses,  about  190 
stations,  200  station-keepers,  and  more  than  100  riders. 

William  Cody,  in  one  continuous  trip,  rode  384  miles,  stopping  only  for 
meals  and  to  change  horses. 

The  pony  express  was  a  semi-weekly  service.  Fifteen  pounds  was  the 
limit  of  the  weight  of  the  waterproof  mail-bag  and  its  contents.  The  postage 
or  charge  was  $5  on  a  letter  of  half  an  ounce.     The  limit  was  200  letters. 

The  shortest  time  ever  made  by  the  pony  express  was  seven  days  and 
seventeen  hours.  This  was  in  March,  1861,  when  it  carried  President  Lin- 
coln's message.  At  first,  telegraphic  messages  were  received  at  St.  Joseph 
up  to  5  p.  m.  of  the  day  of  starting  and  sent  to  Sacramento  and  San  Francisco 
on  the  express,  arriving  at  Placerville,  then  a  temporary  terminus. 

The  pony  express  was  suspended  on  October  27,  1861,  on  the  completion 
of  the  transcontinental  telegraph  line. 


The  first  local  telegraph  line  was  completed  on  September  11,  1853.  It 
extended  from  the  business  quarter  of  San  Francisco  to  the  Golden  Gate  and 
was  used  for  signaling  vessels.  The  first  long  line  connected  Marysville, 
Sacramento,  Stockton,  and  San  Jose.  This  was  completed  on  October  24, 
1853.  Another  line  was  built  about  the  same  time  from  San  Francsico  to 
Placerville,  by  way  of  Sacramento. 


California  Pacific  Railroad 

The  first  close  connection  by  rail  and  boat  between  Marysville  and  San 
Francisco  was  over  the  California  Pacific  Railroad,  more  generally  known  as 
the  Benicia  and  Marysville  road.  By  rail,  the  passenger  proceeded  from 
Marysville  to  Suisun,  to  South  Vallejo  by  way  of  Cordelia  and  Bridgeport, 
taking  at  Vallejo  the  boat  New  World  to  San  Francisco.  The  fare  to  San 
Francisco  was  $5.50  one  way;  to  Sacramento,  $2.50.  The  Marysville  office 
of  this  company  was  at  Tenth  and  E  Streets,  where  the  office  building  stood 
for  many  years  after  the  road  was  discontinued,  becoming  headquarters  later 
for  the  branch  Marysville-Oroville  road. 

It  was  in  March,  1853,  that  the  survey  of  the  Benicia  and  Marysville 
railroad  was   completed.     An   election   was   called   by   the   city   council   for 


February  28,  1854,  on  the  question  of  a  subscription  of  $800,000  for  the  Marys- 
ville and  Benicia  .National  Railroad  Company.  The  vote  was  953  in  the 
affirmative  and  but  thirty-six  against.  On  the  4th  of  March  the  amount  was 
subscribed.  Benicia  promised  $250,000.  This  project  was  allowed  to  drop 
until  1857,  when  another  survey  was  made.  In  August,  1858,  a  contract  was 
entered  into  with  D.  C.  Haskin  to  construct  the  roadbed,  lay  the  track,  and 
place  the  road  in  running  order,  with  all  the  necessary  buildings,  etc.  '  The 
price  fixed  was  $3,500,000.  In  February,  1869,  a  few  months  before  the 
completion  of  the  Central  Pacific,  this  road  was  finished  to  Sacramento. 
When  the  former  commenced  operations,  a  lively  opposition  sprang  up. 
Great  efforts  were  made  to  build  up  Vallejo,  and  make  it  the  central  dis- 
tributing and  receiving  city  of  the  State.  During  the  year  1871  the  company, 
having  completed  its  branch  road  to  Marysville,  annexed  the  Napa  Valley 
and  other  roads.  They  also  acquired  the  vessels  of  the  California  Steam 
Navigation  Company,  and  had  almost  a  monopoly  of  the  inland  trade.  It 
was  at  about  that  time  a  company  was  organized  by  the  wealthy  owners  of 
the  California  Pacific  road  to  construct  a  railroad  from  the  northern  part  of 
the  Sacramento  Valley  to  Ogden,  to  compete  with  the  Central  Pacific.  These 
plans  were  foiled  by  the  owners  of  the  overland  road  buying  the  majority  of 
shares  in  the  California  Pacific,  and  thereby  gaining  control. 

The  location  of  the  track  proved  faulty  from  Knights  Landing  to  Marys- 
ville through  the  tules.  It  was  always  contended  that  if  the  line  had  been 
run  from  Knights  Landing  east  to  the  bank  of  the  Feather  River,  the  road 
would  have  been  more  successful.  In  the  winter  of  1871-1872,  the  flood 
destroyed  the  bridges,  tracks,  and  trestles  across  the  tules.  This  particular 
branch  of  the  road  is  now  owned  by  the  Southern  Pacific  Company,  serving 
Marysville  and  Oroville,  and  is  known  as  the  Knights  Landing  route.  It 
connects  Davis,  Woodland,  Knights  Landing,  Marysville  and  Oroville. 

California  Northern  Railroad 
This  company  was  incorporated  on  June  29,  1860,  and  permanently 
organized  on  January  15,  1861,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $1,000,000.  Ground 
was  broken  on  January  22,  1861.  The  road  was  completed  between  Marys- 
ville and  Oroville  in  1864,  and  the  opening  celebration  was  held  on  February 
15.  Butte  County  loaned  its  credit  to  this  company  for  the  construction  of 
the  road  to  the  amount  of  $209,000  of  county  bonds,  at  10  per  cent,  secured 
by  first-mortgage  bonds  on  the  road.  The  common  council  of  Marysville, 
on  October  7,  1861,  passed  an  ordinance  granting  the  right  of  way  for  railroad 
purposes  to  the  California  Northern  Railroad.  This  was  vetoed  by  the 
mayor,  Hon.  C.  B.  Fowler.  On  February  2,  1863,  another  similar  ordinance 
was  passed,  which  was  approved. 

California  Central  Railroad 

This  road  was  commenced  from  Folsom  to  Marysville  in  1858.  In  1861 
grading  had  been  finished  for  two-thirds  of  the  distance,  and  the  track  was 
laid  as  far  as  Lincoln  in  Placer  County.  The  contractors  were  C.  L.  Wilson 
&  Company.  The  first  officers  were :  John  C.  Fall,  president ;  William 
Hawley,  vice-president;  John  A.  Paxton,  treasurer;  J.  D.  Judah,  chief  engin- 
eer ;  Ira  A.  Eaton,  secretary ;  John  C.  Fall,  William  Hawley,  Ira  A.  Eaton, 
John  H.  Kinkade,  H.  P.  Catlin,  John  A.  Paxton,  and  S.  T.  AVatts,  directors. 
The  name  was  changed  to  the  California  and  Oregon  Railroad. 

The  common  council  of  Marysville,  on  October  7,  1868,  passed  an  ordi- 
nance granting  to  the  California  and  Oregon  Railroad  Company  the  right  ol 
way  and  certain  privileges  in  relation  to  erection  of  buildings,  tracks,  etc. 
This  is  the  road  that  now  serves  Marysville  as  part  of  the  Southern  Pacific 
Company's  system.     A  portion  of  it  is  classed  as  Central   Pacific  property. 


Western  Pacific  Railroad 

Where  now  stand  the  freight  sheds  of  the  Western  Pacific  Railroad 
Company  in  Marysville,  the  first  freight  and  passenger  boats  to  ply  the  Yuba 
River  had  a  landing  overlooking  the  City  Plaza,  then  bounded  by  the  river, 
First  Street,  E  Street,  and  High  Street.  About  1902,  the  Western  Pacific 
people  began  the  work  of  securing  rights  of  way  for  their  tracks  through 
Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties.  On  September  14,  1904,  the  city  council  granted 
the  first  Western  Pacific  franchise  (No.  68)  to  operate  over  the  streets  and 
levees  of  the  city.  Subsequently  franchises  covering  certain  details  not 
included  in  the  original  were  granted.  (See  numbers  69,  83,  84,  100,  125, 
136,  and  137.) 

Through  the  original  franchise,  the  Western  Pacific  took  over  about  one- 
half  of  the  city's  costly  levee  system,  agreeing  thenceforth  to  defray  all 
expense  involved  in  the  change  of  the  height  and  the  broadening  of  the 
embankment,  and  guaranteeing  to  keep  the  levee  on  which  its  tracks  stand 

Entering  the  city  from  the  north,  the  franchise  covers  the  levee  from 
Sixteenth  Street,  opposite  the  City  Cemetery,  westerly  along  the  north  levee 
to  the  County  Hospital,  and  down  the  K  Street  levee  to  the  company's 
passenger  depot  at  Fifth  and  K  Streets,  thence  bearing  southerly  and  easterly 
to  the  Front  Street  levee  to  a  point  opposite  B  Street.  Spur-track  privileges 
have  been  granted  the  company  to  reach  local  canneries  and  warehouses. 
With  the  Western  Pacific,  Southern  Pacific  and  Sacramento  Northern  Rail- 
roads exchanging  switching  privileges  in  Marysville,  the  city  is  ever  in  a 
position  to  provide  up-to-date  warehouse  accommodations  to  those  seeking 
to  enter  the  local  field. 

Earlier  Attempts 
The  attention  of  enterprising  men  was  early  called  to  the  feasibility  and 
benefits  of  a  railroad  through  this  section  of  the  valley.  In  November,  1851, 
Charles  J.  Whiting,  State  surveyor  general,  arrived  in  Marysville,  having 
been  over  the  road  between  Sacramento  and  this  city  with  a  view  to  ascertain 
its  adaptability  to  a  railroad.  The  subject  was  agitated  and  subscriptions 
were  taken  in  Sacramento.  Two  other  schemes  were  talked  of,  a  railroad 
from  Marysville  to  Benicia,  and  another  to  Vernon.  At  a  meeting  held  in 
Sacramento  on  June  26,  1852,  the  subject  of  a  railroad  from  that  city  to 
Marysville  was  discussed,  and  a  company  called  the  Sacramento  Valley 
Railroad  Company  was  formed  with  a  capital  of  $1,000,000,  shares  $50  each. 
The  directors  were :  John  C.  Fall,  W.  T.  Barbour,  Governor  Bigler,  J.  P. 
Overton,  J.  B.  Haggin,  William  McNulty,  W.  S.  O'Connor,  Tod  Robinson, 
W.  B.  Schellinger,  and  General  Whiting.  The  people  of  Marysville  did  not 
take  kindly  to  this  road,  but  favored  the  construction  of  one  to  Benicia.  The 
subject  of  a  transcontinental  road  was  generally  discussed  in  1853,  Marys- 
ville pressing  the  claim  of  Noble's  Pass  for  the  route  through  the  Sierras. 

Sacramento  Valley  Railroad 
In  1854  this  company  was  projected  to  run  a  road  to  Marysville  from 
Sacramento  by  way  of  the  foothills.  The  work  was  commecned  in  February, 
1855,  although  little  grading  was  done  until  April.  In  June  the  first  vessel 
loaded  with  iron  and  materials  arrived  from  Boston.  On  the  4th  of  July,  the 
frame  to  the  floor  of  one  of  the  cars  was  put  together,  being  the  first  work 
done  on  a  railroad  car  in  this  State.  The  first  rail  was  placed  in  position  on 
the  9th  of  August,  and  two  days  afterwards  the  first  car  ever  propelled  on  a 
railroad  track  in  this  State  was  run  for  a  short  distance  on  this  road.  This 
was  only  a  handcar,  but  on  the  14th  a  platform  car  was  placed  on  the 
track,  and  the  locomotive  "Sacramento,"  made  in  the  East,  arrived  in  Sacra- 


mento  City.  On  November  13,  the  first  passenger  car  was  put  on  the  road 
On  February  3,  1856,  the  road  was  completed  from  Sacramento  to  Folsom! 
The  cost  of  this  division  of  twenty-two  miles  was  about  $1,000,000.  The 
formal  opening  of  the  road  took  place  on  the  22nd  of  February.  The  officers 
in  1856  were  :  C.  K.  Garrison,  president ;  W.  P.  Sherman,  vice-president ;  H. 
R.  Payson,  secretary ;  J.  P.  Robinson,  superintendent ;  H.  Havens,  cashier ; 
C.  K.  Garrison,  E.  Jones,  W.  P.  Sherman,  J.  P.  Robinson,  Levi' Parsons! 
Charles  L.  Wilson,  H.  E.  Robinson,  Theodore  F.  Mays,  John  C.  Fall,  J.  r! 
Rollinson,  E.  Burr,  C.  R.  Goodwin,  and  Edward  Flint,  directors. 

It  was  the  scheme  of  the  company,  after  this  division  of  the  road  had 
been  finished,  to  Folsom,  to:  extend  the  road  to  Oroville,  crossing  the  Yuba 
River  about  ten  miles  above  Marysville.  This  was  to  be  done  because  the 
citizens  of  Marysville  favored  the  Benicia  project,  and  would  not  subscribe 
to  the  fund  for  the  construction  of  this  road. 

Present  Railway  Facilities 

No  city  of  Northern  California  is  at  this  time  better  provided  with 
railroad  facilities,  both  for  freight  and  for  passenger  traffic,  than  is  Marys- 
ville. Besides  the  Southern  Pacific  and  AVestern  Pacific  Railroads,  the  city 
has  the  splendid  service  of  the  Sacramento  Northern,  an  electric  road  that 
provides  a  train  for  passengers  about  every  two  hours,  north  and  south, 
Sacramento  and  Chico  being  the  terminals.  The  Western  Pacific  Railroad 
Company  in  1921  purchased  the  Northern  Electric  Railroad,  now  known  as 
the  Sacramento  Northern,  connecting  up  Sacramento  and  Chico  and  Oroville, 
and  maintaining  a  branch  to  Colusa.  It  is  expected  that  the  electric  road 
will  be  extended  by  its  new  owners  to  Red  Bluff  and  Redding,  and  way- 
points.  The  Northern  Electric  was  built  as  far  as  Marysville,  starting  in 
Sacramento,  in  1904.  Shortly  thereafter,  the  company  purchased  the  street- 
car line  between  Marysville  and  Yuba  City,  and  made  it  part  of  its  system. 

Remembers  First  Train 

A.  C.  Irwin,  pioneer  resident  of  this  city,  agent  for  the  railroad  company 
in  Marysville  when  a  young  man,  and  later  member  of  the  State  Railroad 
Commission,  remembers  the  first  trains  to  enter  Marysville.  He  recalls  that 
there  was  but  one  engine  on  the  run,  and  it  was  worked  overtime.  The  train 
southbound  would  leave  early  in  the  morning  for  Roseville,  as  a  passenger 
train,  and  return  in  the  early  afternoon  as  a  freight  train.  It  would  then 
make  an  afternoon  trip  to  Roseville  as  a  freight  train,  and  return  as  a  passen- 
ger train.  That  was  in  1869.  "The  northerly  terminus  then  was  Marys- 
ville," says  Mr.  Irwin,  "and  the  freight  was  carried  to  all  points  north  and 
east  in  great  freight  wagons.  It  was  some  sight  to  witness  these  'prairie 
schooners.'  " 



Old  Landmark  at  Timbuctoo 

A  wonderfully  preserved  relic  of  the  days  when  Yuba  County  was  at  the 
zenith  of  its  commercial  importance,  because  of  the  output  of  its  gold  mines, 
is  a  building  yet  standing  in  Timbuctoo,  suburb  of  the  once  famed  Smarts- 
ville  mining  camp,  nestling  in  the  mountains  eighteen  miles  east  of  Marys- 
ville.  For  many  years,  in  Argonaut  days,  this  structure  was  the  local  head- 
quarters for  Wells,  Fargo  &  Company's  Express  and  the  Adams  Express 
Company.  It  is  estimated  that  several  million  dollars'  worth  of  gold  dust 
passed  through  this  building.  Built  of  brick  made  near  its  site,  the  building, 
up  to  a  few  years  ago,  retained  the  huge  iron  doors  peculiar  to  pioneer  days, 
which  did  double  service  as  protection  from  fire  and  from  robbers.  Within 
150  yards  from  this  building  the  early-day  miner,  working  with  crude  appli- 
ances, took  from  the  soil  all  the  way  from  $250  to  $400  a  day.  "I'm  buying 
blue  chips  tonight,  boys ;  she  is  coming  my  way,"  was  the  way  the  sturdy 
miner  had  of  expressing  satisfaction  with  his  day's  work. 

The  sign  remaining  upon  the  store,  and  still  decipherable,  reads :  "Stew- 
art Bros.,  owners,  have  for  sale  dry  goods,  groceries  and  provisions,  boots 
and  shoes.  Wells,  Fargo  &  Co.;  Lowe  Bros.  &  Co.;  exchange  for  sale; 
hardware,  etc."  Though  painted  last  in  1859,  by  a  man  now  residing  in  New 
Orleans,  the  lettering  of  the  sign  still  stands  out  plainly. 

The  store  building  is  the  only  remnant  left  of  a  once  bustling  Timbuctoo. 
The  Landmarks  Committee  of  the  Native  Sons  and  Native  Daughters  of 
Marysville,  and  of  the  Federated  Women's  Clubs  of  Northern  California, 
are  planning  to  restore  the  building  to  its  original  shape,  and  to  place  a 
marker  upon  it,  in  order  that  it  may  be  preserved,  and  that  its  history  may 
be  handed  down  to  future  generations. 

The  Timbuctoo  Hotel  stood  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  from  the 
express  office.  Nothing  is  left  of  that  structure,  it  having  gone  the  way  of 
all  Timbuctoo,  which  same  is  the  story  of  many  an  old  California  mining 
camp  that  nourished  in  the  days  gone  by. 

Early-day  Terms,  Customs,  and  Methods 
To  the  Argonauts  who  delved  for  gold  in  Yuba  County  became  known 
every  feature  of  the  work  peculiar  to  their  for  the  most  part  newly  adopted 
vocation.  Among  these  were  the  location  of  leads,  coyote  or  hill  diggings — 
evidences  of  which  still  exist  near  Marysville  and  Browns  Valley — surface 
diggings,  wet  surface  diggings,  fluming,  drift  gold,  prospecting,  panning, 
the  cradle,  sluices,  riffles,  tailings,  and  quicksilver  methods.  The  life  and 
the  methods  associated  with  mining  in  Yuba  County  were  similar  to  those 
in  other  portions  of  the  State. 

The  miner  constituted  a  class  of  the  genus  homo  peculiar  to  itself — 
active,  restless,  energetic,  fearless,  practical  to  the  last  degree.  To  his  mind, 
everything  had  a  value  in  proportion  to  its  use.  Governed  by  strange 
whims,  he  would  name  his  claim,  or  nickname  his  companion,  after  any 
peculiarity  of  person,  incident  or  fancied  resemblance.     Many  were  the  ludi- 


crous  names  applied  to  mining  camps,  the  reason  for  the  giving  of  which  is  a 
riddle  to  us  now,  though  no  doubt  there  was  a  good  one  to  the  mind  of  the 
christener.  With  the  naming  of  each,  there  is  no  doubt  something  of  interest 
connected,  but  it  is  often  impossible  to  learn  just  what,  as  the  miners  who 
later  worked  there  knew  nothing  about  it.  They  cared  little  what  or  how  a 
place  was  named,  so  long  as  they  could  strike  "pay  dirt."  And  yet,  the 
reason  for  the  name  is  often  self-evident  or  easily  inferred.  Frequently  a 
new  man  would  come  along  and  ask  the  miners  where  he  could  go  to  work. 
Not  caring  to  be  bothered  with  him,  they  would  point  out  some  spot,  occa- 
sionally where  they  thought  there  was  nothing  whatever.  If  the  man  made  a 
strike  there,  they  would  call  it  "Greenhorn  Bar,"  or  "Fool's  Luck,"  or 
something  of  that  kind.  If  a  man  became  "dead  broke,"  but  finally  made  one 
last  effort  and  "struck  it  rich,"  he  would  call  his  location  "Last  Chance,"  or 
"Murphy's  Luck."  "Cut-eye  Foster's  Bar"  was  so  named  because  Foster,  the 
locator,  had  a  cut  over  his  eye.  The  precise  reasons  for  naming  the  follow- 
ing are  beyond  our  knowledge,  and  we  simply  give  the  names,  leaving  the 
fertile  imagination  of  the  reader  to  supply  the  rest :  Whiskey  Gulch,  Lousy 
Level,  Liar's  Flat,  Shirt-tail  Bend,  Moonshine  Creek,  Old  Hat  Hollow,  Stud 
Horse  Canyon,  Grub  Ravine,  Pinch  'em  Tight,  Jackass  Ravine ;  and  there  are 
many  others  of  equally  suggestive  import.  A  man's  full  name  was  seldom 
known,  except  by  a  personal  friend,  as  it  was  customary  to  call  him  by  his 
given  name,  or  to  apply  a  nickname  on  account  either  of  some  personal 
peculiarity  or  of  the  place  from  which  he  came,  such  as  Bob  Kentuck,  Big 
Jones,  Red  Mike,  Whiskey  Bill,  Sandy  Jim,  Judge,  Three-finger  Jack,  Curly 
Sam,  Poker  Bob,  Limpy  Jim,  Big-foot  Charlie,  Texas  Jack,  Missouri  Bill. 

The  habit  of  carrying  revolvers  and  bowie  knives  was  universal  in  the 
early  days,  and  not  until  1852  and  1853  was  this  practice  discontinued.  In 
addition  to  the  never  failing  revolver,  most  of  the  emigrants  brought  from 
the  States  rifles  and  shotguns,  which  were  found  inconvenient  and  useless  in 
the  mines,  and  were  placed  in  the  stores  to  be  disposed  of  or  thrown  away. 
The  condition  of  society  was  such  that  every  man  had  to  rely  upon  himself 
for  protection.  The  revolver  and  knife  being  conveniently  carried,  these  were 
always  ready  to  protect  life  and  property,  or  avenge  real  or  fancied  insult. 

The  Chinese  found  abundant  employment  in  the  mines  in  early  days. 
Soon  after  their  first  appearance,  a  prejudice  against  them  began  to  gain 
ground  among  the  miners,  although  with  few  exceptions  they  were  allowed 
to  work  peaceably  on  their  claims.  After  claims  were  deserted  by  white 
miners,  economical  Chinese  located  them  again,  and  by  diligent  toil  managed 
to  make  them  pay  handsomely. 

At  first,  large  numbers  of  Indians  were  employed  by  firms  and  mining 
companies,  and  many  of  the  more  independent  Digger  Indians  worked  for 
themselves.  Knowing  nothing  of  the  value  of  the  gold,  at  first  they  were 
contented  if  they  had  enough  to  eat,  and  some  beads  and  sugar  thrown  in 
for  luxuries.  Later,  however,  they  began  to  learn  that  this  yellow  sand  was 
worth  something,  and  refused  to  dig  for  the  whites,  preferring  to  keep  the 
result  of  their  labors  with  which  to  buy  blankets,  dresses,  beads,  etc.,  for 
which  they  would  no  longer  pay  the  fancy  prices  at  first  charged.  They  had 
in  1848  and  1849  given  a  cup  of  gold  for  a  cup  of  beads,  and  a  pound  of  gold 
for  a  pound  of  sugar.  Theodore  Sicard  was  a  favorite  of  a  chief,  and  thus 
managed  to  accumulate  a  large  amount  of  "spangle  gold."  One  of  the  old 
residents  said  that  Sicard  showed  him  four  or  five  claret  bottles  full  of  this 
gold,  and  judged  that  he  must  have  had  at  least  $70,000,  all  of  which  he  had 
obtained  from  the  Indians.  David  Parks  got  rich  in  1848  trading  with  the 
Indians  at  Parks  Bar.     William  Foster  worked  Indians  at  Foster's  Bar  early 


in  1849.  All  along-  the  river,  in  1848,  the  whites  had  Indians  to  help  them. 
Claude  Chana  used  them  near  Rose  Bar,  close  to  the  present  site  of  Smarts- 
ville.  He  said  that  the  largest  day's  work  he  ever  saw  was  done  in  Septem- 
ber, 1848,  at  Rose  Bar.  Four  Indians  who  were  working  for  two  white  men 
washed  out  $1400,  an  average  of  $350  each.  The  white  men  did  nothing  but 
superintend  the  work  and  take  the  gold. 

Development  of  Hydraulic  Mining  and  Dredge  Mining 
Through  all  the  early  days  the  miners  leaned  upon  the  primitive  methods 
we  have  outlined ;  but  in  later  years  they  developed  the  hydraulic  mining 
process.  Following  the  decadence  of  placer  and  hydraulic  mining,  for  which 
Yuba  County  became  famous,  there  came,  in  turn,  the  improved  system  of 
dredge  mining,  which  method  at  the  present  day  has  placed  Yuba  County  at 
the  head  of  the  gold-producing  sections  of  the  world.  First  operated  in  New 
Zealand  nearly  half  a  century  ago,  the  continuous  chain-bucket  dredge 
attracted  the  notice  of  American  miners ;  and  the  first  of  the  type  built  in 
California  was  constructed  on  the  Yuba  River  in  1897,  by  the  Risdon  Iron 
Works  Company  of  San  Francisco.  It  was  a  mechanical  success,  but  the 
conditions  were  such  that  it  could  not  be  operated  profitably.  Several  other 
similar  machines  were  afterwards  constructed  and  operated  for  a  time,  but 
all  proved  a  failure  from  a  financial  standpoint  until  W.  P.  Hammon,  after 
whom  the  town  of  Hammonton  was  named,  entered  the  field  in  1902,  after 
several  years'  experience  at  Oroville,  in  Butte  County.  The  great  basin  of 
the  Yuba  River  was  at  that  time  what  miners  call  a  "blind  deposit,"  the  entire 
basin  being  covered  to  an  average  depth  of  twenty-two  feet  with  tailings 
from  the  hydraulic  mines  above.  These  tailings  had  to  be  moved,  and 
economically.  The  value  and  character  of  the  original  gravel  deposit  had  to 
be  ascertained,  as  also  the  extent  of  the  deposit  that  might  be  mined.  The 
ground  was  known  to  be  very  deep,  from  sixty  to  ninety  feet  below  the  water- 
line,  fifty  per  cent  deeper  than  any  other  ground  being  dredged  at  that  time. 
It  is  said  that  Hammon  expended  over  $60,000  in  preliminary  work ;  and 
before  undertaking  to  construct  the  dredge,  he  had  a  most  thorough  knowl- 
edge of  the  situation.  Then  followed  the  construction  of  dredging  machines 
of  improved  pattern  and  adequate  for  the  work  required.  The  first  two  gold- 
boats  operated  completely  solved  the  difficulties  encountered  and  made  the 
enterprise  a  thorough  success. 

The  company  with  which  Hammon  is  connected,  and  of  which  he  is  the 
moving  spirit,  began  operations  in  the  Yuba  district  in  August,  1904.  It 
was  incorporated  in  March,  1905,  as  the  Yuba  Consolidated  Goldfields,  with 
a  capital  of  $12,500,000,  and  is  now  actively  engaged  in  dredge  mining  on  the 
river  beds,  on  a  large  tract  on  the  Yuba  River,  nine  miles  east  of  Marysville. 
The  recently  constructed  boats  are  120  feet  in  length  and  50  feet  in  width. 
They  are  run  by  electricity  received  from  the  Colgate  plant  on  the  Yuba 
River  near  Dobbins,  and  each  machine  requires  about  375  horse-power.  They 
each  handle  from  2500  to  3500  cubic  yards  of  material  per  day.  The  immense 
dredgers  now  being  added  to  the  fleets  at  Hammonton  and  Marigold  are 
being  built  of  steel  at  a  cost,  each,  of  half  a  million  dollars.  This  will  give 
to  the  reader  some  indication  of  the  amount  of  gold  being  taken  from  the  bed 
of  the  stream.  In  the  beginning,  sixteen  years  ago,  these  gold-boats  were 
constructed  of  wood  at  a  cost  of  $100,000  each.  Many  of  the  wooden  boats 
long  ago  went  into  the  discard  along  with  their  machinery.  The  hills  about 
Hammonton  are  covered  with  scrap  from  the  abandoned  wooden  boats. 

While  thus  conducting  its  dredge-mining  operations,  the  company  has 
also  engaged,  in  conjunction  with  the  Federal  government,  in  building  train- 
ing walls  of  rock  several  miles  in  length,  for  the  purpose  of  confining  the 


Yuba  River  (which  normally  has  a  tendency  to  "fan  out")  in  a  denned  chan- 
nel, in  order  to  hold  in  place  the  great  deposit  of  tailings  now  there  and 
prevent  its  moving  on  down,  to  the  damage  of  the  farms  in  the  valley  below. 
These  walls,  which  are  built  in  most  substantial  manner  and  maiiv  times 
stronger  than  originally  contemplated  by  the  government  officers,  and  which 
would  have  cost  the  United  States  at  least  half  a  million  dollars  if  done  by  it, 
were  constructed  free  of  charge  by  the  dredging  company,  and  have  proven 
of  incalculable  benefit  as  a  measure  of  protection  to  property-owners  in  both 
Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties. 

Many  men  and  members  of  their  families  are  given  employment  both  on 
the  boats  and  in  the  repair  shops  maintained  at  Hammonton,  where  the 
company  has  built  a  commodious  hotel,  homes  for  the  workmen,  and  a  school. 
Marysville  reaps  much  trade  from  the  residents  of  Hammonton,  all  of  whom 
are  required  by  the  company  to  be  thrifty  and  steady-going,  in  order  to  hold 
secure  their  employment. 

"While  AY.  P.  Hammon  gives  the  Oroville  district,  where  he  first  achieved 
success  in  dredge  mining,  all  the  credit  due  it,  he  pronounces  the  Yuba  fields 
the  greatest  in  the  world.  The  amount  of  ground  suitable  and  profitable  for 
dredging  in  the  Yuba  district  is  so  great  that  it  will  require  the  work  of  the 
dredgers  for  at  least  another  decade  to  exhaust  it,  and  all  the  while  it  will 
add  much  to  the  gold  supply  of  the  world. 

As  conducted  on  the  Yuba,  no  damage  is  being  done,  or  can  be  done, 
to  the  valley.  The  land  used  for  dredge  mining  is.  as  a  rule,  comparatively 
worthless  for  agriculture,  being  in  the  bed  of  the  river,  and  the  former  owners 
have  received  for  it  from  the  mining  company  prices  many  times  in  excess 
of  its  former  assessed  value.  The  success  of  this  industry  means  much  to 
the  county.  It  adds  largely  to  the  taxable  wealth  ;  it  employs  a  great  number 
of  men ;  it  brings  to  the  section  many  visitors  of  prominence  and  possessed 
of  capital  to  invest ;  and  it  is  doing  more  than  any  other  industry  to  attract 
attention  from  abroad  to  our  varied  resources,  mineral  and  agricultural,  and 
to  invite  homeseekers  and  home-builders  to  locate  here. 

Recent  reports  made  by  the  United  States'  government  place  Yuba 
Count)-  at  the  head  of  the  gold-producing  territories  in  the  nation,  and  in  the 
world.  This  leading  place  as  a  mining  center  is  due  to  the  great  quantity  of 
the  precious  metal  being  take  from  Yuba  River  by  gold-dredging  boats  oper- 
ated at  Hammonton  by  the  Yuba  Consolidated  Goldfields  Company,  and  at 
Marigold  operated  by  the  Marysville  Dredging  Company.  On  the  opposite 
bank  of  the  Yuba  River  the  Guggenheim  interests  also  have  large  boats 
working,  bringing  up  from  the  depths  of  the  river  gold  that  was  washed 
down  the  stream  in  the  days  of  the  hydraulic  process.  From  the  hydraulick- 
ers,  who  used  large  and  powerful  monitors  to  wash  the  mountain-sides  into 
their  sluice-boxes,  as  much  gold  escaped  as  was  "cleaned  up,"  if  not  more. 
This  is  the  metal  now  accountable  for  Yuba  County's  enviable  position  in 
the  mining  world.  It  is  now  estimated  that  the  life  of  the  dredger  fields  at 
Hammonton  and  Marigold  is  ten  years,  although  recent  plans  entered  into 
between  the  government  and  the  dredger  companies  indicate  that  the  period 
of  profitable  operation  may  be  still  longer  prolonged. 


At  the  time  this  volume  was  in  the  hands  of  the  publishers,  the  Yuba 
Development  Company,  a  $24,000,000  corporation,  had  in  course  of  construc- 
tion an  immense  dam  at  Bullards  Bar  on  the  Yuba  River,  in  this  county,  the 
chief  purpose  of  which  is  to  permit  the  resumption  of  hydraulic  mining  in 
Yuba.  Sierra,  and  Nevada  Counties,  and  incidentally  to  engage  in  power  and 
irrigation  development.     In  addition,  the  Yuba  Development  Company  has 


amalgamated  with  a  powerful  group  of  interests  and  individuals  controlling 
thousands  of  acres  of  land  adjoining  both  sides  of  the  Yuba  River,  east  of 
Smartsville,  for  the  purpose  of  developing  hydroelectric  power  and  irrigation 
projects,  involving  an  outlay  of  several  millions  of  dollars.  Organizations 
and  individuals  back  of  the  enterprise  include  the  C.  F.  Ayer  Estate,  through 
the  Excelsior  Water  &  Mining  Company ;  the  Yuba  Development  Company ; 
the  Metals  Exploration  Company,  with  headquarters  in  New  York  City; 
Harry  Payne  Whitney,  Eastern  capitalist;  and  Bulkley  Wells,  multimillion- 
aire mine  owner  and  promoter.  The  construction  of  the  two  great  impound- 
ing dams  proposed — the  one, already  mentioned  as  being  under  way  at  Bill- 
iards Bar,  and  the  other  at  the  Narrows  on  the  main  Yuba  River  channel  at 
Smartsville — is  a  work  teeming  with  possibilities.  It  was  expected  that  the 
work  on  the  Bullards  Bar  dam  would  be  completed  by  the  fall  of  1923 ;  and  it 
was  planned  to  start  the  construction  of  the  second  dam  at  Smartsville  at 
about  the  time  when  this  first  barrier  should  be  completed. 

The  Bullards  Bar  dam,  if  the  plans  carry,  will  be  175  feet  in  height,  and 
so  constructed  that  it  may  be  added  to.  The  Smartsville  dam  will  also  be 
175  feet  in  height,  according  to  the  engineers'  plans.  Together,  these  barriers 
will  cost  in  excess  of  $3,000,000,  and  will  be  capable  of  impounding  millions 
of  cubic  feet  of  tailings  and  debris  which  will  be  washed  down  stream  through 
the  operation  of  the  hydraulic  mines ;  and  at  the  same  time  they  will  make  it 
possible  for  the  operators  to  comply  fully  with  the  anti-debris  law  as  it 
pertains  to  the  choking  of  the  waterways  in  the  valley. 

The  impounding  dams  will  make  possible  the  opening  of  hydraulic  mines 
at  various  points  above  the  barriers,  particularly  in  the  Bloomfield  district 
of  Nevada  County,  where  W.  B.  Bourne  and  George  W.  Starr,  mining 
operators  of  Grass  Valley,  control  extensive  gravel  beds,  and  also  near 
Smartsville,  where  the  Ayer  Estate  owns  outright  large  deposits  of  auriferous 
gravel.  Owners  of  gravel  deposits  not  financially  interested  in  the  dams  will 
be  given  an  opportunity  to  use  the  dam  for  impounding  purposes  by  payment 
of  a  rate  to  be  agreed  upon.  At  least  this  was  the  announcement  made 
recently  by  the  projectors  of  the  big  scheme. 

Water  and  Power  Interests 

Under  the  terms  of  the  agreement  entered  into  between  the  Yuba  Devel- 
opment Company  and  the  Smartsville  contingent,  the  Excelsior  Water  & 
Power  Company  would  have  exclusive  right  to  handle  the  water  interests 
of  the  project  below  the  Yuba  River  Narrows.  In  addition  to  the  debris  to 
be  impounded,  it  is  estimated  that  sufficient  water  will  be  conserved  behind 
the  two  dams  to  irrigate  approximately  25,000  acres  of  agricultural  lands 
south  of  the  Yuba  River  and  extending  from  the  foothills  in  the  Smartsville 
district  almost  to  AVheatland.  The  land  to  be  benefited  is  owned  largely  by 
the  Ayer  Estate  and  the  James  K.  O'Brien  Estate. 

The  plan  of  the  Excelsior  Water  and  Power  Company  is,  to  develop  the 
main  distributing  system  for  the  handling  of  the  storage  water  and  in  this 
manner  to  dispose  of  it  to  an  irrigation  district  to  be  formed  in  the  future, 
after  the  project  is  under  way.  Much  of  the  land  to  be  placed  under  irriga- 
tion is  of  comparativeh'  low  value  at  present  except  for  grazing  purposes, 
but  can  be  made  to  produce  abundantly  with  water. 

It  is  said  the  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  Company  already  has  agreed  to  take 
the  power  generated  at  the  Bullards  Bar  plant.  The  power  plants  that  are 
to  form  part  of  the  new  development  project  will  be  located  near  the  sites  of 
the  dams.  It  is  thought  that  the  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  Company  is  also 
enamored  of  the  power  to  be  developed  at  the  Smartsville  dam  ;  and  it  is 


believed  that  this  company  is  heavily  interested  with  the  Yuba  Development 
Company  in  the  immense  project. 

Possibilities  of  Danger 

During  the  month  of  February,  1923,  following  the  announcement  of  the 
plan  of  the  Yuba  Development  Company  and  its  associates  to  build  the 
barriers  in  Yuba  River,  Charles  K.  McClatchy,  editor  of  the  Sacramento  Bee, 
in  his  paper  questioned  the  advisability  of  permitting  the  resumption  of 
hydraulic  mining  behind  these  dams.  McClatchy  warned  the  valley  counties, 
particularly  Sutter,  Yuba  and  Sacramento  Counties,  that  they  might  be 
courting  the  troubles  which  they  endured  at  an  earlier  period,  and  which 
they  finally  blocked  in  the  courts  of  the  State  and  nation,  causing  hydraulic 
mining  to  be  placed  under  ban  because  of  the  filling  of  the  valley  reaches  of 
the  Yuba  and  Feather  Rivers  with  detritus  from  the  mines  operated  under 
the  hydraulic  process.  The  Sawyer  decision,  estopping  the  operation  of 
mines  by  the  hydraulic  process,  was  recalled  by  McClatchy. 

Letter  of  Major  Grant 

Under  date  of  February  13,  1923,  Major  U.  S.  Grant,  3rd,  of  the  corps  of 
engineers  of  the  California  Debris  Commission,  with  headquarters  in  San 
Francisco,  sent  the  following  letter  to  McClatchy,  which  is  self-explanatory: 

"To  the  Editor  of  The  Bee. 

"Sir:  1.  Your  letter  of  January  20,  1823,  addressed  to  Col.  Herbert 
Deakyne,  president  of  the  California  Debris  Commission,  has  been  referred  to 
me  as  secretary  and  executive  officer  of  the  commission.  I  am  not  advised  of 
the  character  of  announcements  as  to  a  general  resumption  of  hydraulic 
mining  on  the  Yuba  River,  except  what  has  been  stated  from  time  to  time  in 
The  Bee,  of  which  I  am  a  regular  and  quite  careful  reader.  I  am,  therefore, 
somewhat  at  a  loss  as  to  just  how  to  answer  your  inquiry. 

"2.  The  Yuba  Development  Company  is  adding  considerably  to  the 
height  of  its  present  dam  at  Bullards  Bar,  bringing  it  up  to  an  elevation  of  175 
feet  under  authority  granted  by  the  California  Debris  Commission  in  June, 
1922.  The  plans  for  this  new  dam  have  been  very  carefully  gone  over  by  the 
commission  and  are  believed  to  be  fully  within  the  limits  of  safety.  Certainly 
the  concrete  arch  dam  which  is  being  built  in  this  case  is  the  very  safest  type 
for  such  work,  and  the  kind  of  dam  which  we  would  like  to  see  built  in  every 
case.  The  construction  of  this  dam  is  proceeding  under  the  continual  inspec- 
tion of  the  California  Debris  Commission.  It  is  expected  that  it  will  have  a 
total  storage  capacity  behind  it  of  about  40,000,000  cubic  yards  of  debris. 

"As  the  Yuba  Development  Company  appears  to  be  willing  to  sell  some 
of  this  storage  space  at  a  reasonable  rate,  it  will  be  of  considerable  benefit 
to  those  mining  on  a  small  scale  and  will  give  them  positive  debris  storage  at 
a  lower  price  than  the)'  can  obtain  by  individual  barriers  of  even  a  much  less 
safe  type.  Until  the  space  behind  the  dam  is  entirely  filled  up,  we  will  be 
sure  of  the  escape  of  no  debris  from  the  region  above  it,  except  such  light 
slickens  as  are  inevitably  carried  over  the  top  of  any  dam  by  high  water. 

"3.  It  is  understood  that  the  Yuba  Development  Company  contemplates 
the  utilization  of  part  of  the  reservoir  behind  the  dam  for  the  development  of 
hydro-electric  power.  This  feature  comes  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Fed- 
eral Power  Commission,  which,  1  understand,  has  also  scrutinized  and 
approved  the  design  of  the  dam.  The  space  will  not  only  provide  for  the 
storage  of  any  retarded  movement  of  mining  debris,  but  will  also  catch  natural 
erosion  and  old  tailings  which  would  otherwise  continue  to  work  their  way 
down  stream.     This  dam  will  then  be  of  general  benefit,  as  well  as  of  direct 


benefit  to  the  rivers,  by  the  retention  of  all  debris  above  it,  and  by  the  storage 
of  much  flood  water  for  release  during  the  low-water  season. 

"4.  A  dam  in  the  Narrows  near  Smartsville  was  a  part  of  the  original 
project  of  the  California  Debris  Commission,  but  was  never  built,  the  con- 
struction of  barriers  having  begun  downstream  and  never  having  been  carried 
up  this  far.  The  project  now  comprises  only  the  Daguerre  Point  dam 
(already  built),  the  north  and  south  training  walls  above  and  below  the  latter 
(not  yet  completed),  and  certain  rectification  of  the  channel.  This  work  has 
proven  so  effective  that  the  California  Debris  Commission  is  now  making 
every  effort  to  complete  the  south  training  wall  below  Daguerre  Point  to 
close  Inskip  Slough,  Dunning  Channel  and  the  other  old  channels  where  large 
quantities  of  debris  are  stored  and  might  be  set  in  motion  by  unexpected  high 
water.  In  view  of  present  conditions,  it  does  not  appear  to  me  likely  that  the 
California  Debris  Commission  would  for  many  years  consider  the  construc- 
tion of  any  other  dams  upstream  from  Daguerre  Point.  [Daguerre  Point  is 
about  ten  miles  above  Marysville,  and  an  equal  distance  below  the  Narrows, 
near   Smartsville. — Editor.] 

"Some  years  ago,  the  Harmon  Engineering  Company  drew  up  a  project 
for  fairly  extensive  mining  in  the  Yuba  River,  including  a  diversion  dam  some- 
where near  Smartsville ;  but,  as  far  as  known  by  this  office,  this  plan  was 
definitely  given  up.  While  I  have  heard  from  time  to  time  some  talk  of  this 
project  or  a  similar  one  being  taken  up  again  by  various  mining  interests,  no 
application  has  been  made  to  the  commission  for  a  license  to  mine  under 
any  such  project.  However,  I  think  the  commission  would  be  inclined  to  act 
favorably  on  any  such  proposition,  if  it  contained,  as  an  essential  part,  the 
construction  of  a  safe  and  permanent  barrier  providing  for  and  assuring  the 
storage  of  debris  behind  it.  Such  a  barrier  would  tend  to  stop  the  movement 
of  all  debris  above  it  for  a  number  of  years,  and  would  relieve  the  deposits 
held  back  by  the  Daguerre  Point  barrier  from  the  gradual  annual  accretions 
now  reaching  them. 

"5.  In  the  last  paragraph  of  your  letter,  you  do  specifically  inquire 
as  to  whether  the  duties  of  the  California  Debris  Commission  extend  to 
the  protection  of  agricultural  lands  and  other  interests  besides  navigation. 
For  your  information  in  this  regard,  I  inclose  a  copy  of  the  Act  of  Congress 
approved  March  1,  1893,  on  which  the  jurisdiction  of  the  commission  is 
based.  It  is  evident  from  the  terms  of  the  law  itself  that  Congress  claimed 
jurisdiction  to  control  hydraulic  mining  solely  on  the  ground  of  the  resulting 
injury  and  damage  to  navigable  waters;  but  any  measures  which  stop  the 
movement  of  debris  and  tend  to  regulate  the  flow  of  water  in  time  of  freshets 
necessarily  are  of  general  benefit,  and  incidentally  afford  some  protection  to 
otherwise  exposed  agricultural  lands. 

"This  letter  has  been  somewhat  delayed  in  order  to  give  it  the  serious 
consideration  which  the  subject-matter  deserves. 

"For  the  California  Debris  Commission, 
"Yours   truly, 

"U.  S.  Grant.  3rd, 
"Major,  Corps  of  Engineers, 

"Member   and   Secretary. 

"San  Francisco,  February  13,  1923." 

Reply  of  the  Editor  of  The  Bee 

To  Major  Grant's  letter  editor  McClatchy  made  reply,  reviewing  the 
hydraulic  mining  situation  and  pointing  out  that  the  State  and  Federal 
courts  retain  jurisdiction  and  authority  to  issue  injunctions  against  injurious 
hydraulic  mining.     McClatchy's  reply  of  March  1,  1923,  was  as  follows: 


"The  act  of  'Congress  of  1893  provides  for  the  appointment  of  a  Cali- 
fornia Debris  Commission,  composed  of  Federal  engineers,  to  devise  plans 
for  restoration  and  protection  of  navigation  and  to  permit  hydraulic  mining 
to  be  carried  on,  'provided  the  same  can  be  accomplished  without  injury 
to  navigability'  of  the  rivers  or  to  'lands  adjacent  thereto.'  It  authorizes 
issuance  of  permits  under  such  safeguards  as  will  'protect  the  public  inter- 
ests and  prevent  such  injury,'  and  further  provides  that  'no  more  debris  shall 
be  washed  than  can  be  impounded  within  the  restraining  works  erected.' 
Hydraulic  mining  on  the  watersheds  of  the  Sacramento  and  San  Joaquin 
Rivers,  without  such  permit,  is  by  the  same  act  prohibited  and  declared 
unlawful,  and  any  injury  to  navigation,  directly  or  indirectly,  from  such 
mining  is  made  a  misdemeanor  punishable  by  fine  or  imprisonment,  or 
by  both.  There  are  various  other  provisions  of  the  act  which  need  not 
be  mentioned  here. 

The  Federal  act,  however,  although  it  has  been  adjudged  constitutional, 
gives  the  commission  no  judicial  powers,  and  in  no  way  interferes  with  the 
authority  of  the  courts,  State  or  Federal,  to  protect  either  public  or  private 
■  property  from  injury  caused  by  hydraulic  mining,  even  when  done  under  a 
permit  from  the  commission.  This  was  decided  by  the  supreme  court  of 
California  in  the  case  of  the  County  of  Sutter  vs.  Nichols,  owner  of  the  Polar 
Star  hydraulic  mine,  who  had  built  a  debris  dam  under  the  direction  of  the 
debris  commission,  and  was  operating  with  its  permission  and  in  accord 
with  its  requirements.  The  injunction  issued  by  Judge  Davis  of  the  superior 
court  of  Sutter  County  was  sustained  on  appeal,  without  dissent,  five  justices 
of  the  supreme  court  uniting  in  the  decision.  The  lower  court  had  found  the 
dam  insufficient  to  prevent  debris  from  being  carried  down  and  causing  in- 
jury to  public  property,  and  that  the  dam  was  not  of  a  permanent  character. 
The  supreme  court  held  the  defendant  could  not  be  relieved  from  liability 
for  damage  because  of  the  commission's  permit ;  that  the  Federal  act  was 
not  intended  to  license  either  the  filling  of  the  river  channel  with  debris  or 
the  doing  of  injury  to  private  property  by  discharging  debris  into  the  rivers. 
It  was  held  also  that  it  was  not  the  intent  of  the  Federal  statute  to  exonerate 
the  miner  from  liability  for  injuries,  or  in  any  respect  to  limit  or  restrict  the 
powers  of  the  State  courts  to  protect  private  property  from  threatened  in- 
jury and  to  redress  inflicted  injury  thereto  from  the  operation  of  hydraulic 
mines,  though  carried  on  under  a  permit  and  in  strict  compliance  with  the 
plans  and  directions  of  the  debris  commission,  and  that  the  Federal  act 
does  not  have  that  effect. 

"No  doubt  seems  to  be  entertained  in  the  Sacramento  Valley  that  the 
debris  commission  has  done  much  useful  work  in  construction  of  barriers 
and  training  walls  in  and  along  the  Yuba  River,  to  restrain  debris  turned 
into  the  stream  or  its  tributaries  by  hydraulic  mining  prior  to  the  creation 
of  that  body.  And  in  granting  permits  for  construction  of  debris  barriers 
across  the  Yuba  at  Bullards  Bar  it  is  presumed  to  have  acted  within  the 
spirit  of  that  statute  and  in  accord  with  its  requirements.  But  the  people 
of  the  Sacramento  Valley  always  have  opposed  use  of  the  river  channels 
for  storage  of  debris  from  hydraulic  mining  in  order  that  this  private  and 
transient  industry  may  be  continued,  however  useful  such  barriers  may  be 
to  prevent  or  lessen  further  injury  because  of  past  operations.  It  is  evident, 
however,  from  the  decision  of  the  State  supreme  court  in  the  Polar  Star 
case,  outlined  in  the  foregoing,  that  any  county,  community,  district  or  land- 
owner may  at  any  time  obtain  relief  or  protection  in  the  courts  from  either 
actual  or  threatened  injury,  despite  permits  issued  by  the  debris  commission 
in  accord  with  its  authority  and  the  instructions  of  Congress. 


"The  statement  recently  published  by  The  Bee,  that  the  debris  dam  at 
Bullards  Bar  on  the  Yuba  is  being  raised  to  a  height  of  175  feet  by  a 
private  corporation,  with  approval  of  the  commission,  to  create  a  storage 
reservoir  with  a  capacity  for  40,000,000  cubic  yards  of  debris,  is  now  officially 
confirmed.  And  Major  Grant  says :  'Until  the  space  behind  the  dam  is 
entirely  filled  up,  we  will  be  sure  of  the  escape  of  no  debris  from  the  region 
above  it,  except  such  light  slickens  as  are  inevitably  carried  over  the  top  of 
any  dam  by  high  water.'  It  was  largely  such  light  material,  however,  that 
caused  ruin  .and  devastation  to  the  bottom  lands  of  the  Yuba  in  the  earlier 
history  of  hydraulic  mining.  The  yellowish  pipe-clay  and  fine  sands  were 
washed  down  by  hydraulic  mines  from  the  mountain  region  into  the  valley 
of  the  river  by  millions  of  cubic  yards,  converting  fertile  farms,  orchards 
and  vineyards  into  a  desert  waste,  as  described  in  the  decision  of  United 
States  Circuit  Judge  Sawyer  in  the  famous  suit  of  Woodruff  vs.  the  North 
Bloomfield  Gravel  Mining  Company.  The  channel  of  the  stream  below  the 
foothills,  down  almost  to  its  junction  with  the  Feather,  at  Marysville  and 
Yuba  City,  was  completely  destroyed  by  the  slickens,  sands  and  fine  gravel, 
and  the  deposits  of  debris  raised  the  banks  and  bottom  lands  several  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  neighboring  lands. 

"As  to  the  'slickens'  proper — the  yellowish  pipe-clay  commonly  washed 
down  in  enormous  quantities  from  the  precipitous  banks  of  hydraulic  mines — 
it  has  been  the  contention  of  the  miners  in  numerous  anti-debris  suits  that 
its  ultimate  destination  was  nowhere  short  of  the  ocean,  because  of  its 
extreme  lightness  and  portability.  And  very  much  expert  and  official  testi- 
mony has  been  given  in  the  courts  to  show  that  many  millions  of  cubic  yards 
of  it  have  reached  at  least  Suisun,  San  Pablo  and  San  Francisco  Bays, 
if  not  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

"The  rising  generations  of  Californians,  and  the  newer  residents  of  the 
State,  have  but  little  realization  of  the  magnitude  of  past  hydraulic  mining 
and  its  present  capacities  for  injury.  According  to  the  official  reports  of 
former  State  Engineer  Hall,  the  hydraulic  miners  upon  the  streams  draining 
into  the  Sacramento  Basin  were  using  in  1879  a  yearly  supply  of  15,000,000 
miner's  twenty-four-hour  inches  of  water,  and  annually  were  washing  into  the 
canyons  over  53,000,000  cubic  yards  of  material.  The  annual  water  supply 
here  technically  expressed  in  miner's  inches  is  equivalent  to  about  60,000,- 
000,000  gallons.  The  Yuba  River  alone  received  each  year,  he  estimated, 
22,326,500  cubic  yards  of  debris  from  hydraulic  mines.  These  figures  (based 
on  incomplete  data)  are  probably  much  below  the  mark,  but  suffice  for  the 
purposes  of  illustration.  A  naked  statement  in  figures  of  the  extent  of 
hydraulic  operations  conveys  little  significance.  But  if  the  reader  will  bear 
in  mind  the  fact  that  a  million  cubic  yards  of  debris  will  cover  a  square  mile 
to  the  depth  of  a  foot,  he  can  realize  the  magnitude  of  the  annual  flow  of 
over  22,000,000  cubic  yards,  into  the  Yuba.  It  would  fill  the  Erie  Canal  to 
the  brim  in  eighteen  months.  And  this  flow,  it  should  be  understood,  repre- 
sents solid  material,  water  not  included. 

"But  one  must  visit  the  hydraulic  mining  regions  and  see  the  monitors 
in  operation,  fully  to  realize  the  destructive  nature  of  the  industry.  The 
area  of  excavations  is  measured  in  acres  and  square  miles.  Mountains  liter- 
ally have  been  washed  into  this  valley.  The  work  of  the  monitors  has  made 
vast  ampitheaters,  shut  in  by  perpendicular  precipices,  hundreds  of  feet  high, 
where  originally  were  mountains  covered  with  forest  growth.  Up  to  1878 
the  Excelsior  Company  at  Smartsville,  Yuba  County,  alone  had  washed 
8,000,000  cubic  yards  (14,000,000  tons)  of  material  into  the  Yuba;  and 
ten  times  that  quantity  remained  to  be  removed  from  its  claims.  In  forty 
days,    using   3000   inches    of   water   and    blasting    extensively,    the    Miocene 


Mine  poured  into  the  Feather  River  above  Oroville  no  less  than  300,000 
cubic  yards  of  debris. 

"An  incomplete  statement  of  the  damage  caused  by  hydraulic  mining 
debris  is  contained  in  a  report  made  by  State  Engineer  Hall  in  1880.  Upon 
the  Yuba,  Feather  and  Bear  Rivers,  Auburn  Ravine,  and  Dry  Creek,  he  found 
43,546  acres  of  valuable  land  had  been  covered  by  debris,  and  the  deprecia- 
tion and  loss  thus  occasioned  to  the  owners  amounted  to  $2,597,635.  But 
this  estimate  did  not  include  damages  along  the  Sacramento  and  American 
Rivers,  nor  the  vast  area  of  lands  protected  by  levees  but  greatly  reduced 
in  value  through  the  increased  danger  of  overflow  and  liability  to  ruin  by 
debris.  One  of  Hall's  reports  shows  that  prior  to  1885  the  channel  of  the 
Yuba  at  Smartsville  was  filled  by  the  hydraulic  mining  debris  to  a  depth  of 
150  feet.  In  1882  Colonel  Mendell,  of  the  United  States  corps  of  engineers, 
reported  to  the  AYar  Department  that  the  level  of  the  beds  of  the  Yuba  and 
Bear  Rivers  had  risen  'to  an  elevation  of  several  feet  above  the  banks,"  the 
streams  being  held  in  place  by  levees.  'These  instances,'  he  said,  'may  be 
taken  to  illustrate  the  ultimate  condition  of  the  Sacramento  and  Feather 
Rivers  under  a  continuance  of  the  influence  to  which  they  are  subjected.  The 
abandonment    of    existing   channels    is    a    consequence   to    be    apprehended.' 

"The  danger  to  navigation,  however,  was  not  confined  to  the  rivers  of 
the  valley.  It  affected  the  bays  as  well.  AVitness  these  extracts  from  the 
report,  made  July  1,  1882: 

"  'The  surveys  [San  Pablo  Bay]  of  1863  and  1878  are  distinguished  by 
a  deposit  of  76,025,000  cubic  yards  made  in  the  interval.  The  depth  of  the 
deposit  averaged  over  the  area  of  comparison,  24J4  miles,  would  be  3.1 
feet.  .  .  .  The  mean  reduction  in  width  of  channel  ...  is  2820  feet,  which 
is  22  per  cent  of  the  mean  width  in  1855.  A  comparison  of  maps  of  three 
and  one-half  miles  on  the  Sacramento,  near  its  mouth,  and  one  mile  at 
the  mouth  of  the  San  Joaquin,  shows  a  deposit  of  2,000,000  cubic  yards 
in  the  Sacramento,  and  500,000  in  the  San  Joaquin,  between  1867  and 
1878.  ...  A  comparison  of  charts  of  Carquinez  Straits  between  different 
dates  indicates  the  formation  of  large  deposits  in  recent  years.' 

"According  to  an  official  report  of  the  State  engineer,  made  in  1879, 
16,000,000  cubic  yards  of  material  were  carried  annually  by  the  waters  of  the 
Sacramento  River,  in  suspension,  past  the  capital  city.  This  does  not  include, 
he  is  careful  to  say,  the  sands  rolled  along  the  bottom  by  the  force  of  the 
current — a  very  considerable  quantity.  And  it  is  only  fair  to  add  that 
he  attributes  about  5,000,000  cubic  yards  of  the  aggregate  to  the  results 
of  natural  wash. 

"The  extent  of  the  auriferous  deposits  of  'gravel'  in  the  Sierras  is  not 
definitely  known,  but  is  practically  unlimited.  It  is  estimated  that  100,000,- 
000  cubic  yards  of  material  already  have  been  washed  into  the  Yuba  alone, 
and  that  "there  remain  at  least  700.000,000  cubic  yards  more,  upon  the 
drainage  basin  of  that  stream,  workable  by  present  hydraulic  methods. 

"State  Engineer  Hall  reported  that  70  per  cent  of  the  discharge  of  debris 
into  the  Yuba  could  be  stopped  behind  dams,  leaving  7,000,000  cubic  yards 
a  year — a  very  formidable  quantity — to  descend  that  one  tributary  into  the 
Sacramento  Valley. 

"By  far  the  larger  portion  of  the  cost  of  levees  constructed  in  the  Sacra- 
mento Valley  is  chargeable  properly  to  hydraulic  mining.  There  is  abun- 
dant evidence,  to  begin  with,  that  Marysville  and  Yuba  City,  and  the  Coun- 
ties of  Yuba  and  Sutter,  needed  no  levees  before  hydraulic  mining  debris 
had  filled  up  the  Yuba  and  Feather  Rivers.  Portions  only  of  the  business 
streets  of  Marysville  were  wet  by  the  great  floods  of  1*52-1853  and  the  still 
greater  floods  of  1861-1862,  and  there  was  still  no  thought  of  building  levees. 


The  city  had  no  encircling-  levee  until  1868.  But  twenty  years  later  her 
levee  account  footed  up  $500,000,  nearly  one  third  of  the  total  assessed 
valuation  of  the  city.  Vastly  different  were  conditions  in  early  days,  when 
the  rivers  were  clear  and  deep,  and  a  deep-draught  vessel,  which  made  the 
voyage  around  the  Horn,  ascended  the  Feather  River  and  discharged  her 
cargo  at  or  near  Marysville  or  Yuba  City." 

Later  Details  of  the  Project 

Subsequently  to  this  correspondence,  there  were  filed  with  the  Division 
of  Water  Rights,  State  Department  of  Public  Works,  in  Sacramento,  more 
detailed  plans  of  the  Yuba  Development  Company  for  the  vast  project. 
According  to  these  plans,  the  company  is  to  develop  262,130  horse-power 
of  electricity  when  all  its  units  have  been  constructed,  which,  it  was  thought, 
will  require  several  years.  There  will  be  nine  storage  reservoirs  and  six 
hydroelectric  power  plants.  The  power  will  be  developed  by  taking  advan- 
tage of  the  6000  feet  of  fall  in  the  Yuba  between  Haypress  Valley  on  the 
south  fork  of  the  North  Yuba,  where  the  elevation  is  6870  feet,  and  the  dam 
at  the  Narrows,  near  Smartsville,  where  the  elevation  is  275  feet.  The  reser- 
voirs will  have  a  storage  capacity  of  500,000  acre-feet.  To  distribute  and  use 
these  waters  will  require,  it  was  estimated,  the  construction  of  some  twelve 
miles  of  diversion  tunnels. 

The  hydroelectric  power  plants  are  described  as  follows : 

"Sierra  City  Power  House  No.  1,  located  at  an  elevation  of  4400  feet, 
to  be  fed  from  Haypress  Valley,  Jackson  Meadows  and  Milton  reservoirs. 
The  power  will  have  a  developed  horse-power  of  27,640. 

"Downieville  Power  House  No.  2,  at  an  elevation,  of  3000  feet,  to 
be  fed  from  Sierra  City  reservoir.  This  power  house  "will  develop  39,140 

"Toll-bridge  Ramshorn  Power  House  No.  3,  at  an  elevation  of  2500  feet, 
to  be  fed  from  Toll-bridge  and  Shady  Flat  reservoirs.  The  development  here 
will  amount  to  15,600  horse-power. 

"Garden  Valley  Power  House  No.  4,  at  an  elevation  of  1900  feet,  to  be 
fed  from  Indian  Valley  reservoir.  The  hdyroelectric  development  will  be 
46,350  horse-power. 

"Colgate  Power  House  No.  5  (to  be  constructed  by  the  Pacific  Gas  and 
Electric  Company  for  its  own  use),  at  an  elevation  of  600  feet.  The  develop- 
ment here  will  amount  to  110,500  horse-power.  This  power  house  will  be  in 
addition  to  the  present  Colgate  power  house  of  the  Pacific  Gas  and  Electric 
Company,  which  is  located  at  an  elevation  of  about  1300  feet.  Both  Colgate 
power  houses  will  be  supplied  from  Bullards  Bar  reservoir. 

"Smartsville  Power  House  No.  6,  to  be  at  an  elevation  of  275  feet, 
will  be  supplied  from  the  Narrows  reservoir.  Its  capacity  will  be  22,900 

The  horse-power  development  of  the  power  plants  increases  as  the  river 
descends,  largely  due  to  the  increasing  volume  of  water.  Sierra  City  power 
house  will  have  only  301  second-feet  of  water,  while  the  big  Colgate  power 
house  will  have  1100  second-feet  and  Smartsville  will  have  1300  second-feet. 

The  working  out  of  the  units  is  such  that  practically  no  fall  of  the  river 
will  be  allowed  to  go  to  waste.  Soon  after  the  water  is  discharged  from  the 
race  of  one  power  house  it  will  be  again  stored  and  diverted  for  another 
power  house.  The  water  for  Garden  Valley  power  house  will  be  taken  from 
Indian  Valley  reservoir  through  a  29,548-foot  tunnel  to  the  head  of  the  pen- 
stock to  the  power  house.  The  water  for  the  big  Colgate  power  house  will  be 
taken  from  Bullards  Bar  reservoir  through  a  tunnel  31,800  feet  long  to  the 
penstock  of  this  power  house. 


The  proposed  development  of  the  Yuba  River  project  is  declared  to  he 
one  of  the  most  complete  ever  contemplated  in  the  country.  It  provides  not 
only  for  a  series  of  storage  and  regulatory  dams  but  also  for  utilization  of 
practically  all  fall  of  the  river. 

About  the  middle  of  the  year  1923,  the  Yuba  Development  Company, 
through  legal  process,  changed  the  name  and  title  of  the  concern  to  tlie 
Yuba  River  Power  Company.  On  December  23,  1923,  the  company  an- 
nounced the  completion  of  the  immense  dam  at  Bullards  Bar.  A  month  later 
all  the  old  landmarks  at  Bullards  Bar  went  up  in  smoke,  as  the  result  of  a 
bonfire  used  as  the  most  economical  means  of  ridding  the  site  of  the  old  hotel, 
blacksmith  shop,  store  and  other  buildings  so  dear  to  the  heart  of  the  old 
host,  George  Mix,  and  sacred  in  the  memory  of  the  pioneer  teamsters  and 



The  condition  of  the  valley  in  the  matter  of  floods,  prior  to  its  occupa- 
tion by  the  white  race,  is  impossible  to  ascertain  with  any  degree  of  certainty. 
The  Indians,  however,  have  a  tradition  of  a  great  flood  sometime  in  the 
early  part  of  the  century,  probably  in  1805,  which  inundated  the  whole 
valley  and  in  which  a  great  many  lives  were  lost  and  many  native  villages 
destroyed.  This  flood  marked  an  era  in  their  calendar  from  which  they 
dated  events.  Again,  we  hear  of  a  flood  in  the  winter  of  1825-1826,  through 
Indian  Peter.  He  used  to  say  that  the  trapping  party  he  was  with  was  com- 
pelled to  camp  in  the  Buttes  on  account  of  high  water,  and  that  these  hills 
were  full  of  grizzlies,  elk,  antelope,  and  smaller  game  that  had  taken  refuge 
there.  The  early  settlers  speak  of  floods  in  the  winter  of  1846-1847,  which 
did  but  little  damage  simply  because  there  was  not  much  to  be  injured.  The 
season  of  1849-1850  was  also  a  wet  one,  and  the  streets  of  Marysville  were 
for  a  time  muddy  and  almost  impassable.  The  miners  along  the  river  were 
compelled  to  work  in  the  creeks  and  ravines  in  the  hills  until  the  waters 
subsided.  There  was  still  but  little  property  to  be  injured,  except  mining 
dams,   etc.,  and  the  loss  was  small  in  consequence. 

The  Floods  of  1852-1853 

In  the  winter  of  1852-1853,  the  city  of  Marysville  was  visited  with  four 
floods  and  the  surrounding  country  was  more  or  less  under  water  the  whole 
season.  The  rains  commenced  earh'  in  November,  1852,  and  towards  the 
latter  part  of  the  month  the  water  was  as  high  as  it  had  reached  the  season 
before.  Again,  a  week  or  two  later,  water  rose  six  and  a  half  inches  higher 
than  at  first.  The  water  then  subsided ;  but  the  last  week  in  December  was 
one  of  continual  rain,  and  on  the  31st  water  began  to  come  into  the  city. 
The  rivers  were  both  very  high;  and  the  water  in  Yuba  River  was  hacked 
up  by  that  in  the  Feather,  and  thus  found  its  way  into  the  streets.  The 
next  day  the  water  was  twenty  and  one-half  inches  higher  than  during  the 
last  flood,  and  was  from  six  to'ten  inches  deep  on  the  floors  of  the  buildings 
about  the  Plaza.     There  had  been  a  grand  ball  projected  at  the  Merchants' 


Hotel  for  New-year's  eve,  but  when  the  hour  arrived  the  hotel  was  sur- 
rounded by  water.  Several  young  men,  loath  to  lose  their  anticipated  pleas- 
ure, proceeded  to  the  hotel  in  boats,  and  with  a  number  of  ladies  residing-  there 
danced  until  morning.  All  the  low  and  bottom  lands  were  completely  sub- 
merged by  this  flood,  and  as  it  was  the  first  experience  of  the  kind  the  new 
ranchers  had  undergone  up  to  this  time,  they  lost  very  heavily  in  stock, 
crops,  etc.  Communication  of  the  city  with  the  outside  world,  and  between 
the  farmers,  had  to  be  maintained  by  boats.  People  were  compelled  to  come 
to  the  city  in  boats  in  order  to  obtain  supplies,  and  trading  to  the  mines  was 
effectually  blockaded  for  some  time.  The  continuous  rains  and  almost  im- 
passable muddy  roads  had  been  such  a  drawback  upon  freighting  that  a 
great  stringency  of  supplies  was  caused  in  the  mines.  At  the  earliest  possible 
moment,  a  number  of  energetic  and  enterprising  men  started  out  trains  with 
supplies,  hoping  to  reach  the  destitute  regions  before  the  markets  were  sup- 
plied, and  thus  reap  a  bountiful  harvest  of  gold  to  reward  them  for  their 
labor.  Those  who  reached  the  mines  first  were  amply  rewarded  for  their 
exertions,  and  were  able  to  secure  any  price  their  conscience  would  permit 
them  to  ask,  such  as  a  dollar  per  pound  for  flour,  and  twenty-five  cents  per 
pound    for    hay. 

The  fourth  and  last  flood  of  the  season  commenced  to  assert  itself  on 
Saturday.  March  25,  1853,  and  on  Tuesday  the  water  reached  a  point  eight 
inches  higher  than  in  January.  Both  the  residents  in  the  city  and  the  farm- 
ers had  gained  valuable  and  costly  experience  by  the  previous  freshets ;  and 
though  the  water  was  higher,  and  a  week  passed  from  the  time  it  commenced 
to  rise  until  it  finally  subsided,  yet  there  was  not  nearly  so  much  damage 
done  as  would  have  been  the  case  had  it  been  the  first  flood.  The  farmers 
protected  their  property  and  removed  stock,  etc.,  to  higher  localities ;  and 
the  merchants,  at  the  first  warning,  moved  their  goods  up  on  the  shelves,  or 
into  the  second  stories,  so  that  when  the  water  came,  there  was  less  for  it 
to  destroy.  About  $100,000  worth  of  damage  was  done,  however,  in  various 
ways.  The  water  covered  First  Street,  portions  of  A,  B,  C,  and  D  Streets, 
Maiden  Lane  and  the  Plaza.  Boats  of  various  sizes,  many  of  nondescript 
character,,  bearing  external  evidences  of  hasty  and  primitive  construction, 
flitted  along  the  watery  streets.  The  imprisoned  citizens  leaned  out  from 
the  second-story  windows  and  merrily  hailed  the  passing  boatmen.  A  ferry 
line  was  established  between  the  Merchants'  Hotel  and  dry  land,  over  which 
the  people  who  boarded  there  passed  to  reach  their  places  of  employment. 
The  country  on  all  sides  of  Marysville  was  under  water.  Yuba  City  was 
completely  flooded ;  the  only  dry  spot  in  town  was  the  Indian  rancheria  on 
the  bank  of  the  river.  Sutter's  Garden  at  Hock  Farm  was  overflowed,  and 
water  stood  on  the  lower  floor  of  his  house.  The  steamer  Governor  Dana, 
coming  up  the  stream  on  Tuesday,  could  proceed  no  farther  than  Hock 
Farm  on  account  of  the  violence  of  the  current,  and  was  compelled  to  return 
to  Sacramento.  Considerable  damage  was  done  to  the  crops  that  had  been 
put  in  by  the  farmers,  but  beyond  this  the  loss  was  small.  B}-  Saturday  the 
waters  had  subsided  sufficiently  to  permit  the  pack  trains  to  leave  the  city. 

Other  Early  Floods 
Although  every  few  years  the  water  rose  pretty  high  and  covered  the 
lowlands,  there  were  no  further  disastrous  floods  until  December,  1861. 
Long  and  incessant  rains  ushered  in  the  rainy  season,  and  on  Saturday, 
December  7,  the  water  commenced  to  rise  rapidly  in  the  river.  All  day 
Sunday  the  rain  poured  down,  and  that  night  the  city  was  nearly  under 
water.  Early  Monday  morning  several  buildings,  undermined  by  the  water, 
fell  crumbling  to  the  ground,  creating  great  consternation.  The  floors  of 
the  Merchants'  Hotel  fell  through  to  the  basement,  carrying  with  them  the 


sleeping  occupants,  several  of  whom  were  severely  injured  by  the  fall,  though 
no  one  was  killed.  Many  people  were  rescued  from  this  and  from  other  peril- 
ous situations  b}'  some  of  the  heroic  firemen,  who  worked  among  the  crumb- 
ling ruins  at  the  extreme  peril  of  their  own  lives.  A  great  many  frame 
houses  floated  from  their  positions,  and  some  were  carried  down  the  stream. 
In  one  of  these  there  was  a  woman,  whose  children  had  been  rescued  by  a 
boat.  When  the  boat  returned  for  the  mother,  the  house  had  been  carried 
down  the  river.  Only  two  cases  of  death  are  recorded,  however,  both  by 
drowning.  The  steamer  Defiance  made  its  way  through  the  streets,  giving 
assistance  to  those  who  were  rescuing  the  unfortunate. 

A  thick  deposit  of  sand  was  left  on  the  bottom  lands  by  this  flood,  vary- 
ing in  depth  from  one  to  six  feet,  and  doing  an  immense  amount  of  damage. 
This  was  the  first  appearance  in  any  quantity  of  the  disastrous  "alluvial  soil" 
that  later  worked  ruin  and  devastation  to  much  of  the  valley  and  forced 
litigation  in  subsequent  years  between  the  hydraulic-mining  section  and  the 
valley  counties.  Farm  produce  such  as  pumpkins,  squash,  potatoes,  hay, 
and  corn,  was  destroyed  in  great  quantities,  as  was  also  stock  of  all  kinds. 
It  was  reported  that  over  100  Chinamen  were  drowned  at  Long  Bar,  Ous- 
ley's  Bar  and  Sand  Flat. 

Again,  a  month  later,  on  January  11,  1862,  the  waters  rose,  reaching  six 
inches  higher  than  before ;  but  now  the  warning  of  the  previous  flood  had 
caused  the  merchants  and  farmers  to  move  everything  perishable  beyond 
the  reach  of  danger.  The  loss  of  stock  this  winter  and  the  next  summer 
was  very  great,  and  in  Sutter  County  it  was  estimated  at  three-fourths  the 
entire  number.  The  loss  was  great  in  Marysville  also,  where  but  few  cattle 
escaped  except  those  able  to  reach  the  Buttes ;  and  the  cold  weather  nipped 
the  grass,  causing  large  numbers  of  the  cattle  to  die  of  starvation. 

The  next  visitation  occurred  on  December  19,  1866.  Quite  a  severe  storm 
raged  for  several  days,  and  all  the  low  land  and  some  of  the  streets  of  Marys- 
ville were  flooded.  A  great  deal  of  the  levee,  which  was  small  and  of  com- 
paratively recent  construction,  was  washed  away '  in  various  places. 

The  Flood  of  1875 
It  was,  however,  reserved  for  the  year  1875  to  chronicle  the  greatest 
and  most  destructive  flood  that  the  annals  of  the  city  of  Marysville  bear. 
The  city  had  surrounded  itself  with  a  vast  levee  seven  miles  long,  to  con- 
struct which  a  vast  sum  of  money  had  been  expended.  To  this  fact  is  due 
the  unusual  amount  of  damage  experienced  in  that  year ;  for  relying  upon 
their  huge  and  expensive  guardian,  the  people  did  not  take  those  precaution- 
ary measures  formerly  adopted,  and  when  the  flood  came,  it  swept  every- 
thing before  it.  Even  goods  that  were  placed  upon  platforms  supposed  to 
be  above  the  reach  of  the  water,  suffered,  for  the  water  respected  nothing 
in  the  shape  of  traditional  "high-water  mark,"  but  moved  up  higher,  leaving 
a  mark  that  tradition  was  not  again  called  upon  for  some  time  to  verify. 
For  a  week,  heavy  and  incessant  rain  and  snow  storms  prevailed,  accom- 
panied in  some  instances  by  thunder  and  lightning,  an  unusual  phenomenon 
in  the  valley.  Tuesday  morning,  January  19,  the  waters  rose  so  as  to  threaten 
a  flood,  and  an  alarm  was  sounded  on  'the  fire  bell.  The  citizens  all  turned 
out  to  contest  the  advance  of  the  invader.  The  Browns  Valley  grade  was 
the  first  point  threatened,  but  by  diligent  labor  two  feet  of  dirt  were  thrown 
up  in  time  to  make  it  secure.  The  next  weak  spot  to  be  developed  was  the 
levee  near  the  cemetery,  where  the  water,  already  three  feet  deep,  began  to 
pour  over  the  banks  for  a  long  distance.  Heroic  efforts  were  made  i 
this  with  sand-bags;  but  these  were  of  no  avail,  and  at  dark  the  work  was 
abandoned.    Then  there  was  a  wild  rush  of  people  to  get  to  places  ot  safety. 


Large  houses,  churches,  the  courthouse,  and  other  buildings  were  thronged 
with  people  whose  residences  were  too  insecure  to  be  trusted.  At  eight 
o'clock  in  the  evening,  a  break  was  made  near  the  hospital,  and  a  torrent 
of  water  came  sweeping  down  the  Slough,  and  spread  itself  over  the  first 
ward.  Many  women  and  children  who  had  delayed  their  departure  had  to  be 
carried  away  in  boats,  or  on  the  backs  of  the  men  who  came  to  save  them. 
Barns,  sheds,  and  a  few  frame  dwellings  began  floating  about  in  an  erratic 
manner,  some  of  them  containing  people.  Boats  were  few,  and  these  had 
plenty  to  do  in  transporting  people  and  goods  to  places  of  safety.  Rafts 
were  called  into  requisition.  The  water  steadily  advanced  until  Wednesday 
noon,  when  it  stood  from  three  to  five  feet  deep  in  the  streets,  and  in  some 
places  in  the  first  ward  ten  feet  deep.  In  most  of  the  houses  the  water 
was  from  two  to  five  feet  in  depth,  in  some  much  deeper.  About  twenty 
houses  alone,  in  the  whole  city,  escaped  this  visitation,  thanks  to  high  base- 
ments. A  strong  current  ran  down  the  F  Street  slough,  now  filled  in;  and 
the  site  of  homes  and  schools,  to  the  Yuba  River,  together  with  the  whole 
valley,  including  the  city,  was  one  vast  sheet  of  water  on  a  level  with  the 
rivers.  When  Wednesday  came,  it  was  a  serious  question  where  a  break- 
fast was  coming  from.  The  waters,  in  their  angry  roar,  had  said  to  the 
people:  "Stand  not  on  the  order  of  your  going,  but  go  at  once";  and  go 
they  did,  making  no  provision  for  the  morrow.  But  food  was  provided  in 
various  ways ;  so  that,  although  some  may  have  feasted  a  little  less  sumptu- 
ously than  usual,  no  one  suffered  long  from  hunger.  Those  who  had  been 
so  hastily  driven  from  their  homes  had  nothing  to  wear,  however,  but  the 
wet  clothing  in  which  they  had  escaped,  and  nothing  on  which  to  sleep  or 
with  which  to  protect  themselves  from  the  cold. 

Thursday  night,  however,  saw  relief.  The  steamer  Flora,  from  Sacra- 
mento, brought  Christopher  Green,  the  mayor  of  that  city,  and  a  relief  com- 
mittee with  a  load  of  provisions,  clothing,  etc.  The  citizens  now  organized 
a  relief  committee  for  the  purpose  of  a  judicious  disposition  of  the  supplies 
of  money,  clothing,  and  other  things  that  now  began  to  pour  in  from  neigh- 
boring cities,  who  deeply  sympathized  with  their  stricken  sister  city.  Sub- 
committees were  named  to  canvas  the  city  and  give  orders  upon  the  relief 
fund  for  needed  supplies.  In  this  manner  all  were  rapidly  and  amply  pro- 
vided for.  The  amount  of  contributions,  so  generously  made,  was  about 
$30,000  in  money,  400  mattresses,  and  1000  blankets,  besides  clothing,  provi- 
sions, and  various  other  supplies. 

Only  one  life  was  lost  in  the  city,  that  of  the  little  son  of  Mrs.  John 
Laughley,  six  years  of  age.  The  family  had  been  taken  from  their  home  on 
a  raft,  and  the  boy  was  accidentally  knocked  into  the  water  and  drowned. 
His  body  was  recovered  in  the  morning. 

The  damage  done  to  property  in  Marysville  was  enormous.  Among  the 
buildings  that  suffered  largely  were  the  Episcopal  Church,  M.  E.  Church, 
courthouse,  city  hall,  woolen  mills,  Marysville  Mills,  Buckeye  Mills,  brew- 
ery, Marysville  Foundry,  Swain  &  Hudson's  factory,  soap  factory,  Empire 
Foundry,  gas  works,  two  lumber  yards,  a  rag-carpet  factory,  broom  factory, 
and  the  stores  and  residences  generally.  It  was  a  long  time  before  the 
deposit  of  sand  was  removed  from  its  lodging  places  on  the  floors  and  in  all 
the  nooks  and  corners.  The  railroads  were  badly  damaged,  and  in  the  coun- 
try there  was  great  destruction  of  stock  and  other  farm  property.  The 
farmers  of  the  valley,  and  the  citizens  of  Marysville  especially,  will  long 
remember  the  great  flood  of  1875,  which  marks  an  era  from  which  they  are 
still  accustomed  to  date  events. 

The  spring  of  1879  had  also  its  full  share  of  high  water,  a  great  deal 
of  damage  being  done  to   the  ranches  on  the  lowlands ;   and  great  expense 


and  trouble  were  incurred  in  keeping  the  many  levees  in  condition  to  resist 
the  encroachments  of  the  water.  The  city  happily  escaped  anything  more 
serious  than  wet  streets  and  flooded  cellars. 

On  account  of  the  scouring  of  the  river  channels,  and  the  part  the  gov- 
ernment. State  and  Federal,  is  taking  in  opening  up  the  mouths  of  the 
Feather  and  Sacramento  Rivers,  the  thought  of  the  people  at  the  present  time 
is  that  disaster  by  flood  is  no  longer  a  menace   to  be  feared. 

The  Levees 

The  several  floods  that  occurred  in  the  winters  of  1861  and  1862  thor- 
oughly convinced  the  citizens  of  Marysville  that  they  would  in  the  future 
be  compelled  to  rely  upon  levees  to  protect  the  city  from  inundation,  and 
preserve  their  property  from  destruction.  A  subscription  was  accordingly 
raised  among  the  citizens  for  that  purpose.  This  amounted  to  $4000,  to 
which  the  City  Council  added  $1000.  With  this  sum  a  levee  from  three  to 
eight  feet  high  was  constructed,  extending  from  the  foot  of  D  Street  along 
the  river  to  F  Street,  which  was  at  that  time  supposed  sufficient  for  the 
city's  protection.  The  high  water  of  the  season  of  1866-1867,  however,  dem- 
onstrated the  fact,  that  this  brief  extent  of  embankment  was  entirely  inade- 
quate to  effect  the  desired  end.  An  act  was  therefore  passed  by  the  legis- 
lature early  in  1868,  authorizing  the  city  to  procure  money  for  the  construc- 
tion of  a  complete  line  of  levee  surrounding  it  on  all  sides. 

The  line  was  at  once  surveyed,  contracts  were  let,  and  the  whole  was 
completed  prior  to  the  1st  of  December.  The  line  of  this  embankment 
commenced  at  the  foot  of  E  Street,  and  followed  the  present  line  to  the  cor- 
ner of  K  and  Ninth  Streets.  From  this  point  it  ran  west  to  M  Street,  north 
to  Eleventh  Street,  west  to  N  Street  on  the  bank  of  Feather  River,  north  to 
Sixteenth  Street,  northeast  to  the  northeast  corner  of  the  Catholic  Cemetery, 
including  this,  north  to  the  southwest  corner  of  the  City  Cemetery, 
east  to  Covillaud  Street,  south  to  the  Browns  Valley  grade,  down  this  grade 
to  Yuba  Street,  down  Yuba  Street  to  Fourth  Street,  on  Fourth  Street  to 
Yuba  Alley,  now  Walnut  Street,  down  that  alley  to  First  Street,  on  First 
Street  to  B  Street,  south  to  Front  Street,  and  along  the  river  bank  to  the 
place  of  beginning.  The  total  length  was  about  the  same  as  the  present 
line,  nearly  seven  miles,  and  the  cost  was  $18,279.97. 

The  following  year  it  was  found  necessary  to  raise  and  improve  the 
levee,  and  also  to  extend  it  so  as  to  include  the  City  Cemetery,  which  had 
been  left  out  in  the  wet  by  the  work  ot  the  previous  year.  For  this  purpose 
$6000  was  appropriated  by  the  city  council,  and  the  work  commenced.  The 
new  line  was  800  feet  longer  than  the  old  one,  and  the  change  of  line  made 
the  construction  of  one  mile  of  new  levee  necessary.  The  old  line  was 
raised  from  two  and  one-half  to  three  feet,  as  far  as  the  southwest  corner 
of  the  City  Cemetery.  From  this  point  the  new  levee  ran  to  the  northwest 
corner  of  the  cemetery,  on  the  cemetery  line  to  the  city  limits  at  the  north 
end  of  A  Street,  east  to  Covillaud  Street,  and  south  to  the  old  levee.  This 
work  cost  $8833.06,  being  an  excess  over  the  appropriation,  for  which  the 
council  provided. 

In  1870  the  levee  was  extended  from  the  north  end  of  Covillaud  Street 
due  east  to  the  Browns  Valley  grade,  the  new  line  being  over  4000  feet  long 
and  costing  $1947.74.  In  addition  to  this,  the  Browns  Valley  grade  was 
repaired  at  an  expense  of  $1353.25. 

Surrounded  thus  by  an  embankment  raised  above  high-water  mark, 
the  citizens  rested  in  tranquil  security.  High-water  mark,  however,  is  an 
indefinite  line,  and  not  always  to  be  relied  upon,  as  was  discovered  by  the 


people  on  January  19,  1875,  when  the  water  came  pouring  over  the  levee 
north  of  the  city,  and  brought  upon  them  the  most  disastrous  flood  known 
in  their  history.  It  was  then  resolved  to  construct  the  levee  anew.  In  1876 
an  act  was  passed  by  the.  legislature  authorizing  the  city  to  borrow  money 
for  this  purpose,  and  bids  for  contracts  were  called  for.  There  were  several 
high  bids  entered,  one  of  them  at  $115,000  not  including  the  cost  of  the  right 
of  way.  The  contract  was  finally  let  for  $68,000  for  the  work ;  and  the 
other  expenses  amounted  to  $30,000,  making  a  total  expense  of  $98,000. 
The  old  levee,  so  far  as  used,  was  raised  three  feet  above  high-water  mark, 
the  Browns  Valley  grade  was  raised  three  feet,  and  the  following  new  line 
was  constructed :  Commencing  at  the  corner  of  K  and  Ninth  Streets,  it 
abandoned  the  old  bank  and  ran  up  K  Street  to  Sixteenth  Street,  east  to  E 
Street,  north  to  Eighteenth  Street,  and  northeast  to  the  city  limits  at  the 
north  end  of  Yuba  Street,  where  it  connected  with  the  old  levee.  The 
embankment  and  drain  across  the  Slough,  between  the  city  and  the  ceme- 
teries, cost  $21,000  and  was  regarded  as  a  fine  and  expensive  piece  of  work. 
Levee  District  and  Levee   Commissioners 

The  legislature  in  1876  passed  an  act  creating  a  levee  district,  and  placed 
it  under  control  of  three  commissioners,  who  were  elected  in  March  of  the 
same  year.  Prior  to  this,  the  work  had  been  done  under  the  supervision 
of  a  committee  from  the  city  council.  This  act  gave  to  the  levee  commission 
powers  more  extensive  and  arbitrary  than  anyone  else  in  the  State  possessed. 

In  pursuance  of  the  act  creating  the  levee  commission  of  three,  those 
first  elected  as  levee  commissioners  were :  J.  F.  Flathman,  John  H.  Bow- 
man and  William  Landis.  At  the  first  meeting,  held  April  3,  1876,  for  the 
purpose  of  organizing  this  commission,  Landis  refused  to  qualify.  In  his 
stead  Sanford  Blodgett  was  chosen.  The  first  move  of  moment  was,  to 
recommend  to  the  city  council  the  raising  of  $5000  for  levee  purposes.  In 
August  the  board  of  supervisors  were  asked  for  $5000  more  to  aid  in  con- 
structing the  portion  of  the  levee  now  known  as  the  Browns  Valley  grade, 
on  the  east  side  of  the  city.  This  embankment  was  tied  up  to  the  citizens' 
levee.  Samuel  Garber,  who  later  became  police  judge,  was  chosen  foreman 
for  conducting  the  work. 

In  the  latter  part  of  August,  1877,  John  H.  Bowman  resigned  from  the 
commission,  and  the  remaining  members  chose  Justus  Greely  to  fill  the 
vacancy.  In  December  of  1878  Sanford  Blodgett  resigned  the  position,  and 
Charles  E.  Sexey  was  chosen  in  his  place.  Charles  Cadwalder,  an  engineer 
of  Red  Bluff,  laid  the  lines  for  the  Browns  Valley  grade,  and  recommended 
this  route  over  one  known  as  the  "Teegarden  route."  Parks  &  Binney 
secured  the  contract. 

Between  1880  and  1884,  C.  E.  Sexey,  D.  E.  Knight,  and  I.  Sheppard 
served  as  levee  commissioners.  From  1884  the  following  filled  the  posi- 
tion :  1884  to  1888.  W.  T.  Ellis,  D.  E.  Knight,  and  A.  C.  Bingham ;  1888 
to  1892,  John  C.  White,  D.  E.  Knight,  and  W.  T.  Ellis.  The  next  change 
came  in  1900,  when  W.  T.  Ellis,  Jr.,  was  chosen  to  act  with  his  father  and 
John  C.  White.  In  1912,  W.  T.  Ellis,  Jr.,  and  his  co-workers  retired,  giving 
way  to  John  W.  Steward,  Samuel  Ewell,  and  Chester  L.  Bowen.  On  April 
21,  1913,  W.  T.  Ellis,  Sr.,  whose  faith  in  his  adopted  city  had  never  swerved, 
passed  to  his  reward.  In  his  memory  the  levee  commissioners  set  apart  a 
page  of  their  minute  book,  which  has  been  appropriately  inscribed.  John 
W.  Steward,  who  was  chosen  president  of  the  commission  in  1912,  died  on 
October  25,  1917.  To  his  memory  a  page  in  the  minute  book  was  also 
inscribed.  C.  F.  Aaron  succeeded  Steward,  filling  the  unexpired  term. 
\\  alter  Bryant  was  made  a  member  of  the  commission  at  the  election  of 
1916,  and  at  present  is  serving  with  W.  T.  Ellis,  Jr.,  and  Samuel  Ewell. 


In  1910,  the  Western  Pacific  Railroad  Company,  on  its  entry  into  this 
territory,  took  full}'  one-half  of  the  levee  system  off  the  city's  hands,  secur- 
ing the  embankment  as  a  right  of  way,  and  extending  the  work  from  the 
cemeteries  on  the  north  side  of  the  city  across  to  K  Street  and  to  the  foot  of 
B  Street.  The  saving  to  the  city  is  enormous ;  and  besides,  the  tracks  on 
top  of  the  levee  make  for  safety  in  a  case  of  emergency,  which  now  seems 
to  be  a  thing  of  the  past.  The  company  bound  itself  to  exercise  due  dili- 
gence in  keeping  that  part  of  the  levee  system  in  as  good  condition  and  repair 
as  may  be  required  from  time  to  time  by  the  commission,  for  the  wel- 
fare and  protection  of  the  city.  It  agreed  to  keep  the  embankment  at  all 
times  at  a  height  at  least  three  feet  above  the  point  of  maximum  high  water. 
If  the  present  point  of  maximum  high  water  is  ever  exceeded,  the  railroad 
company  shall  be  allowed  one  year  thereafter  to  raise  the  levee  or  embank- 
ment.   The  franchise  given  the  railroad  will  expire  on  March  3,  1953. 

The  city  clerk  is  ex-officio  clerk  of  the  Board  of  Levee  Commissioners. 
It  is  his  duty  to  keep  a  full  and  complete  record  of  all  proceedings  of  the 
board.  Under  the  original  city  charter  no  person  could  act  as  a  levee  com- 
missioner until  he  took  the  constitutional  oath  of  office  and  provided  a  bond 
in  the  sum  of  $10,000,  with  at  least  two  sureties,  conditioned  for  the  faithful 
performance  of  his  duties.  No  commissioner  is  to  receive  pa}-  for  his 
services  as  a  member  of  the  board. 

Reclamation  Districts 

Reclamation  work  in  Yuba  County,  coupled  with  irrigation,  has  meant 
much  in  adding  to  its  wealth.  The  most  important  of  the  several  reclama- 
tion districts  is  District  No.  10,  north  of  Marysville.  Here,  where  grain 
was  for  years  the  chief  product  raised  for  the  market  on  vast  tracts,  there 
now  abound  vineyard  after  vineyard  and  orchard  after  orchard,  and  new 
homes  are  springing  up  as  shelter  for  the  new  settlers.  On  the  eastern  side 
of  the  district,  rice  has  been  grown  very  successfully,  encouraged  by  water 
from  the  Cordna  Irrigation  District. 

Reclamation  District  No.  784  has  as  brilliant  a  record.  Here  rice  is 
grown  abundantly,  and  fruit  is  rapidly  coming  into  its  own. 



Near  Lynchings 

If  the  walls  of  the  Marysville  City  Jail  and  of  the  Yuba  County  Court- 
house could  speak,  they  could  rehearse  many  sensational  events  of  a  criminal 
nature.     Crime  started  early  to  disturb  the  peace  of  the  new  settlement. 

One  of  the  first  crimes,  a  murder,  is  told  of  in  a  directory  of  Marysville 
compiled  in  1856  by  George  Sturtevant  and  O.  Amy.  During  the  summer 
of  1850,  one  Greenwood,  a  quarter-breed,  killed  one  Holden,  a  gambler. 
Much  excitement  prevailed,  and  Sheriff  Twitchell  with  difficulty  prevented 
the  mob  from  taking  Greenwood  from  his  custody. 

A  few  weeks  later,  one  Keiger  committed  a  cold-blooded  murder  in 
the  street,  in  the  daytime.  The  populace  was  again  aroused.  Passion 
prompted  summary  vengeance ;  but  reason  interposed,  and  the  result  was 
that  a  large  volunteer  guard  watched  the  place  used  for  a  jail,  then  an  adobe 
house  at  the  foot  of  D  Street,  until  Keiger  could  be  examined  before  a 
magistrate,  when  he  was  committed  and  sent  to  a  neighboring  county  jail 
to  await  his  trial  before  a  duly  constituted  court. 


It  is  not  generally  known  that  the  late  N.  D.  Rideout,  head  of  the  Ride- 
out  string  of  banks  in  Northern  California,  figured  as  a  victim  of  highway 
robbers  in  the  early  fifties,  at  a  time  when  he  was  seeking  his  fortune  in 
the  mountain  district  of  Yuba  County.  On  a  Tuesday  afternoon,  about 
4:30  o'clock,  in  October,  1852,  as  the  Camptonville  stage  was  proceeding  to 
Marysville,  it  was  stopped  when  near  Dry  Creek  by-  six  mounted  highway- 
men. They  were  after  the  treasure  it  carried,  which  amounted  to  $100,000. 
Near  the  point  of  attack  the  road  forked,  and  Rideout,  gold-dust  dealer  and 
banker  of  Camptonville,  was  on  one  road  and  the  stage  on  the  other.  Ride- 
out was  stopped  by  the  robbers,  who  all  presented  their  arms  and  com- 
manded him  to  dismount.  He  hesitated,  when  one  of  them  threatened  to 
shoot  him.  On  the  threat  being  made  he  dismounted,  and  went  toward  the 
stage  on  the  other  road  across  the  ravine.  The  robbers  called  him  back 
and  demanded  his  money.  Being  satisfied  that  he  had  none,  his  treasure 
being  on  the  stage,  they  took  his  horse  and  allowed  him  to  cross  over  to 
the  stage.  The  robbers  then  commanded  the  driver  of  the  stage,  John  Gear, 
to  stop,  and  threatened  to  kill  the  first  man  who  should  oppose  them  in 
their  designs.  Messenger  Dodson,  messenger  for  Eangton's  Express,  imme- 
diately drew  on  the  robbers  and  commenced  firing.  His  first  shot  took 
effect  on  the  spokesman  of  the  robbers  and  unhorsed  him.  Rideout  had 
by  this  time  got  to  the  stage.  An  indiscriminate  fight  now  commenced  be- 
tween the  robbers  and  passengers.  As  many  as  forty  shots  were  fired  on 
both  sides.  The  robbers,  finding  themselves  so  stoutly  opposed,  retreated, 
leaving  the  passengers  victors  of  the  field  of  battle.  The  driver,  John  Gear, 
was  shot  through  the  right  arm,  above  the  elbow.  Mrs.  Tighlman,  wife 
of  a  Marysville  barber,  was  shot  in  the  head,  the  ball  entering  over  the 
right  eye  and  penetrating  the  brain.  Two  other  passengers  were  wounded. 
When  the  stage  was  stopped  and  the  firing  had  commenced,  one  white  man 


and  four  Chinamen  left  and  ran  back  on  the  road  which  had  been  passed 
over.  The  newspaper  reports  of  the  occurrence  said :  "These  persons  have 
not  been  seen  since." 

Tom  Bell 
Tom  Bell  and  his  gang  of  robbers  were  suspected  of  the  holdup.  Bell, 
a  noted  highwayman  of  that  day,  was  killed  near  Auburn  in  Placer  County 
in  1856.  In  stature  nearly  six  feet,  he  was  well  proportioned,  combining  in 
his  frame  strength  with  action.  He  was  of  a  sanguine  temperament,  quick 
in  his  motions,  being  never  at  rest.  He  had  sandy  hair  and  a  full  crop  of  it, 
and  a  light  goatee  to  match  his  hair  in  color.  His  nose,  which  was  origin- 
ally well  formed  and  large,  was  mashed  in  the  bridge,  almost  level  with  his 
face.  This  defect  rendered  his  countenance,  which  was  otherwise  pre- 
possessing, somewhat  repulsive,  and  even  hideous  when  viewed  in  connec- 
tion with  his  lawless  practices.  His  eyes  were  a  very  light  blue,  of  that 
class  which  approximates  so  nearly  to  a  grey,  and  in  their  restless  wander- 
ings were  constantly  sparkling  with  intelligence.. 

Bell  was  a  native  of  Alabama.  He  had  received  a  medical  education, 
and,  it  is  said,  practiced  that  profession  when  he  first  came  to  California, 
in  1850.  He  first  took  to  mining,  and  being  unlucky  at  that,  his  next  step 
was  gambling.  When  that  ceased  to  pay,  he  took  to  the  road,  and  was 
engaged  as  a  robber  for  about  two  years,  in  which  time  he  acquired  a  fame 
for  boldness  and  success  in  this  section  second  only  to  Joaquin  Murietta's. 

At  the  outset,  it  is  said,  he  generally  traveled  alone,  and,  for  his  better 
security,  wore  a  coat  of  armor  under  his  clothes.  He  never  shed  the  blood 
of  his  victim  unless  it  became  absolutely  necessary  to  enforce  a  compli- 
ance with  his  demands.  It  was  known  that  he  had  associated  with  him 
several  persons  scarcely  less  noted  than  himself,  one  of  whom,  an  escaped 
convict  named  Bill  Gristy,  alias  Bill  White,  when  the  band  was  broken  in 
upon  by  a  detachment  of  the  Sacramento  and  Marysville  police,  was  the 
only  one  who  escaped.  Gristy  was  cruel,  cunning  and  blood-thirsty.  This 
scoundrel  was  in  Bell's  band  for  three  months.  The  band  was  supposed  to 
number  from  six  to  eight,  and  they  ranged  the  country  along  the  foothills 
from  the  Yuba  to  Granite  City.  Their  depredations  were  mainly  confined 
to  the  several  roads  crossing  in  the  neighborhood  between  Granite  and  Gold 
Hill,  in  Placer  County.  The  country  was  rough,  broken  and  covered  with 
an  impenetrable  chaparral,  in  the  recesses  of  which  "an  army  with  banners" 
might  securely  hide.  Their  outrages  in  this  favorite  field  followed  each 
other  in  such  rapid  succession  that  scarcely  a  day  passed  during  the  sum- 
mer of  1856  without  furnishing  a  newspaper  story  from  the  calendar  of 
their  exploits,  but  in  no  instance  did  they  shed  blood.  The  plan  of  the 
chief  was  to  frighten  the  traveler  to  terms,  and  avoid  the  cruelty  of  murder. 
On  one  occasion,  Bell  and  Gristy,  with  one  other,  made  an  attack  upon 
a  man  who  was  traveling  from  Downieville  to  Marysville  with  a  large  sum 
of  money  in  his  possession.  The  traveler  resisted,  fired  upon  his  assailants, 
and  finally  fled  from  them  toward  a  deep  canyon  in  which,  if  he  could  reach 
it,  he  knew  he  was  safe  from  pursuit  on  horseback.  Just  as  he  was  about 
to  reach  his  goal,  Gristy  fired  with  a  navy  revolver  and  shot  him  in  the 
thigh,  knocking  him  down.  The  robbers  relieved  him  of  his  money;  but 
instead  of  dispatching  him,  or  leaving  him  to  die  from  the  hemorrhage  of 
his  wound,  "Doctor"  Bell  kindly  and  expertly  took  up  the  severed  artery, 
bound  up  the  wound,  and  just  at  that  moment  hearing  a  wagon  pass,  turned 
to  one  of  his  subordinates  and  ordered  him  to  attend  to  the  teamster.  The 
wagon  was  stopped,  the  driver  relieved  of  his  cash,  the  wounded  man  placed 
upon  a  mattress,  hastily  made  in  the  bottom  of  the  wagon,  and  the  parties 
dismissed,  with  the  injunction   to   "drive   slow  and  pick  their  road."     The 


wounded  man  requested  Bell  to  tie  his  (the  traveler's)  horse  behind  the 
wagon.  Bell  refused,  but  assured  him  that  he  should  have  his  horse,  as  he 
seemed  attached  to  him,  and  that  he  would  turn  him  loose  in  the  woods, 
after  stripping  off  his  bridle  and  saddle,  which  promise  he  faithfully  kept. 

Jim   Webster 

In  1855  and  1856,  Jim  Webster  was  the  terror  of  Timbuctoo  and  vicin- 
ity. He  was  a  highwayman,  and  robbed  and  murdered  a  number  of  people. 
A  reward  was  offered  for  his  capture  or  death,  but  no  one  was  daring 
enough  to  attempt  the  deed.  In  1855,  he  killed  three  men  in  a  ravine  near 
Timbuctoo,  with  three  shots  from  his  revolver.  After  committing  numerous 
depredations  and  criminal  acts,  he  was  killed  by  one  of  his  own  men. 
"Jack  Williams'  Ghost" 

George  Shanks  was  a  noted  highwayman,  usually  called  "Jack  Will- 
iams' Ghost."  He  was  a  waiter  in  a  hotel  at  Camptonville,  and  left  there 
when  he  was  sixteen  years  of  age.  He  was  afterward  shot  by  Stephen 
Vanard,  between  San  Juan  and  Nevada. 

Tommie    Brown    and    Brother 

In  October,  1876,  Tommie  Brown  and  his  brother,  who  had  been  terror- 
izing all  the  northern  part  of  the  State,  robbed  the  stage  near  the  toll-house, 
one  mile  west  of  the  Oregon  House,  the  brother  going  to  the  head  of  the 
horses  and  Tom  leveling  his  gun  on  the  driver.  E.  Scammond,  a  banker 
from  Downieville,  was  on  the  stage  with  $18,000  in  dust,  and  leveled  his 
gun  on  Brown,  who  also  changed  his  aim  to  Scammond.  Both  fired  at  the 
same  time.  Scammond  fell  in  the  stage  with  several  buckshot  wounds,  and 
after  a  little  difficulty  in  securing  the  horses,  which  were  frightened  by  the 
firing,  the  passengers,  mail  and  express  were  robbed,  and  the  stage  was 
allowed  to  proceed.  The  $18,000  was  not  secured,  as  the  dust  was  hidden 
in  the  gun  case,  valise  and  trunk,  which  Scammond  recovered.  A  party 
pursued  the  Browns,  and  coming  upon  their  camp,  fired  upon  them  and 
mortally  wounded  the  brother.  Tom  gave  himself  up  and  was  sentenced 
to  San  Ouentin  for  a  term  of  ten  years.  When  brought  back  as  a  witness  in 
another  case,  he  managed  to  escape  from  the  Marysville  city  jail,  April  26, 
1877.  Rearrested  in  Oregon  after  robbing  the  Shasta  stage,  he  pleaded  guilty 
when  arraigned,  and  had  seven  years  added  to  his  prison  term.  Photographs 
of  Tommie  Brown  and  his  brother  are  in  the  archives  of  the  sheriff's  office  in 

"Black  Bart" 

In  later  years  "Black  Bart,"  another  noted  stage  robber,  figured  in 
outrages  up  and  down  the  State.  After  he  was  captured  and  exposed,  he 
told  the  officers  he  frequently  visited  Marysville  without  being  recognized. 
He  was  known  during  his  career  as  "Black  Bart,  the  Po  8,"  because  of  the 
rhymes  he  left  at  the  scene  of  his  crimes. 

Killing  of  "Mountain  Scott" 

Shortly  after  noon  on  June  2,  1868,  Hank  L.  McCoy  and  Jim  Ueaman, 
members  of  the  Marysville  force,  went  to  the  lower  section  of  the  city  to 
arrest  Charles  Williams,  alias  "Mountain  Scott,"  who  was  wanted  for  the 
murder  of  a  man  named  Ritter  at  Michigan  Bar,  and  who  was  suspected  of 
the  killing  of  a  Marysville  policeman,  "Butch"  Dobler,  a  short  time  before. 
On  turning  the  corner  of  B  and  First  Streets,  the  officers  espied  "Mountain 
Scott"  seated  in  front  of  an  Italian  store.  AVhen  the  fugitive  observed  the 
officers  coming,  he  immediately  started  to  run  across  the  levee,  the  officers 
in  pursuit.     When  he  reached   the  top  of  the  embankment,   he  turned  and 


fired  a  shot  at  his  pursuers,  which  went  wide  of  the  mark.  When  Leaman 
returned  the  fire,  the  man  ran  down  the  levee  to  the  corner  of  First  Street 
and  California  Alley,  now  Chestnut  Street.  McCoy  then  opened  fire,  and 
his  aim  proved  good  at  two  attempts.  "Mountain  Scott"  dropped,  and 
died  almost  instantly.  He  had  taken  two  shots  at  McCoy,  however,  before 
lie  fell,  and  officer  Leaman  had  resumed  shooting.  It  was  later  ascertained 
that  the  deceased  was  a  noted  criminal,  wanted  for  several  offenses;  that 
he  was  a  native  of  Jamaica,  aged  thirty  years ;  and  that  his  correct 
name   was    Charles    Williams. 

Murder  of  Dr.  Gray 

On  the  evening  of  July  4,  1868,  while  firecrackers  and  pistols  still  were 
popping  in  celebration  of  the  nation's  natal  day,  a  shot  was  fired  which 
went  unnoticed  amid  the  uproar,  and  because  unnoticed  gave  the  killer  of 
Dr.  J.  B.  Gray,  prominent  Marysville  physician,  time  to  make  a  get-away, 
which,  however,  proved  short-lived. 

While  Dr.  Gray  was  standing  near  the  door  of  the  Magnolia  saloon, 
afterward  known  as  Foster's  Bar,  talking  with  a  friend,  Rufus  Swett, 
former  resident  of  La  Porte,  Plumas  County,  and  of  St.  Louis,  Sierra 
County,  approached  and  engaged  Dr.  Gray  in  conversation  in  a  low  tone. 
Friends  of  Dr.  Gray  who  were  standing  near  testified  at  the  coroner's 
inquest  that  the  first  words  they  heard  from  Dr.  Gray  were,  "Get  away 
from  me;  I  don't  want  to  have  anything  to  do  with  you."  To  which 
Swett  replied:  "I  am  a  big  enough  man  for  you."  The  next  instant  a  shot 
rang  out,  and  "then  Dr.  Gray  moved  toward  the  curb,  saying,  "He  has  shot 
me  through  and  through !"  Swett  ran  up  D  Street  to  Third,  over  Third 
to  E,  across  E  diagonally  to  the  corner  of  E  and  Third,  thence  to  Commer- 
cial Alley,  down  to  the  Yuba  River  levee,  and  up  the  river  to  the  bridge, 
which  then  crossed  the  river  at  E  Street  and  was  known  as  the  "Hawley 
Bridge."  Twenty  or  thirty  citizens,  aroused  by  cries  of  "Stop  the  mur- 
derer !"  and  "Go  to  the  bridge !"  followed  after  Swett.  The  one  to  reach 
him  first  turned  back  when  Swett  leveled  his  pistol  at  him.  Search  for 
Swett  that  night  proved  futile,  though  citizens  and  police  kept  strict  vigil. 

The  next  morning,  at  10  o'clock,  William  Elliott  reported  seeing  Swett 
at  the  corner  of  Fifteenth  and  Yuba  Streets,  and  also  reported  that  a  mare 
belonging  to  J.  Joy  was  stolen  soon  after  Swett  was  seen  there.  Thinking 
that  this  was  a  plan  to  throw  them  off  the  scent,  the  officers  paid  but  little 
attention   to    the    story. 

That  night  city  Marshal  Nightingill,  police  officer  Dan  Derrickson, 
Deputy  Sheriff  Hewitt,  and  a  man  named  John  Stincer,  armed  with  shot- 
guns, proceeded  to  the  home  of  William  Totman,  a  friend  of  Swett,  on 
Yuba  Street,  and  lay  in  wait,  having  worked  out  a  theory  that  Swett  would 
call  there.  Soon  Swett  appeared  and  was  ordered  by  Derrickson  to  throw 
up  his  hands,  which  he  reluctantly  did,  at  the  same  time  assuring  Derrick- 
son  that  his  pistol  was  empty.  Derrickson  called  the  other  officers  and 
soon  had  Swett  marching  toward  the  city,  arms  upraised.  As  the  party 
passed  the  Totman  house,  Swett  asked  permission  to  go  in  and  get  a  drink, 
but  this  was  refused  him. 

As  a  train  of  cars  standing  on  the  track  at  A  and  Sixth  Streets  was 
passed,  Swett  suddenly  dodged  behind  the  last  car  and  took  to  his  heels. 
Although  Derrickson  tripped  and  fell,  he  recovered  soon  enough  to  fire, 
the  charge  taking  effect  in  Swett's  left  forearm.  It  was  then  an  easy 
matter  to  land  Swett  at  the  city  jail.  Here  a  crowd  of  citizens  assembled 
and  demanded  that  Swett  be  hung,  but  the  mob  was  soon  subdued  with 
assurances  that  the  law  would  mete  out  justice  in  the  case. 


Swett  told  the  officers  that  he  did  not  fire  the  first  shot,  and  did  not 
dream  of  violence  on  Dr.  Gray's  part.  He  said  the  difficulty  arose  out  of 
Dr.  Gray's  betraying  Mrs.  Swett. 

The  coroner's  jury  was  made  up  of  Fred  N.  Pauly,  D.  H.  Harney, 
E'.  W.  "Whitney,  Emmett  Brown,  Fred  C.  Chase,  W.  C.  Swain,  L.  T.  Crane, 
and  J.  T.  Dickey.  Their  verdict  held  Swett  accountable  for  the  slaying. 
Dr.  R.  H.  McDaniel,  father  of  the  present  superior  judge,  Dr.  E.  T.  Wil- 
kins  and  Dr.  L.  Lasvigne  were  witnesses  at  the  inquest.  A.  Suss,  mer- 
chant, Thomas  McDermott,  then  familiarly  known  as  "Mac,  the  Baker," 
and  A.  Lloyd  testified  as  eye-witnesses  to  the  shooting  of  Dr.  Gray.  The 
funeral  of  Dr.  Gray  was  largely  attended,  as  he  was  very  popular  in  the 
community  and  had  many  friends  throughout  the  State. 

Investigation  into  Swett's  past  showed  that  he  left  La  Porte  after 
arousing  suspicion  that  he  had  committed  burglary.  He  also  had  gained 
an  unenviable  reputation  at  Conner  Creek  and  St.  Louis. 

On  October  14,  the  grand  jury  of  Yuba  County  returned  an  indict- 
ment accusing  Swett  of  the  murder  of  Dr.  Gray.  The  true  bill  was  signed  by 
1.  H.  Roberts  as  foreman  of  the  jury.  R.  R.  Merrill,  as  district  attorney,  and 
Barney  Eilerman,  as  county  clerk,  took  the  usual  part  in  the  proceedings. 
S.  M.  Bliss  was  the  county  judge  before  whom  the  indictment  was  presented. 

Swett  employed  J.  G.  Eastman,  Marysville  attorney  with  a  State-wide 
reputation,  to  defend  him.  Eastman  challenged  the  indictment  upon  the 
grounds  that  the  grand  jurors  were  not  drawn  and  empaneled  in  accordance 
with  the  law,  and  that  all  the  jurors  empaneled  had  formed  an  opinion  that 
Swett  was  guilty  of  the  crime.    This  demurrer  availed  the  defendant  nothing. 

One  week  after  the  grand  jury  indictment  was  returned  against  Swett — 
October  22,  to  be  specific — the  prisoner  took  leave  of  the  county  jail  by  night. 
He  was  locked  in  an  iron  cell  as  usual  on  the  previous  evening.  In  the 
morning  the  jailer  found  the  cell  door  open,  a  hole  cut  through  the  east  wall 
of  the  jail,  and  steps  made  from  the  staves  of  a  bucket  forming  an  ingenious 
stairway  up  the  outside  wall  overlooking  the  yard.  When  the  news  of  the 
escape  was  broadcasted,  the  citizens  of  Marysville,  especially  the  friends  of 
Dr.  Gray,  were  far  from  complimentary  of  Sheriff  A.  P.  Spear,  who  had 
ignored  warnings  that  he  should  keep  a  night  watch  at  the  jail  during  the 
incarceration  of  Swett,  and  take  other  precautions.  It  was  openly  charged 
that  the  sheriff  connived  at  the  escape.  A  reward  of  $300  was  offered  for  the 
capture  of  Swett. 

On  December  30,  at  the  request  of  the  district  attorney,  District  Judge 
I.  S.  Belcher  issued  a  bench  warrant  for  the  rearrest  of  Swett,  who  was 
reported  as  having  been  seen  in  South  America ;  but  he  was  never  retaken. 

Decker-Jewett  Bank  Robbery 

The  latter  half  of  the  year  1873  provided  enough  excitement  for  the 
officials  of  the  city  of  Marysville  and  the  officers  of  Yuba  County  to  offset  a 
season  of  quiet  that  for  some  time  had  prevailed.  It  was  in  that  period  that 
the  futile  attempt  to  rob  the  Decker-Jewett  Bank,  then  located  at  First  and 
High  Streets,  was  made. 

About  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  July  11,  1873,  John  H.  Jewett  was 
standing  behind  the  counter  of  the  bank  acting  as  cashier,  and  the  late  A.  C. 
Bingham  was  engaged  in  a  curtained  counting  room  of  the  bank  near  by,  out 
of  public  view.  Supposing  that  Jewett  was  alone,  a  man  slipped  up  and 
leveled  a  six-shooter  at  his  head,  saying,  "Don't  you  move !"  Jewett,  quickly 
comprehending  the  situation,  crouched  down  and  moved  behind 'a  desk, 
exclaiming  at  the  same  time,  addressing  Bingham,  "The  gun!" 

There  were  four  double-barreled  shotguns  in  different  places  in  the  bank. 
Jewett  seized  the  nearest,  not  far  from   where   he  had  taken  refuge.     The 


robber  passed  inside  the  railing  and  grappled  with  Jewett,  just  as  he  was 
grasping  the  gun,  and  struck  him  on  the  head  with  his  revolver.  Bingham, 
rising  from  his  seat,  fired  a  shot  at  the  robber  with  a  pistol.  The  stubborn 
resistance  from  the  bank  officials,  coupled  with  the  fact  that  he  was  receiving 
no  assistance  from  his  accomplices,  determined  the  robber  to  retreat.  But 
before  he  made  his  exit,  Bingham,  from  over  the  curtains  of  his  desk,  fired 
both  barrels  of  a  shotgun  loaded  with  buckshot  point  blank  at  the  retreating 
robber.  Jewett  also  fired  once  with  his  shotgun.  The  man  staggered  through 
the  door  and  fell  on  the  sidewalk.  Jewett  followed,  and  was  about  to  shoot 
again,  when  the  man  begged  to  be  spared,  saying,  "Don't,  I  am  dying." 

John  A.  Toney,  the  partner  of  the  dying  man,  unhitched  the  wounded 
robber's  horse,  standing  in  front  of  the  bank,  and  mounting  the  animal,  rode 
rapidly  toward  E  Street,  and  on  to  Yuba  City.  The  wounded  robber  proved 
to  be  James  Collins,  alias  Frank  Whipple,  and  best  known  in  the  section  as 
"Big  Frank."  He  was  as  fine  a  specimen  of  man  as  can  be  imagined,  those 
who  knew  him  say.  When  he  was  carried  to  the  police  station,  doctors 
found  that  twenty  buckshot  had  entered  at  the  small  of  his  back,  two  were 
found  near  the  crown  of  his  head,  and  one  in  his  neck.  He  died  that  night  in 
the  jail,  after  suffering  great  agony. 

Before  dying,  Collins  implicated  P.  W.  Winkley,  who  had  served  the  city 
both  as  city  marshal  and  chief  of  the  fire  department,  as  the  master  brain 
in  the  plan  to  rob  the  bank.  He  had  during  his  death  agony,  earlier  in  the 
day,  asked  A.  C.  Bingham,  who  called  on  him,  if  Winkley  had  said  anything 
to  him  about  the  plan  to  rob  the  bank.  Bingham  assured  him  that  Winkley 
had  not  done  so.  Bingham's  suspicions  were  at  once  aroused;  and  it  after- 
ward transpired  that  the  plot  was  framed  in  Winkley's  saloon  in  Yuba  City, 
two  clays  before,  between  "Big  Frank,"  John  A.  Toney  and  Winkley.  Wink- 
ley was  to  take  a  station  at  the  corner  of  First  and  D  Streets  and  give  the 
necessary  signals.  He  was  to  take  off  his  hat  and  replace  it  when  he  thought 
the  time  ripe  to  act.  It  was  then  recalled  by  citizens  that  Winkley  was  seen 
hastening  from  the  vicinity  of  the  bank  when  the  shooting  began,  something 
quite  unlike  anything  he  was  ever  before  known  to  do  at  a  time  of  peril  and 
public  excitement,  as  he  was  a  brave  fellow,  according  to  his  police  record. 
Winkley  was  arrested,  and  was  convicted  of  complicity  in  the  attempted 
robbery.    He  served  a  term  in  the  penitentiary. 

Officers  Hank  L.  McCoy,  father  of  Charles  J.  McCoy,  the  present  sheriff 
of  Yuba  County,  and  Mike  Hogan  took  up  the  pursuit  of  Toney,  the  trail 
leading  through  Sutter  County  and  into  Colusa  County.  In  the  territory  now 
known  as  Glenn  County,  a  constable  apprehended  Toney.  Handcuffing  him, 
he  placed  him  on  the  robber's  own  animal,  a  racer,  and,  mounting  one  of  his 
own,  rode  alongside.  The  start  was  made  for  Marysville.  Reaching  a  water- 
ing-trough at  a  small  town,  the  constable  decided  that  the  horses  needed 
water ;  but  no  sooner  had  he  dismounted  for  the  purpose  of  watering  the 
horses  than  Toney  gave  his  horse  the  spurs  and  was  off  at  lightning  speed. 
He  made  a  clever  get-away,  and  found  security  for  a  time  in  the  Lava  Beds 
in  the  northern  part  of  the  State.  Hank  McCoy  did  not  quit  the  chase,  how- 
ever. Suspecting  the  direction  Toney  had  taken,  he  followed  on  horseback, 
and  was  rewarded  by  coming  upon  his  man.  There  was  a  gun  battle  in  which 
Toney  received  a  broken  arm.  He  then  gave  up,  and  was  returned  to  Marys- 
ville by  McCoy.     He  paid  the  same  penalty  as  Winkley. 

Killing  of  Dennis  Dufficy 

Marysville  was   thrown   into   a   state  of  excitement   on  the   evening  of 

Saturday,  August  1,   1874,  about  5:30  o'clock,  when  it  became  known  that 

Dennis  Dufficy,  of  the  firm  of  Rohr  &  Dufficy,  furniture  dealers  on  D  Street 

between  Fourth  and  Fifth,  had  been  stabbed,  perhaps  fatally,  by  his  brother- 


in-law,  John  B.  Rohr.  Soon  the  store  and  the  street  held  a  crowd  of  excited 
persons,  seeking  the  details  of  the  affray. 

It  developed  that  the  only  persons  present  at  the  cutting  were  DufRcy, 
his  father-in-law  and  partner,  and  his  brother-in-law.  The  elder  Rohr  and 
Dufficy  had  a  disagreement  over  business  matters,  during  which,  it  was 
alleged,  Dufficy  used  improper  language  toward  his  father-in-law  and  slapped 
him  in  the  face,  whereupon  John  B.  Rohr,  who  was  employed  in  the  store, 
resented  the  treatment  of  his  father,  saying  he  would  not  see  him  abused  and 
struck.  At  this  juncture,  Dufficy  turned  upon  young  Rohr  and  knocked  him 
down.  Rohr,  on  recovering  himself,  drew  his  pocket-knife,  which  had  a  long, 
sharp  blade,  and  warned  Dufficy  to  let  him  alone.  Paying  no  heed  to  the 
warning  and  drawn  knife,  Dufficy  approached  Rohr  and  endeavored  to  strike 
him  with  a  high  chair,  or  stool.  It  was  then  Rohr  used  the  knife,  inflicting  a 
wound  on  the  left  side  of  the  abdomen,  severing  the  intestine.  Dufficy  ran 
to  the  street,  followed  by  Ruhr,  who  carried  his  knife  in  his  hand. 

On  meeting  Oscar  Stone  and  David  Kertchem,  Dufficy  informed  them 
that  he  was  mortally  wounded,  and  asked  that  a  doctor  be  called.  Ex-Sheriff 
Matt  Woods,  who  happened  along,  took  Rohr  into  custody  and  delivered 
him  to  polic  officers  McCoy  and  Murphy  at  the  station.  Dufficy  was  taken 
to  the  drug  store  of  Scott  &  Flint,  where  he  was  examined  by  Dr.  S.  J.  S. 
Rogers,  and  given  first  aid.  According  to  the  physician  Dufncy's  condition 
was  made  highly  alarming  because  of  the  fact  that  he  insisted  that  he  was 
going  to  die  from  the  wound,  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the  doctor,  was  not 
necessarily  fatal.    Dufficy  died  two  days  later,  on  August  3. 

At  the  October  term  of  the  grand  jury,  A.  B.  Crook,  foreman,  an  indict- 
ment was  returned  by  that  body  charging  Rohr  with  the  murder  of  Dufficy. 
E.  A.  Davis,  who  later  became  the  judge  of  the  joint  superior  court  of  Yuba 
and  Sutter  Counties,  introduced  the  testimony,  as  district  attorney.  On 
May  7,  1875,  Rohr  secured  his  dismissal  upon  the  grounds  of  self-defense. 

To  those  acquainted  with  the  present-day  language  of  a  grand-jury  indict- 
ment and  a  court  complaint,  the  reading  of  the  "true  bill,"  returned  against 
Rohr  will  prove  of  interest.    The  indictment,  in  part,  used  this  language : 

"The  said  John  B.  Rohr,  on  the  first  day  of  August,  1874,  with  force  and 
arms  in  and  upon  the  body  of  Dennis  Dufficy,  then  and  there  being,  feloni- 
ously and  wilfully  did  assault  and,  with  a  certain  knife,  which  the  said 
John  B.  Rohr  in  his  right  hand  had  and  held,  the  said  Dennis  Dufficy  in  and 
upon  the  belly  of  the  said  Dennis  Dufficy,  then  and  there  did  feloniously  and 
wilfully  strike  and  thrust,  giving  to  said  Dennis  Dufficy  then  and  there  and 
with  the  knife  aforesaid,  in  and  upon  the  belly  aforesaid,  one  mortal  wound, 
of  which  said  mortal  wound  the  said  Dennis  Dufficy,  from  the  first  day  of 
August,  1874,  until  the  third  day  of  August,  1874,  did  languish  and  languish- 
in  gly  did  live,  on  which  third  day  of  August  the  said  Dennis  Dufficy  did  die 
of  said  mortal  wound." 

The  warrant  of  arrest  in  this  case  issued  from  the  mayor's  court  and  was 
signed  by  William  Hawley,  the  then  mayor  of  Marysville. 

Race-track  Murder 
About  four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  November  30,  1878,  John  McDaniel, 
lessee  of  the  Marysville  race-track,  now  known  as  Knight's  Recreation  Park, 
and  upon  which  the  links  of  the  Marysville  Golf  Club  are  located,  was  aroused 
by  his  wife,  who  heard  noises  as  if  someone  was  jimmying  a  door  on  the 
premises.  McDaniel  started  to  investigate,  and  within  a  foot  or  two  of  his 
bedroom  door  encountered  a  Chinese,  who  proved  to  be  Ah  Ben.  It  is  thought 
that  McDaniel,  who  was  a  brave  man,  seized  the  visitor,  having  been  robbed 
a  few  nights  before.    Mrs.  McDaniel  heard  a  tussle,  and  presently  heard  her 


husband  cry  out,  "Oh,  my  God,  help  !  help  !"  When  she  reached  him,  McDan- 
iel  and  the  Chinaman  were  still  struggling.  Although  fatally  wounded, 
McDaniel  was  doing  his  best  to  secure  his  murderer.  Mrs.  McDaniel  pulled 
the  Chinese  away,  and  as  she  did  so  her  husband  staggered  into  the  open, 
fell,  and  soon  expired  from  a  wound  he  had  received  in  the  breast  from  an 
inch-and-a-quarter  chisel  carried  by  Ah  Ben.  In  the  hand  of  the  deceased 
was  found  a  poniard  blade,  which,  it  is  supposed,  he  wrenched  from  his  mur- 
derer's hand  and  used  in  self-defense.  The  Chinese  showed  a  stab  in  the  left 
arm,  and  bruises  on  his  face,  proving  that  the  struggle  with  his  victim  had 
been  a  desperate  one. 

Ah  Ben  turned  upon  Mrs.  McDaniel,  and  she  was  forced  to  back  away 
from  his  grasp.  About  this  time,  Ah  Joe,  Chinese  cook  in  the  employ  of  the 
McDaniel  family,  rushed  out  of  the  dining-room  to  her  assistance.  The  mur- 
derer, at  sight  of  Ah  Joe,  started  to  run ;  but  the  cook,  at  the  risk  of  winning 
the  condemnation  of  his  race,  followed  and  caught  Ah  Ben.  He  knocked  the 
murderer  down,  hog-tied  him,  and  then  brought  him  back  to  the  house,  where 
he  was  kept  until  delivered  to  the  custody  of  Police  Officers  John  Colford  and 
Mike  Hogan.  Constable  Ezra  Brow,  who  lived  in  the  neighborhood,  had 
been  sent  for,  and  he  helped  in  the  landing  of  Ah  Ben  in  the  city  prison. 

That  evening  an  autopsy  was  held  by  Coroner  George  Fronk,  assisted  by 
Drs.  C.  C.  Harrington,  C.  E.  Stone,  and  S.  J.  S.  Rogers,  all  now  deceased. 
The  death-wound  was  found  in  the  region  of  the  stomach,  the  chisel  having 
penetrated  between  the  ribs  and  pierced  the  liver  in  its  course.  Besides  his 
widow,  McDaniel  left  six  children,  five  of  whom  are  still  living.  They  are 
Mrs.  Henry  Blue,  wife  of  Councilman  Blue,  Mrs.  Harry  S.  Day,  and  Harry 
McDaniel,  all  of  Marysville,  and  Mrs.  Charles  Day,  of  Berkeley,  and  George 
McDaniel,  of  Stockton.  Another  daughter,  Mrs.  George  Crossley,  died  about 
two  years  ago. 

Soon  after  dark  on  the  evening  of  the  same  day,  a  mob  organized  on  the 
corner  of  D  and  Third  Streets.  During  the  day  the  populace  had  become 
aroused  because  of  the  cruel  murder  of  McDaniel,  who  was  a  popular  and 
esteemed  citizen.  Some  said  the  community  would  be  disgraced  if  Ah  Ben 
were  allowed  to  live  through  the  day.  At  dusk  the  bell-ringer,  a  darkey  who 
was  employed  in  those  days  to  spread  sudden  news  and  announce  auction 
sales,  got  busy,  and  through  his  efforts  a  crowd  of  300  or  400  assembled.  A 
box  had  been  placed  at  the  intersection  of  Third  and  D,  from  which  S.  L. 
Howard,  an  attorney,  made  a  speech  calculated  to  incite  the  mob  and  induce 
it  to  proceed  to  the  county  jail,  break  down  the  iron  doors,  seize  Ah  Ben,  and 
hang  him.  While  the  mob  was  at  the  height  of  its  fury,  Hon.  John  H. 
Jewett,  Marysville  banker,  stepped  to  the  box  and  made  an  effort  to  convince 
the  turbulent  crowd  that  they  were  acting  unwisely  and  imprudently,  and 
should  disperse  as  good  citizens.  But  the  crowd  manifested  true  mob  spirit 
by  stifling  free  speech.  Jewett  was  interrupted  by  such  a  noise  as  to  render 
his  remarks  inaudible.  A.  C.  Bingham,  former  councilman,  and  later  mayor, 
endeavored  also  to  address  the  crowd,  with  but  little  better  success.  Bing- 
ham resented  the  cat-calls  of  the  crowd,  and  for  a  time  it  looked  as  if  he 
would  mix  things  with  the  offenders.  Knowing  Bingham  to  be  fearless,  the 
mob  gave  closer  attention  toward  the  close  of  his  address,  which  was  along 
the  same  line  as  Jewett's. 

Howard  was  again  called  to  the  box.  He  made  a  speech  at  this  time  that 
rendered  him  liable  to  arrest.  Finally,  the  meeting  resolved  to  go  to  the  jail 
and  secure  the  murderer.  A  long  rope  had  been  obtained,  and  this  was 
placed  in  the  hands  of  Howard.  Then  there  was  a  call,  and  a  question  as  to 
who  should  be  the  leader.  To  the  shouts  "Who  shall  lead?"  came  the  reply 
of  all  the  mob,  "Howard  !  Howard !"    But  Howard  appeared  a  better  talker 


than  leader  of  a  forlorn  hope,  and  held  back.  A  few  men  seized  him,  how- 
ever, placed  him  in  an  express  wagon,  and  ordered  the  driver  to  proceed  to 
the  county  jail  at  Sixth  and  D  Streets. 

"When  the  crowd  arrived  in  front  of  the  courthouse,  they  halted;  and  on 
looking  for  Howard,  they  found  he  was  missing.  At  this  critical  moment 
Mayor  X.  D.  Rideout,  early-day  banker,  took  a  position  on  the  courthouse 
steps  and  briefly  addressed  the  crowd,  advising  law  and  order.  He  told  the 
mob  that  the  jail  was  strongly  guarded,  the  sheriff  firm,  and  that  forcible 
entry  would  surely  mean  the  needless  loss  of  valuable  lives,  which  he  would 
regret  to  see.  Mayor  Rideout  was  followed  by  Sheriff  Hank  L.  McCoy,  who 
appeared  on  the  steps  with  his  chief  deputy,  Ike  N.  Aldrich,  who  later  became 
justice  of  the  peace  of  Marysville  Township.  McCoy  assured  the  mob  that 
if  Ah  Ben  were  taken  from  the  jail  it  would  not  be  without  bloodshed.  At 
this  the  mob  returned  down  street,  and  generally  dispersed.  They  decided 
that  the  sheriff  meant  every  word  he  uttered.  Up  to  a  late  hour  that  night, 
however,  there  was  a  disgruntled  crowd  of  twenty  or  thirty  assembled  near 
the  end  of  the  D  Street  bridge,  loath  to  give  up  ;  but  they,  too,  dispersed  about 
midnight.  Ah  Ben  was  tried  before  Judge  Phil  W.  Keyser  and  a  jury;  he  was 
convicted,  and  sentenced  to  be  hanged  in  the  courthouse  yard,  as  was  then 
the  custom.  On  Friday,  March  14,  1879,  the  murder  of  McDaniel  was  expi- 
ated on  the  gallows  before  a  throng  that  crowded  the  courtyard.  Many  a 
lad  played  truant  from  school,  in  hope  of  getting  a  glimpse  of  the  execution, 
which  many  did  from  the  treetops  and  housetops  in  the  neighborhood  of  the 
courthouse.  The  hanging  was  well  planned  and  successfully  executed.  In  an 
interview  with  a  newspaper  man  before  his  execution,  Ah  Ben,  an  ignorant 
individual,  declared  he  would  kill  McDaniel  again  under  like  circumstances. 
Drs.  R.  H.  McDaniel,  David  Powell,  C.  C.  Harrington,  A.  B.  Caldwell,  and 
B.  Phillips  comprised  the  coterie  of  physicians  who  pronounced  Ah  Ben  dead. 

Murder  in  Schimpville 

One  of  the  most  cruel  murders  in  the  criminal  annals  of  Marysville  was 
that  committed  at  an  early  morning  hour  on  October  23,  1882,  at  the  Jacob 
Schimp  dairy  in  the  eastern  portion  of  the  city.  Between  Matthias  Blumer 
and  Fred  Schindler,  milkers  in  the  employ  of  Jacob  Schimp,  a  hatred  had 
grown  up,  occasioned  by  jealousy  over  a  woman.  Blumer  picked  a  quarrel 
with  Schindler  and,  when  the  latter  defended  himself,  beat  him  to  death  with 
a  hammer.  He  hid  the  body  first  in  a  manger,  and  then  buried  it  under  the 
floor  of  the  barn.  That  night  he  loaded  the  body  into  a  wagon  and  threw  it 
into  Simmerly  Slough,  east  of  the  City  Cemetery.  A  Chinese  fisherman 
pulled  the  body  to  the  surface,  and  the  arrest  of  Blumer  followed.  He  claimed 
he  acted  in  self-defense  when  Schindler,  a  younger  man,  attacked  him  with 
a  pitchfork.  Blumer  was  convicted  and  sent  to  San  Quentin,  but  escaped  and 
was  free  a  long  time  before  he  was  discovered  in  an  Eastern  State  and  returned 
to  the  penitentiary. 

Assassination  of  George  Ball 

At  12:30  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  July  16,  1890,  the  Marysville  fire 
department  responded  to  an  alarm  sounded  on  account,  of  a  fire  at  the  rear 
of  the  Belding  Soda  Works,  corner  of  Second  and  Elm  Streets.  The  fire 
seemed  to  have  started  under  the  floor  of  a  room  adjoining  a  stable  where 
the  delivery  horse  was  kept.  The  blaze  had  spread  to  hay  on  the  floor  of  the 
barn ;  but  as  it  had  not  gained  much  headway,  the  firemen  had  little  trouble 
in  quelling  it.    They  left  the  place  without  suspecting  anything  unusual. 

Officers  and  friends  of  George  Ball,  popular  manager  of  the  soda  factory, 
wondered  at  his  non-appearance  at  the  fire;  and  when  Lisa,  the  daughter  of 
John  Stevenson,  residing  next  door  to  the  soda  works,  told  her  parents  and 


the  police  that  she  heard  cries  emanating  from  the  building-  shortly  before 
the  fire  was  discovered,  close  investigation  was  made  of  the  premises  by 
Deputy  Sheriff  John  Colford,  Police  Officer  "Fawn"  Clark,  and  Mr.  Steven- 
son. In  a  short  time  the  mutilated  body  of  Ball  was  found  under  the  partially 
burned  straw  on  the  barn  floor.  Save  for  a  finger  ring  well  known  to  his 
friends,  the  remains  were  unrecognizable.  By  the  side  of  the  body  was  a  cast- 
iron  pipe  two  feet  in  length,  with  which  Ball  had  been  battered  unmercifully 
about  the  head.  The  body  had  been  buried  in  the  straw  and  the  fire  started 
in  the  hope  of  concealing  the  murder.  Ball's  gold  watch  and  chain  were 
missing,  and  it  was  found  that  the  murderers  had  opened  a  safe  in  the  office, 
without  reward.    No  money  was  ever  placed  in  the  safe. 

Suspicion  first  pointed  to  Chinese  residing  in  the  vicinity,  but  this  theory 
was  not  pursued  for  long.  On  April  30,  1891,  the  mystery  began  to  clear, 
with  the  arrest  at  Sacramento,  by  Chief  of  Police  Drew,  of  William  J.  Ousley, 
a  mulatto,  and  Henry  Smith,  a  negro.  Smith  proved  an  alibi  and  was  released. 
Ousley,  a  victim  of  lung  trouble,  died  in  the  Yuba  County  jail  on  August  9 
of  the  same  year.  Before  he  passed  away  he  made  a  confession  to  Deputy 
Sheriff  Tom  E.  Bevan,  admitting  his  complicity,  and  implicating  a  colored 
man  named  George  Maddux  and  one  George  Collins,  who  a  short  time  before 
was  killed  in  Stockton.  Maddux  was  apprehended  in  a  southern  county  and 
was  returned  to  Marysville,  tried,  convicted  and  sent  to  prison  for  life. 
Ousley  told  the  officers  that  Collins  planned  the  job,  and  that  he  acted  as 
lookout  to  tell  the  other  two  of  the  entry  of  Ball  into  the  building.  They 
knew  that  his  last  act  before  retiring  was  to  water  his  horse.  They  took  a 
position  in  the  barn  and  felled  Ball  when  he  entered.  A  dish-washer  called 
''Shorty  Knight,"  who  worked  with  Ousley  in  a  Marysville  restaurant  just 
prior  to  the  murder,  was  the  person  who  gave  to  Chief  of  Police  Drew,  of 
Sacramento,  the  first  clew  to  the  murderers. 

A  Christmas  Day  Crime 

Strangely  in  keeping  with  a  belief  that  for  a  long  time  was  held  in 
Marysville,  to  the  effect  that  a  murder  is  committed  in  the  city  every  twenty 
years  on  Christmas  Day,  Edward  Raymond,  a  painter,  shot  and  killed  Thomas 
Brice,  orchard  worker,  at  the  intersection  of  the  F  Street  levee  and  Second 
Street,  on  December  25,  1891.  The  men  had  a  dispute  over  a  dollar  loan 
made  while  both  were  drinking  and  gambling.  Witnesses  said  Raymond  was 
trying  to  induce  Brice  to  accompany  him  to  Yuba  City,  when  Raymond  sud- 
denly drew  a  revolver  and  fired.  Brice  died  in  a  short  time.  Raymond  was 
arrested  by  Police  Officer  F.  B.  Crane  and  Joseph  Heyl.  He  was  held  to 
answer  to  the  Superior  Court  on  a  murder  charge,  but  escaped  from  the  Yuba 
County  jail  by  scaling  the  wall  with  a  rope.  The  officers  contended  that 
Raymond  received  help  from  the  outside.  He  was  never  retaken,  although 
reports  came  in  frequently  that  he  was  in  hiding  in  his  native  State,  Texas. 

Robbery  of  Oregon  Express 
Marysville  has  never  experienced  a  more  exciting  day  than  Saturday, 
March  30,  1895.  Shortly  after  midnight  of  that  day,  the  Oregon  Express 
train  was  held  up  and  robbed  by  two  handsome  bandits,  who  turned  out  to 
be  Jack  Brady,  alias  McGuire,  and  J.  W.  Browning,  erstwhile  farm  hands 
who  for  several  months  had  been  employed  on  ranches  in  Linda  Township, 
and  had  attended  dances  throughout  the  countryside,  and  caused  many  a 
female  heart  to  go  pit-a-pat.  The  train  made  a  short  stop  at  Wheatland  en 
route  north,  and  at  that  point  the  two  robbers  boarded  the  blind  baggage. 
When  the  train  was  within  four  miles  of  Marysville,  Fireman  Nethercutt  was 
surprised  at  having  a  revolver  thrust  in  his  face  by  one  of  the  robbers.  The 
other  man  gave  orders  to  Engineer  Bowser  to  stop  the  train,  which  was  done. 


The  engine  force  was  then  compelled  to  accompany  the  robbers  to  the  express 
car,  which  was  broken  into. 

Unsatisfactory  returns  from  their  search  in  the  express  car  determined 
the  robbers  to  visit  the  day  coaches.  After  forming  a  sack  from  a  leg  of  an 
old  pair  of  overalls,  the  robbers  forced  the  fireman  to  enter  the  first  day  coach 
with  them,  and  the  engineer  to  follow  behind  them.  At  the  point  of  revolvers, 
the  passengers  were  compelled  to  place  all  their  coin  and  valuables  in  the 
sack,  among  their  victims  being  several  men  from  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties. 

The  robbers  next  visited  the  smoker.  At  this  juncture  Brakeman  Sim- 
mons recalled  that  Sheriff  John  J.  Bogard  of  Tehama  County  was  sleeping 
in  a  Pullman  of  the  train.  He  remembered  also  that  Bogard,  than  whom 
there  was  no  more  fearless  officer  in  California,  had  adjured  him  some  time 
before  that  if  ever  a  train  hold-up  was  attempted,  and  he  was  on  the  train, 
Simmons  was  to  apprise  him.  Simmons  accordingly  got  word  to  Sheriff 
Bogard  through  the  Pullman  porter.  Partially  dressing  himself,  Bogard  made 
his  way  to  the  smoker.  He  entered  one  end  as  the  robbers  entered  the  other. 
Crouching  behind  a  car  seat,  Bogard  took  deliberate  aim  and  shot  the  taller 
of  the  robbers  through  the  heart,  killing  him  instantly.  In  less  time  than  it 
takes  to  write  it,  a  shot  rang  out  from  the  doorway  the  sheriff  had  just 
entered.  The  bullet  entered  Bogard's  back  in  the  region  of  the  kidneys,  and 
in  a  short  time  he  was  dead  from  loss  of  blood.  As  the  source  of  the  shot 
which  killed  the  sheriff  was  never  definitely  determined,  many  believe  to  this 
day  that  there  was  a  third  robber  in  the  gang,  and  that  when  he  heard  the 
shot  which  killed  one  of  his  pals  he  took  revenge. 

Brady,  the  surviving  robber,  immediately  left  the  car  after  the  death 
of  his  partner,  Browning,  not  even  waiting  to  take  a  purse  containing  $51 
which  had  been  dropped  alongside  Browning's  body.  Brady,  it  was  afterward 
learned,  made  his  way  to  Marysville  on  a  bicycle,  two  of  which  were  in 
hiding  under  a  wagon  bridge  near  the  scene  of  the  robbery.  Clerks 
in  Marysville  hotels  recalled  that_  two  young  men,  purporting  to  be 
farm  hands  and  answering  the  descriptions  of  the  train  robbers,  had  fre- 
quently taken  lodgings  with  them,  and  from  this  clue  the  officers  worked. 
The  hotel  clerks,  on  viewing  the  body  of  the  dead  robber,  had  their  suspicions 
confirmed,  and  officers  took  up  the  trail  of  Brady,  who  proved  more  than 
elusive.  It  was  not  until  the  following  July  that  he  was  apprehended  in  the 
jungles  near  Sacramento.  He  was  convicted  and  sent  to  the  penitentiary  for 
life.     One  juror  saved  him  from  hanging. 

The  train  robbery  was  the  signal  for  extra  editions  of  the  Marysville 
papers,  and  this  city  received  nation-wide  notice  through  press  reports  of  the 
crime.  For  two  days  throngs  visited  the  Marysville  morgue  to  view  the 
remains  of  the  brave  sheriff  and  the  handsome  young  robber.  The  pistol  with 
which  Sheriff  Bogard  killed  Browning  was  one  that  the  people  of  Tehama 
County  presented  him  in  recognition  of  his  faithful  service  in  office. 
Murder  of  Julius  Pier 

On  the  night  of  May  1,  1895,  Julius  Pier,  aged  Hebrew  second-hand 
dealer  on  C  Street,  between  Second  and  Third,  was  murdered  at  the  rear  of 
his  store,  where  he  slept.  He  was  found  next  morning  gagged  and  hog-tied, 
and  showing  signs  of  having  made  a  fight,  against  odds,  for  his  life.  Police 
Officer  Hugh  McCoy,  who  worked  on  the  case  with  City  Marshal  J.  A. 
Maben,  discovered  in  a  toilet  bowl  at  the  rear  of  the  premises  a  portion  of 
the  shirt  which  was  used  to  throttle  Pier  to  death.  This  clew  led  to  the 
apprehension  of  Stuart  A.  Green,  alias  George  Duroy,  a  young  electrician, 
who  a  few  days  before  had  installed  an  electric  bell  in  the  police  station  for 
the  city.    He  was  wearing  the  shirt  at  that  time,  and  McCoy  remembered  it 


on  account  of  the  flashy  pattern.  Shortly  after  his  arrest,  Green  confessed 
and  implicated  a  barber,  at  the  same  time  admitting  that  his  was  the  master 
mind,  and  that  he  had  planned  to  rob  Pier  for  his  money.  When  Pier  resisted, 
the  pair  murdered  him,  slowly  strangling  him  to  death.  Green  was  well  con- 
nected in  the  East.  His  father  came  to  Marysville  and  employed  counsel 
who  saved  him  from  the  gallows,  the  jury  voting  for  life  imprisonment. 
Marshall  J.  Miller,  his  barber  accomplice,  who  conducted  a  shop  on  Second 
Street,  near  C,  went  into  court  and  pleaded  guilty.  There  was  nothing  for 
the  court  to  do  but  pronounce  the  death  penalty.  He  was  executed  at  San 
Ouentin  prison  on  September  28,  1896,  after  the  supreme  court  had  affirmed 
the  judgment  of  the  lower  court. 

Tragic  Results  of  I.  W.  W.  Agitation  in  the  Hop-fields 

On  Sunday  evening,  August  3,  1913,  the  people  of  Marysville  were  star- 
tled by  news  from  Wheatland,  twelve  miles  south,  that  Edward  T.  Manweli, 
district  attorney  of  Yuba  County,  had  lost  his  life,  that  Sheriff  George  H. 
Voss  had  been  mortally  wounded  and  that  a  deputy  sheriff  named  Thomas 
Riordan  had  been  killed,  as  the  result  of  an  I.  W.  W.  agitation  in  the  camp 
of  the  hop-pickers  on  the  Durst  Brothers'  place,  which  adjoined  Wheatland. 
Citizens,  aided  by  the  police,  at  once  formed  relief  parties,  and  these  parties 
hastened,  armed,  to  the  scene.  Coroner  J.  K.  Kelly  and  his  deputies,  with 
City  Marshal  C.  J.  McCoy,  now  sheriff,  were  among  the  first  to  arrive  at 
Wheatland,  where  they  found  the  residents  terrorized  by  the  awful  events  of 
the  afternoon. 

Investigation  proved  that  the  trouble  in  the  hop-fields  had  been  brewing 
for  several  days.  Agents  of  the  I.  W.  W.  had  worked,  in  their  usual  way, 
to  cause  the  men  and  women  employed  by  Durst  Brothers  to  become  dissat- 
isfied with  their  wage  and  with  camp  conditions  as  regarded  sanitation  and 
other  matters.  On  the  clay  prior  to  the  murder  of  the  district  attorney  and 
the  attack  upon  the  sheriff,  a  committee  headed  by  the  leaders  of  the  I.  W.  W. 
contingent  had  waited  upon  R.  H.  Durst  of  Durst  Brothers  with  a  written 
demand  for  an  increase  in  the  pickers'  rates,  for  movable  toilets  in  the  field, 
for  separate  toilets  for  the  women,  for  "high-pole"  men,  for  lemonade  made 
from  lemons  instead  of  acid,  for  the  delivery  of  drinking  water  in  the  field 
twice  a  day,  and  for  a  committee  from  the  pickers  to  inspect  the  hops  and 
pass  on  them.  Early  in  the  morning  of  the  fatal  day,  a  second  visit  was  paid 
Durst  by  the  committee.  Durst  accepted  some  of  the  terms  and  vetoed  others, 
chiefly  the  demand  for  increased  pay,  saying  he  would  continue  to  pay  the 
wages  generally  paid  in  California  by  growers  of  hops. 

Durst  visited  Wheatland,  and  without  swearing  to  a  complaint,  demanded 
that  Constable  Lee  Anderson  arrest  the  leader  of  the  strikers.  Complying 
with  Durst's  request,  Anderson'  went  to  the  field  and  attempted  to  arrest  the 
man  pointed  out  by  Durst.  The  reception  given  Anderson  was  a  rough  one, 
Anderson  having  confessed  that  he  did  not  have  a  warrant  of  arrest.  Return- 
ing to  Wheatland,  he  had  a  complaint  drawn.  Armed  with  a  warrant,  he 
now  made  another  attempt  to  arrest  the  leader.  This  time  he  received  a 
reception  even  warmer  than  the  first.  In  the  scrimmage,  in  which  women 
pickers  as  well  as  men  participated,  Anderson  was  wounded  in  the  arm, 
and  was  fortunate  to  escape  with  his  life. 

Again  repairing  to  Wheatland,  Anderson  notified  Sheriff  G.  H.  Voss  over 
the  phone  of  the  conditions,  and  advised  immediate  action.  The  sheriff 
assembled  several  deputies  in  Marysville,  among  them  the  man  Riordan, 
whom  he  knew  to  be  fearless,  and  proceeded  to  Wheatland.  Arriving  there, 
he  was  met  by  District  Attorney  Manweli,  who  had  spent  the  day  in  Wheat- 


land  on  legal  business.     Manwell  volunteered  to  accompany  the  posse  to  the 
scene  of  the  trouble. 

On  their  arrival  at  the  hop-fields,  the  officers  found  that  an  indignation 
meeting  was  in  progress,  with  one  man  perched  on  a  box  in  the  center  of  a 
dance  platform,  making  a  speech  of  an  incendiary  character.  Making  his 
way  through  the  crowd,  Manwell  sought  the  cause  for  the  gathering.  As  he 
did  so  the  strikers  surged  around  him,  and  about  the  sheriff  and  his  deputies. 
In  the  excitement,  a  portion  of  the  platform  broke  down,  as  did  the  box  the 
speaker  was  standing  upon.  '  This  seemed  to  intensify  the  bad  blood  among 
the  rioters.  As  Manwell  stood  with  his  arm  upraised,  and  with  cigar  in 
hand,  appealing  to  the  strikers  to  "keep  the  peace,"  he  was  shot  down, 
and  died  almost  instantly. 

The  rioters  then  turned  their  attention  to  the  other  "Scissorsville  offi- 
cers," this  being  the  term  by  which  the  leader  had  referred  to  the  sheriff  and 
others  in  his  speech  before  their  arrival.  Sheriff  Voss  was  next  attacked.  A 
large  Porto  Rican  among  the  strikers  secured  the  sheriff's  club,  and  was 
beating  him  over  the  head  with  it  when  Deputy  Sheriff  Henry  Daken,  a  resi- 
dent of  Wheatland,  unloaded  one  barrel  of  his  shotgun  into  the  back  of  Voss' 
assailant,  killing  him  instantly.  Just  who  shot  the  man  Riordan  was  never 
learned  with  certainty. 

After  killing  the  Porto  Rican,  Deputy  Sheriff  Daken  was  compelled  to 
shoot  another  man,  a  Mexican,  in  the  hand.  His  gun  was  then  empty,  and 
he  was  forced  to  flee  the  mob.  He  arrived  at  the  store  building  pursued  by 
about  twenty  of  the  rioters.  Taking  a  position  behind  the  counter,  after  the 
doors  were  locked,  he  exchanged  his  clothing  for  other  garments  provided 
him,  and  shaved  off  his  moustache.  Thus  disguised,  he  was  able  peaceably 
to  retreat  from  the  building  toward  evening,  after  the  mob  had  threatened  to 
burn  the  place.  Daken  was  later  the  principal  witness  at  the  trial  of  the 
murderers  of  District  Attorney  Manwell.  But  for  the  work  of  Daken,  the 
horde  probably  would  have  murdered  every  one  of  the  sheriff's  deputies. 

The  unfortunate  district  attorney  was  a  member  of  the  Wheatland 
branch  of  Odd  Fellows.  Members  of  the  lodge,  as  soon  as  they  learned  of 
the  murder,  formed  a  committee  to  go  to  the  scene  of  the  crime  and  recover 
the  body.  At  risk  of  being  treated  roughly,  the  committee  well  performed 
their  disagreeable  task.  They  met  some  faint  opposition,  but  finally,  on 
proving  that  their  mission  was  a  peaceable  and  a  sacred  one,  were  able  to 
remove  the  remains  to  their  hall,  to  rest  there  till  the  arrival  of  the  coroner. 
Several  suspects  were  arrested  by  City  Marshal  C.  J.  McCoy  and  taken 
to  the  County  Jail  in  Marysville.  On  the  following  morning,  Adjt.-Gen. 
E.  A.  Forbes,  close  friend  of  Manwell  and  former  resident  of  Yuba  County, 
ordered  Company  I,  of  Oroville,  and  Company  G,  of  Sacramento,  together 
with  Troop  B  of  the  latter  place,  to  Wheatland,  where  martial  law  reigned 
for  several  days. 

Sheriff  Voss  was  removed  to  a  Marysville  hospital,  where  he  was  forced 
to  remain  until  well  into  September  before  reporting  at  his  office.  For  a 
time  his  life  wa«  despaired  of ;  and  while  he  lived  for  several  years  aftc-i  this 
experience,  his  friends  contended  that  his  life  was  cut  short  by  the  treatment 
he  received  on  "bloody  Sunday"  at  Wheatland. 

Through  arrests  made,  and  through  further  investigation,  E.  B.  Stan- 
wood,  who  was  appointed  by  the  supervisors  to  succeed  E.  T.  Manwell  as 
district  attorney,  learned  with  the  aid  of  other  officers  that  "Blackie"  Ford 
and  Herman  D.  Suhr  were  the  ringleaders  among  the  I.  W.  W.  rioters.  Ford 
was  traced  to  Winnemucca,  Nev.,  and  returned  on  August  18  to  Marysville, 
where  he  was  recognized;  as  a  man  who  previously  had  preached  I.  W.  W.' 
doctrine  in  the  county-seat,    Suhr  was  taken  in  Prescott,  Ariz. 


The  trial  of  Ford  and  Suhr,  together  with  that  of  several  suspects 
indicted  by  the  grand  jury  for  the  murder  of  Manwell,  began  on  January  12, 
1914.  In  the  court-room  appeared  a  number  of  "sob-sisters,"  some  repre- 
senting a  San  Francisco  journal,  and  some  others,  members  of  organizations 
allied  with  the  I.  W.  W.  The  latter  organization  rented  a  house  across  from 
the  courthouse  and  established  headquarters  there,  sending  out  literature 
intended  to  create  sympathy  for  the  men  on  trial.  The  jurors  chosen  to  hear 
the  evidence  were  A.  F.  Folsom,  Browns  Valley;  W.  H.  Finch,  eastern  Yuba 
County;  A.  J.  McCarty,  Hammonton ;  C.  E.  Stephenson  and  Frank  Platte, 
Marysville ;  Emile  -Picard,  who  later  was  one  of  the  victims,  with  his  wife, 
in  a  double  murder,  mentioned  in  this  chapter;  C.  E.  Shogren,  August  Erick- 
son,  and  Edward  Carlson,  all  of  Arboga ;  R.  E.  Alderman,  of  Waldo ;  John 
J.  Norton,  of  Marigold  ;  and  W.  Bainbridge,  of  Rackerby.  A.  C.  Allread, 
a  Marysville  blacksmith,  was  selected  by  agreement  as  an  alternate  juror, 
to  take  part  in  the  verdict  in  the  event  of  sickness  or  death  of  an}-  member 
of  the  jury.  Daily  attendants  at  the  trial  were  men  well  known  as  active 
in  I.  W.  W.  ranks.  Such  as  were  suspected  of  being  present  for  ulterior 
purposes  were  closely  watched  by  the  officers. 

District  Attorney  Stanwood  was  assisted  in  the  prosecution  of  the 
defendants  by  W.  H.  Carlin,  well-known  Marysville  attorney,  who  bore  a 
State-wide  reputation  as  a  criminal  lawyer,  but  who  always  preferred  to  be 
on  the  side  of  the  defense.  It  was  proven  by  the  prosecution  that  Suhr  had, 
during  the  agitation  at  Wheatland,  sent  a  telegram  to  I.  W.  W.  headquarters 
at  San  Francisco,  ordering  that  "more  wobblies  be  sent  to  Wheatland."  A 
verdict  of  conviction  was  returned  against  both  Ford  and  Suhr,  and  they 
were  given  life  sentences.  Several  unsuccessful  attempts  have  been  made 
to  secure  their  parole,  but  to  no  avail.  Judge  E.  P.  McDaniel,  who  presided 
at  their  trial,  would  never  take  a  part  in  any  movement  toward  commutation 
of  sentence  or  parole. 

In  Memoriam 

Edward  Tecumseh  Manwell  was  a  native  of  Wheatland.  He  taught 
school  a  number  of  years  in  his  native  county,  at  the  same  time  studying 
law.  His  first  political  office  was  that  of  Assemblyman;  and  he  served  two 
terms  as  a  representative  from  this  district,  then  known  as  the  Eighth 
Assembly  District.  He  next  was  chosen  county  superintendent  of  schools, 
holding  the  office  from  1906  to  1910.  In  1910,  he  succeeded  Fred  H.  Greely, 
present  county  auditor  and  recorder,  as  district  attorney,  filling  the  office 
until  his  death.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity,  as  well  as  of 
the  Odd  Fellows,  and  had  served  as  a  member  of  the  National  Guard. 

Manwell  was  survived  by  his  widow  and  eight  children,  the  oldest  being 
Ray  Manwell,  who  at  the  time  this  is  written  is  himself  filling  the  office  of 
district  attorney.  The  remains  of  Edward  T.  Manwell  rest  in  the  family 
plot  at  Wheatland.  The  funeral  procession  that  proceeded  from  Wheatland, 
where  the  services  were  held,  to  the  grave,  was  attended  by  people  from  all 
walks  of  life  in  Yuba  and  the  surrounding  counties. 

The  conviction  of  Ford  and  Suhr  has  for  years  caused  the  I.  W.  W.'s 
to  give  this  section  a  wide  berth.  The  Wheatland  tragedy,  it  should  be 
added,  had  the  effect  of  arousing  the  people  of  the  State  to  legislation  pro- 
viding more  definite  rules  for  camps  where  workers  are  employed,  particu- 
larly as  to  sanitary  conditions,  proper  housing,  water  supply,  etc. 

Murder  of  the  Picards 
The  only  double  murder  recorded  in  the  annals  of  Yuba  County  took 
place  on  the  night  of  April  29,  1915,  at  the  "Bit  House,"  a  roadside  place  on 
the    Marysville-Oroville    highway,    seven    miles    north    of   Marysville.      The 


victims  were  Emile  Picard,  an  aged  Frenchman,  and  his  wife,  Ellen  Picard, 
who  was  considerably  younger.  Connected  with  the  place  was  a  bar,  through 
which  an  entrance  could  be  gained  to  their  living-rooms. 

The  dastardly  crime  was  discovered  by  Harvey  Smullin,  clerk  for  his 
father,  S.  N.  D.  Smullin,  a  grocer  of  Honcut.  Young  Smullin,  early  in  the 
morning,  entered  the  Picard  kitchen  with  an  order  of  groceries,  and  was 
surprised  not  to  find  Mrs.  Picard  there  to  greet  him.  Going  to  the  dining- 
room,  he  came  upon  the  kneeling  form  of  Mrs.  Picard,  her  hands  joined  as 
if  in  prayer,  and  her  head  upturned  as  if  pleading  with  her  murderer  to  spare 
her  life.  Mrs.  Picard  was  dead  from  two  bullet  wounds,  one  entering  between 
the  mouth  and  ear,  and  the  other  entering  the  neck  and  terminating  in  the 
spinal  cord,  as  the  post-mortem  examination  afterward  showed.  The  remains 
of  Picard  were  found  in  the  barn  on  the  place.  Smullin  rushed  to  the  home 
of  ].  E.  Strain  and  told  of  his  discovery.  Strain  at  once  telephoned  the 
news  to  Sheriff  C.  J.  McCoy,  who  with  his  deputies  and  the  newspaper  men 
was  soon  at  the  scene  of  the  crime.  The  first  theory  was  that  the  couple 
were  robbed  of  their  money  and  killed  because  they  recognized  the  operators. 
But  when  two  purses  were  found  on  the  premises — one  in  the  bar  and  the 
other  in  Mrs.  Picard's  lodgings — with  $140  in  coin  in  them,  the  officers  were 
puzzled,  but  for  a  short  time  only. 

Behind  an  old  clock  in  the  barroom,  Sheriff  McCoy  came  upon  a  business 
card  bearing  the  name  and  address  of  William  Shannon,  cobbler  of  Honcut, 
who  was  recognized  by  the  neighbors  of  the  Picards  as  a  drinking  man  who 
frequently  visited  their  place.  Eater  in  the  clay,  Sheriff  McCoy  met  a  farm 
hand  who  said  he  observed  a  man  answering  Shannon's  description  walking 
along  the  road  between  Ramirez  Station  on  the  Western  Pacific  Railroad 
and  the  Picard  place.  That  was  about  six  o'clock  in  the  evening;  and  the 
coroner's  office  had  reported  to  the  officers  that  the  Picards,  according  to 
their  observations  of  the  bodies,  had  been  killed  about  that  hour.  Two  days 
later  a  man  serving  time  on  the  chain-gang  in  Marysville,  for  drunkenness, 
told  the  police  that  he  had  seen  a  man  burning  a  pair  of  overalls  in  a  heating 
stove  at  the  rear  of  the  Chicago  Saloon.  In  the  stove  the  officers  found 
the  buttons  from  the  overalls  and  a  patent  mark,  all  of  which  corresponded 
with  those  on  the  brand  of  overalls  William  Shannon  always  wore. 

Shannon  was  arrested  at  the  Western  Pacific  depot  as  he  was  about  to 
board  a  train  for  Honcut.  The  wife  of  Shannon,  when  visited  at  Honcut  a 
few  days  before,  told  Sheriff  McCoy  that  her  husband  had  left  home  on  the 
night  the  murder  was  committed  and  had  not  returned.  She  said  she  thought 
he  had  gone  to  Marysville  for  a  spree. 

Although  he  weakened  after  placed  in  jail,  and  made  remarks  in  the 
hearing  of  his  fellow  prisoners  indicating  a  troubled  conscience,  Shannon 
never  confessed.  He  went  to  trial  and  was  convicted.  Certain  peculiarities 
on  the  soles  of  his  boots  corresponding  to  tracks  found  on  the  Picard 
premises  helped  the  jury  to  agree  that  the  defendant  was  the  murderer.  One 
juryman,  however,  saved  him  from  the  gallows,  and  he  was  given  a  life 
term.    He  now  is  endeavoring  to  secure  a  parole. 

Picard  was  a  man  of  education,  and  when  young  was  employed  as  buyer 
of  silks  for  a  wholesale  house  in  New  York.  His  remains,  with  those  of  his 
wife,  rest  in  the  Marysville  Cemetery. 


John  Sperbeck 

In  the  period  between  September  6,  1915,  and  February  6,  1922,  Marys- 
ville lost  three  policemen  at  the  hands  of  assassins.  Police  Officer  John 
Sperbeck  was  the  first  to  receive  a  fatal  bullet  wound.     About  four  o'clock 


on  the  afternoon  of  September  6.  1915,  while  Sperbeck  was  on  duty  at  the 
police  station,  word  came  that  a  Chinese  store  on  C  Street,  between  First 
and  Second,  had  just  been  held  up  by  a  youthful-looking  bandit,  and  the 
contents  of  the  till  taken.  Sperbeck  at  once  responded,  and  with  Chief  of 
Police  C.  A.  Smith  traced  the  robber  to  a  lumber-yard  near  the  corner  of 
Fourth  and  C  Streets  and  found  him  hiding  behind  a  pile  of  lumber,  where 
he  was  changing  his  outer  clothing  for  some  he  had  previously  placed  there. 
He  flashed  a  gun  on  Smith,  at  the  same  time  taking  refuge  behind  another 
stack  of  lumber.  Smith  shouted  to  Sperbeck  to  beware  of  the  man,  and  the 
next  moment  a  shot  rang  out.  The  robber  had  espied  Sperbeck  taking  aim 
at  him  from  another  portion  of  the  yard,  while  crouched  behind  some  tim- 
bers. The  robber's  aim  was  true,  the  shot  striking  Sperbeck  in  the  back  of 
the  head  and  inflicting  a  fatal  wound  from  which  he  died  about  seven  o'clock 
that  evening,  in  a  hospital  to  which  citizens  had  hurried  him.  He  never 
regained  consciousness. 

The  murderer  proved  to  be  Kosta  Kromphold,  alais  John  W.  McLarney, 
a  New  York  lad,  only  eighteen  years  of  age.  He  was  caught  in  the  Yuba 
River  bottom  east  of  the  city  while  trying  to  escape  a  horde  of  citizens  who 
took  up  the  trail  from  the  lumber-yard.  The  jury  that  tried  him  returned 
a  verdict  of  murder  in  the  first  degree,  and  he  was  hanged  at  Folsom  prison. 

James  Mock 

Policeman  James  Mock  was  shot  at  a  spot  in  the  jungles,  a  short  distance 
from  the  Western  Pacific  passenger  depot  on  K  Street,  on  May  7,  1918, 
while  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties.  His  murderer  was  a  colored  man  named 
William  Shortridge,  who  was  traced  to  the  spot  after  he  had  attempted  an 
early  morning  robbery  at  the  Dawson  House,  a  hostelry  of  pioneer  days 
which  was  wrecked  in  the  year  1922  to  make  way  for  the  service  station  now 
located  at  Second  and  E  Streets.     Mock  died  a  few  days  after  he  was  shot. 

Mock  was  in  the  act  of  placing  his  handcuffs  on  Shortridge  when  the 
negro  wrenched  the  officer's  pistol  from  him  and  fired.  He  escaped,  but  was 
found  by  citizens  in  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  hiding  in  a  grain-field 
south  of  the  city.    He,  too,  was  convicted  and  hanged. 

Francis  M.  Heenan 

About  9 :  30  o'clock  in  the  evening  of  February  6,  1922,  Police  Officer 
Francis  M.  Heenan  had  his  attention  attracted,  as  he  was  walking  along  C 
Street,  between  First  and  Second,  to  a  pistol  shot  fired  in  the  Canteen  Saloon 
at  the  northwest  corner  of  Second  and  C  Streets.  Hastening,  with  a  citizen, 
to  the  swinging  doors  of  the  place,  Heenan  observed  that  a  hold-up  was 
being  enacted.  Bolting  through  the  doors,  without  seeming  to  realize  the 
seriousness  of  the  situation,  he  came  face  to  face  with  the  robber.  In  a  flash 
the  man  fired  a  shot  into  the  officer's  breast,  killing  him  almost  instantly. 
The  murderer  lost  no  time.  He  was  seen  to  hasten  along  the  north  side 
of  Second  Street  to  Elm,  where  he  changed  his  course  up  that  narrow  street ; 
and  although  citizens  at  once  took  up  the  trail,  he  covered  his  tracks  com- 
pletely. Many  explanations  have  been  made  as  to  how  he  got  away,  but 
none  has  been  accepted  as  the  correct  one. 

Joe  "Silver"  Kelly,  alias  Con  Connelly,  is  wanted  for  this  crime.  There 
is  a  reward  of  $800  on  his  head,  $300  of  which  was  offered  immediately  by 
the  owner  of  the  Canteen  Saloon,  and  the  remainder  by  the  city  council. 
The  fact  that  Kelly  was  in  Marysville  on  the  day  preceding  the  night  of  the 
murder,  and  could  not  be  found  after  the  shooting,  convinced  Chief  of  Police 
C.  A.  Smith  and  Sheriff  McCoy  that  he  was  the  murderer  of  Heenan.     Circu- 


lars  have  been  sent  to  all  parts  of  the  world  giving  Kelly's  description,  and 
heralding  the  reward,  but  so  far  to  no  avail. 

In  the"  early  days,  an  officer  named  "Butch"  Dobler  was  killed  by  a 
Mexican  near  the  spot  where  Officer  Heenan  was  murdered.  In  this  instance, 
also,  the  murderer  made  a  successful  get-away. 



At  one  time  in  Marysville  the  whipping-post  promised  to  become  a 
steady  means  of  meeting  the  minor  crimes.  In  the  Register  of  Suits,  a 
very  interesting  volume,  used  by  the  first  alcalde  of  Marysville,  Stephen  J. 
Field,  and  still  preserved  with  the  Yuba  Count}-  records,  pages  112-117,  the 
following  is  found : 

"In  the  case  of  the  People  of  the  State  of  California  against  Frederick 
Burcholder  and  John  Barrett,  the  jury  found  the  defendant  Barrett  guilty 
of  stealing  a  tin  box  containing  about  sixty  dollars'  worth  of  gold  dust  and 
a  gold  dust  bag  containing  a  quantity  of  gold  dust  of  the  value  of  from 
twelve  to  fifteen  hundred  dollars.     The  judgment  of  the  court  was : 

"Therefore,  it  is  ordered  that  the  said  defendant,  John  Barrett,  be 
taken  from  this  place  to  Johnson's  ranch  (the  place  where  the  theft  was 
committed),  and  there  receive  on  his  bare  back  within  twenty -four  hours 
from  this  time  fifty  lashes  well  laid  on;  and  within  forty-eight  hours  from 
this  time  fifty  additional  lashes  well  laid  on ;  and  within  three  days  from 
this  time  fifty  additional  lashes  well  laid  on;  and  within  four  days  from 
date  fifty  additional  lashes  well  laid  on ;  and  within  five  days  from  date  fifty 
additional  lashes  well  laid  on.  But  it  is  ordered  that  the  four  last  punish- 
ments be  remitted  provided  the  said  defendant  make  in  the  meantime  resti- 
tution of  the  said  gold  dust  bag  and  its  contents.  The  Sheriff  is  ordered  to 
execute  this  judgment.  Witness  my  hand  and  seal  this  seventh  day  of 
April,   1850.  Stephen  J.  Field,  First  Alcalde  of  Marysville." 

Under  date  of  the  8th  of  April  the  record  adds :  "The  sentence  executed 
by  the  infliction  of  twenty  lashes,  after  receiving  which  he  confessed  the 
theft  of  the  bag  containing  from  twelve  to  fifteen  hundred  dollars  in  gold 
dust  and  made  restitution  of  the  same." 

Directory  Account  of  a  Whipping-post  Case 

The  City  Directory  of  1856  also  interestingly  describes  how,  as  early 
as  1850.  the  whipping-post  had  to  be  resorted  to.  In  the  month  of  April, 
the  town  was  thrown  into  a  state  of  excitement  by  a  daring  burglary,  com- 
mitted at^the  Sutter  House,  conducted  by  John  Gildersleeve.  A  truck  con- 
taining $700  in  gold  dust  had  been  robbed,  and  the  perpetrators  had  fled. 
The  alcalde  issued  a  warrant;  and  the  robbers,  two  in  number,  were  pur- 
sued and  captured  by  Sheriff  Twitchell  and  posse.  A  grand  jury  was  sum- ' 
moned  in  due  form,  and  indictment  was  speedily  returned,  G.'  N.  Swezy 
acting  as  prosecuting  attorney.  A  petit  jury  was  forthwith  summoned;  the 
accused  were  tried,  found  guilty  and  sentenced  to  be  whipped ;  the  sentence 
was  executed;  and  the  culprits,  who  left  town  with  their  plunder  at  four 


o'clock  in  the  morning,  left  the  same  town  at  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of 
the  same  day  with  well-merited  stripes.  The  absence  of  secure  jails,  or  other 
places  of  confinement,  rendered  this  mode  of  punishment  unavoidable,  unless 
crime  was  to  be  allowed  to  go  unchecked. 


The  code  of  honor  was  frequently  resorted  to  as  a  method  of  healing 
wounded  feelings  in  the  early  days  of  Yuba  County,  but  the  practice  soon 
sank  into  decay.  Many  of  the  meetings  were  held  so  secretly,  and  the  results 
were  so  trifling,  that  the  affairs  never  became  generally  known.  Some,  how- 
ever, were  subjects  of  general  comment  for  a  long  time. 

Near-Duel  between  Judges 

Probably  the  most  celebrated  duel,  or  rather  incipient  duel,  which  ever 
occurred  in  the  county,  was  that  between  Judges  Stephen  J.  Field  and 
AVilliam  T.  Barbour.  The  latter  was  judge  of  the  Tenth  District  Court,  and 
in  some  manner  a  feeling  of  enmity  sprang  up  between  the  two  jurists.  This 
spirit  led  to  innumerable  little  squabbles  and  nearly  culminated  seriously. 
George  C.  Gorham  wrote  a  criticism  on  Judge  Barbour  and  handed  it  to 
O.  P.  Stidger,  editor  of  the  Herald,  for  publication.  The  same  day,  as  Judge 
Field  was  proceeding  to  his  office,  with  his  arms  full  of  books,  he  was 
assaulted  by  Judge  Barbour,  who  claimed  that  his  opponent  had  caused  the 
publication  of  the  offensive  article. 

The  parties  being  separated,  by  some  diplomatic  efforts  Judge  Barbour 
was  forced  to  send  the  challenge.  This  left  Judge  Field  with  the  privilege 
of  selecting  the  weapons  and  the  manner  of  meeting.  It  was  at  first  proposed 
to  fight  with  knives  in  a  dark  room,  but  Judge  Barbour  would  not  accede 
to  this,  claiming  that  it  was  cruelty.  Finally  it  was  decided  to  have  a  meet- 
ing with  firearms,  on  the  opposite  side  of  Bear  River.  Charles  S.  Fairfax 
acted  as  second  for  Judge  Barbour,  and  Gordon  N.  Mott  for  Judge  Field. 
Although  both  parties  appeared  on  the  ground,  an  actual  conflict  was  avoided. 

Cause,  a  Woman 

Early  Tuesday  morning,  March  8,  1853,  two  men  fought  a  duel  near 
the  cemetery,  in  Marysville,  with  double-barrelled  shotguns,  loaded  with 
buckshot.  One  was  wounded  in  the  thigh,  and  had  his  left  arm  broken. 
Cause,  a  woman.     No  notice  was  taken  by  the  authorities. 

Newspaper  Men  Mix 

A  duel  occurred  in  1853  in  which  Richard  Rust,  editor  of  the  California 
Express,  challenged  O.  P.  Stidger,  editor  of  the  Marysville  Herald.  They 
met  two  miles  below  Yuba  City,  and  used  revolvers,  firing  at  a  distance  of 
ten  paces.  One  shot  was  fired,  and  the  bullet  went  through  the  coat  of 
Stidger.  The  cause  was  some  articles  appearing  in  the  Herald  criticizing 
some  in  the  Express,  and  the  motives  of  the  editor  in  publishing  them. 

Another  Bloodless  Duel 

In  1854  a  stranger  in  Camptonville  was  inveigled  into  a  sham  quarrel, 
and  as  a  result  a  duel  was  arranged.  Two  seconds  were  chosen  and  a  sur- 
geon appointed.  The  parties  went  to  the  grounds  south  of  Camptonville. 
When  the  stranger  fired,  his  opponent  fell  and  was  immediately  sprinkled 
with  red  berry  juice.  The  stranger,  seeing  him  fall,  and  observing  the  red, 
which  he  supposed  to  be  blood,  thought  that  a  good  place  to  get  away  from, 
and  no  time  so  good  as  the  present,  and  therefore  broke  for  the  wilderness. 
Several  months  later  his  bones  and  clothes  were  found  at  the  foot  of  a 
precipice  over  which  he  had  fallen  in  his  fright,  a  distance  of  forty  feet,  and 
been  dashed  to  death.     The  body  was  accidentally  discovered  in  the  follow- 


ing  manner:  A  man  named  Blackburn  had  murdered  a  boy,  George  W. 
Carothers,  and  fled  in  the  direction  the  stranger  had  taken ;  and  while  hunt- 
ing for  Blackburn,  the  citizens  discovered  the  remains  of  the  unfortunate 
victim  of  their  practical  joke. 

Turner-Howser  Duel 

Albert  Turner  and  William  Howser  agreed  to  settle  in  an  honorable 
way,  and  adjourned  to  Sutter  County,  opposite  the  Yuba  County  Hospital, 
for  that  purpose,  June  10,  1858.  The  sheriff  interfered,  however,  and  they 
started  for  Butte  County,  but  finally  returned  to  Marysville.  They  met 
near  the  hospital  the  next  morning,  with  seconds  and  surgeons,  and  had 
five  shots  at  each  other,  at  a  distance  of  fifty  paces,  with  shotguns  loaded 
with  ounce  balls.  At  the  last  fire  Howser  was  badly  wounded  in  the  right 
arm.    Howser  was  an  uncle  of  S.  C.  Howser,  of  the  present  police  force. 

Last  on  the  County  Records 
The  last  resort  to  the  "code  honorable"  was  made  by  Thomas  Burns 
and  John  Davis,  both  of  Marysville.  They  had  a  quarrel  over  some  domestic 
difficulties,  in  which  Davis  received  severe  chastisement.  He  challenged 
Burns  to  the  field  of  honor,  and  they  fought  a  duel  on  January  8,  1871,  a 
few  miles  below  Yuba  City.  Revolvers  were  used  at  thirty  paces.  After  the 
exchange  of  four  harmless  shots,  the  honor  of  these  men  was  completely 
satisfied  and  they  retired  from  the  field. 


District  Court 

Under  the  California  law  of  1850,  Yuba  County  was  in  the  Eighth 
Judicial  District,  and  the  first  term  of  the  court  was  commenced  on  June 
3,  1850,  by  Hon.  William  R.  Turner.  The  jurisdiction  of  this  court  was  very 
wide,  including  chancer)',  civil  and  criminal.  It  had  original  jurisdiction 
in  all  cases  in  equity,  and  its  civil  jurisdiction  included  all  cases  where  the 
amount  exceeded  $200,  causes  involving  the  title  to  real  property  or  the 
validity  of  any  tax,  and  issues  of  fact  joined  in  the  Probate  Court.  It  had 
power  to  inquire  into  all  criminal  offenses  by  means  of  a  grand  jury,  and 
to  try  indictments  found  by  that  body.  The  first  grand  jury  convened  on 
June  4,  1850. 

In  1851  the  legislature  took  from  the  court  its  criminal  jurisdiction  and 
conferred  this  upon  the  Court  of  Sessions,  leaving  it  the  power  of  hearing 
appeals  from  that  court  in  criminal  matters,  and  the  power  to  try  all  indict- 
ments for  murder,  manslaughter,  arson,  and  other  cases  that  could  not  be 
tried  in  the  Court  of  Sessions.  At  the  same  session  the  legislature  formed 
Yuba,  Nevada  and  Sutter  Counties  into  the  Tenth  Judicial  District.  In  1851 
Hon.  Gordon  N.  Mott  was  appointed  by  the  Governor  to  fill  the  vacancy 
caused  by  the  removal  of  Hon.  William  R.  Turner  to  another  district. 

In  1853  the  Tenth  Judicial  District  was  changed  by  the  legislature  so 
as  to  embrace  Yuba,  Nevada,  Sutter  and  Sierra  Counties.  Again  in  1857 
an  alteration  was  made,  reducing  the  territory  covered  by  the  district  to 
Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties.  In  1863,  the  size  of  the  district  was  again  in- 
creased to  four  counties,  Yuba,  Sutter,  Colusa  and  Sierra.  The  legislature 
in  1863  also  raised  the  civil  jurisdiction  of  the  court  from  amounts  over  $200 
to  amounts  over  $300,  gave  it  exclusive  power  to  try  indictments  for  treason, 
misprision  of  treason,  murder,  and  manslaughter. 

Court  of  Sessions 

The  Court  of  Sessions  was  composed  of  the  county  judge  as  chief 
justice,  and  two  justices  of  the  peace  as  associate  justices,  whose  term  of 


office  was  one  year,  and  who  were  elected  annually  by  the  justices  of  the 
county,  The  first  term  was  commenced  on  June  10,  1850.  The  duties  of 
this  court  included  those  now  discharged  by  the  board  of  supervisors.  The 
court  continued  to  perform  these  duties  until  1855,  when  the  board  of  super- 
visors was  organized.  In  1851,  the  power  to  inquire  into  criminal  offenses 
by  means  of  a  grand  jury  was  transferred  from  the  District  Court  to  the 
Court  of  Sessions.  All  criminal  indictments  were  tried  here,  except  for 
murder,  manslaughter  and  arson.  In  1863,  the  Court  of  Sessions  was  abol- 
ished by  act  of  the  legislature. 

County  Court 

In  this  early  period  the  County  Court  was  held  by  the  county  judge, 
whose  term  was  fixed  by  the  constitution  at  four  years.  Hon.  Henry  P. 
Haun  was  elected  by  the  people  of  Yuba  County  on  the  first  Monday  in 
April,  1850,  and  opened  the  County  Court  on  June  3,  1850.  An  appeal  lay 
to  this  court  in  civil  cases  from  a  justice  of  the  peace  and  the  Recorder's 
Court.    The  business  transacted  by  this  court  was  at  first  necessarily  small. 

In  1860,  the  legislature  made  the  jurisdiction  of  this  court  to  embrace 
cases  of  forcible  entry  and  detainer.  The  Court  of  Sessions  having  been 
abolished,  criminal  jurisdiction  was  also  given  to  this  court,  with  power 
to  try  all  indictments,  except  those  for  treason,  misprision  of  treason,  murder 
and  manslaughter,  which  indictments  had  to  be  certified  to  the  District 
Court  for  trial. 

Probate  Court 

The  county  judge  was  also  the  judge  of  the  Probate  Court.  The  juris1 
diction  of  this  court  embraced  all  probate  matters.  Issues  of  fact  joined  here 
were  adjourned  to  the  District  Court  for  trial,  or  by  agreement  could  be 
tried  in  this  court.  Afterwards,  by  act  of  the  legislature,  the  Probate  Court 
was  given  the  power  to  summon  juries  and  try  issues  of  fact. 

Recorder's,  Mayor's  and  Police  Courts 
The  charter  by  which  the  City  of  Marysville  was  incorporated  in  1851 
provided  for  a  Recorder's  Court  to  be  held  by  the  recorder  of  the  city, 
elected  annually  by  the  people.  The  first  to  fill  this  position  was  Gordon 
N.  Mott,  elected  in  1855.  The  jurisdiction  of  this  court  extended  to  the  city 
limits,  and  embraced  the  same  civil  and  criminal  powers  as  those  possessed 
by  a  justice  of  the  peace.  It  also  had  exclusive  jurisdiction  of  all  violations 
of  a  city  ordinance,  nuisances  in  the  city,  vagrancy,  and  disorderly  conduct. 
By  the  charter  of  1855,  the  civil  jurisdiction  of  this  court  was  taken 
away.  The  office  of  recorder  was  abolished  by  the  legislature  of  1862, 
and  a  Mayor's  Court  was  established.  All  powers  of  the  recorder  were 
transferred  to  the  mayor  of  the  city,  who  held  a  new  court. 

By  act  of  the  legislature,  the  city  was  reincorporated  in  1876,  and  the 
Mayor's  Court  was  changed  to  the  Police  Court,  as  it  exists  at  present,  with 
the  same  powers  as  those  possessed  by  the  Mayor's  Court.  The  police  judge 
thereafter  was  elected  annually  by  the  mayor  and  common  council. 

Justices  of  the  Peace 

By  the  law  of  1850  the  term  of  a  justice  of  the  peace  was  fixed  at  one 
year.  His  jurisdiction  extended  to  the  limits  of  the  township  in  which  he 
was  elected.  He  had  cognizance  of  actions  on  contract,  for  damages,  and 
to  recover  specific  property  when  the  amount  or  value  did  not  exceed  $200. 

In  1851  the  powers  of  the  justice  of  the  peace  were  considerably  in- 
creased. He  had  jurisdiction  of  actions  to  recover  money  for  damages 
to  personal  property,  for  fines,  penalties  and  forfeitures,  actions  on  bonds, 
enforcement  of  lien  on  personal  property,  actions  to  recover  personal  prop- 


erty,  and  judgments  by  confession,  where  the  amount  in  all  these  cases 
did  not  exceed  $500,  and  on  a  bond  taken  by  him,  even  if  the  amount  did 
exceed  that  sum ;  also  jurisdiction  over  cases  of  forcible  entry  and  detainer, 
and  for  the  trial  of  the  right  in  mining  claims. 

In  the  City  of  Marysville,  the  Police  Court  has  cognizance  of  criminal 
cases  to  the  exclusion  of  the  Justice's  Court. 


Among  Judge  Field's  associates  at  the  Marysville  bar  during  his  resi- 
dence in  the  city  he  helped  to  christen  were :  Richard  S.  Mesick,  afterwards 
district  judge  in  Storey  County,  Nev. ;  Charles  H.  Bryan,  who  died  in  Vir- 
ginia City,  Nev. ;  Jesse  O.  Goodwin,  afterwards  Speaker  of  the  Assembly, 
district  attorney,  and  State  Senator;  Gabriel  N.  Swezy,  afterwards  in  both 
branches  of  the  legislature ;  Gen.  William  Walker,  the  "grey-eyed  man  of 
destiny,"  the  foremost  filibuster  of  the  world ;  John  V.  Berry,  whom  a  drug- 
gist poisoned  by  mistake;  E.  D.  Wheeler,  afterwards  State  Senator;  T.  B. 
Reardon,  who  died  in  Oroville ;  Isaac  S.  Belcher,  later  district  judge,  supreme 
judge  and  Supreme  Court  commissioner;  E.  C.  Marshall,  later  a  member 
of  Congress  and  Attorney  General ;  and  at  least  fifty  others,  including  Charles 
E.  Filkins,  Charles  Lindley,  Henry  P.  Haun,  N.  E.  Whitesides,  F.  L.  Hatch, 
George  Rowre,  William  C.  Belcher,  Charles  E.  De  Long,  afterward  minister 
to  Japan,  and  Henry  K.  Mitchell,  who  became  prominent  in  law  and  politics 
in  the  State  of  Nevada. 

The  early  bar  of  Yuba  County  had  among  its  members  men  who  later 
gained  national  and  State  fame.  We  recall  Judge  I.  S.  Belcher,  who  was 
made  a  Supreme  Court  commissioner,  ranking  with  the  judges  of  the  State 
Supreme  Court  under  a  provision  of  the  new  constitution  adopted  in  1884. 
Judge  Belcher  had  established  a  lucrative  law  business  in  Marysville  in 
partnership  with  his  brother,  W.  C.  Belcher ;  and  with  the  latter  he  later 
established  an  office  in  San  Francisco,  where  they  were  equally  successful. 
During  the  latter  part  of  their  career  in  Marysville,  they  had  associated  with 
them  another  brother,  E.   A.   Belcher. 

Charles  De  Long  was  appointed  minister  to  Japan  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant,  because  of  the  brilliant  record  made  by  him  in  this  section. 

James  G.  ("Jim")  Eastman  became  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Los 
Angeles  bar,  and  was  noted  throughout  the  State  for  his  eloquence  and 
wit.  Eastman  took  a  prominent  part  in  bringing  about  the  adoption  of  the 
new  State  constitution. 

L.  J.  Ashford  had  an  office  on  Third  Street.  He  spent  his  last  days 
on  the  orchard  of  his  brother  in  Sutter  County. 

S.  M.  Bliss,  who  later  served  as  district  attorney  of  Yuba  County,  is 
remembered  as  a  very  energetic  man  with  an  enviable  record. 

The  same  can  be  said  of  Frank  B.  Crane,  who  became  district  attorney 
of  Sutter  County  and  superintendent  of  schools  in  Yuba  County. 

D.  H.  Cowden,  another  early-day  lawyer,  married  a  daughter  of  Peter 
Van  Fleet,  who  was  made  a  Supreme  Court  commissioner  when  that  body 
was  increased  to  five  members  in  1889.  Mrs.  Cowden,  formerly  Annie  Van 
Fleet,  was  a  graduate  of  the  Poston  Seminary  in  Marysville. 

Edwin  A.  Davis,  who  became  judge  of  the  Superior  Court  of  Yuba 
County,  began  his  career  as  teacher  in  the  schools  of  Camptonville,  studied 
law  while  serving  as  such,  and  opened  his   first  office   in   Marysville. 

Charles  E.  Filkins  is  remembered  as  a  short,  portly,  dignified  man,  and 
an  able  attorney.  He  seldom  took  a  criminal  case.  He  acquired  a  com- 
petency and  died  in  very  comfortable  circumstances.  His  home  was  at  the 
cornes  of  Seventh   and   D   Streets,  in   the   dwelling  now   occupied  by   Mrs. 


Marv  Aaron.  A  daughter  of  Filkins  became  the  wife  of  A.  C.  Bingham, 
well-known  banker  in  his  lifetime.  Another  daughter,  Jennie  Filkins, 
married  C.  P.  Tubbs,  of  San  Francisco. 

Jesse  O.  Goodwin  was  very  prominent  in  the  early  history  of  Yuba 
County.  He  acquired  a  fortune.  At  one  time  he  owned  the  vast  acreage  in 
Sutter  County  that  became  the  property  of  Berg  Brothers.  While  he  remained 
a  bachelor  during  his  palmy  days,  shortly  before  his  death  he  married  Mary 
Wadsworth,  who  became  a  celebrity  as  a  singer.  The  ceremony  took  place 
in  San  Francisco,  while  Goodwin  was  in  declining  health.  During  his  resi- 
ednce  in  Marysville,  Goodwin  had  a  narrow  escape  from  death  while  riding 
with  Dr.  R.  H.  McDaniel  on  the  Feather  River  bridge.  That  structure  was 
then  enclosed  with  a  heavy  framework.  A  runaway  team  entered  the  bridge 
from  the  end  opposite  to  which  Dr.  McDaniel  and  Goodwin  had  driven  in. 
Dr.  McDaniel  escaped  without  injury  when  the  collision  came,  but  Goodwin 
received  injuries  which  left  him  indisposed  for  a  long  time. 

George  C.  Gorham,  another  early-day  lawyer  of  Marysville,  became 
secretary  of  the  United  States  Senate,  through  the  efforts  of  his  friend,  Judge 
Stephen  J.  Field,  a  position  he  held  many  years.  He  was  distinguished  as  a 
great  orator.  He  was  a  brother  of  Charles  M.  Gorham,  who  "was  made  mayor 
of  Marysville. 

Phil  W.  Keyser,  who  for  many  years  held  the  position  of  judge  of  the 
Superior  Court  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties,  while  the  two  were  in  one 
judicial  district,  was  a  very  popular  man  in  Marysville  and  Yuba  City.  He 
gained  prominence  in  the  State  and  nation  through  his  decision  in  the  case  of 
Keys  against  the  North  Bloomfield  Mining  Company,  which  led  to  the  famous 
Sawyer  decision  estopping  hydraulic  mining,  the  detritus  from  which  threat- 
ened great  damage  to  the  valley  counties. 

Lloyd  Magruder  became  county  clerk  in  1857,  and  was  killed  in  1863 
by  highwaymen  in  Washington  Territory.  He  practiced  here  for  many  years, 
and  reared  a  family  in  Marysville. 

R.  H.  McDaniel,  brother  of  the  present  superior  judge  of  Yuba  County, 
practiced  in  Marysville  until  his  health  failed.     He  died  in  1868. 

J.  C.  McQuaid,  an  uncle  of  C.  E.  McOuaid,  present  assessor  of  Sutter 
County,  also  was  a  member  of  the  Yuba  County  bar. 

Zach  Montgomery's  name  is  inseparable  from  the  early  history  of  the 
county.  He  attained  State-wide  fame  as  an  orator  and  pleader.  He  became 
prominent  in  the  anti-debris  litigation. 

Gordon  N.  Mott  was  one  of  the  judges  of  the  county  in  the  very  early 
days.  He  was  a  great  friend  of  Judge  Stephen  J.  Field,  and  was  the  father 
of  Rev.  Edwin  Marshall  Mott,  pastor  of  the  Episcopal  Church  in  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  to  which  charge  the  younger  Mott  was  called  through  the  influ- 
ence of  Judge  Field. 

William  Singer,  Sr.,  is  remembered  as  a  noted  land  lawyer,  making  his 
start  in  Maryrsville.  His  son,  William  Singer,  Jr.,  followed  in  his  footsteps 
and  became  chief  counsel  for  the  Southern  Pacific  Company  in  their  land 

Gabriel  N.  Swezy  was  a  noted  and  prominent  citizen  and  leading  lawyer 
of  Marysville  in  its  early  history.  At  one  time  he  was  greatly  interested 
in  live  stock.  In  every  State  and  county  fair  his  herds  always  were  on  dis- 
play, especially  his  shorthorn  cattle,  to  which  strain  he  leaned.  He  built  the 
house  still  standing  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Seventh  and  D  Streets.  His 
daughter,  Mrs.  Amelia  Coult,  was  a  highly  respected  and  able  teacher  in  the 
Marysville  schools  in  the  eighties  and  nineties.  Charles  E.  Swezy,  land 
attorney,  who  died  recently  in  Sacramento,  was  a  son  of  Gabriel  Swezy\ 


William  Walker  brought  the  bar  of  Yuba  County  into  prominence  when 
he  became  the  leader  of  the  famous  filibustering  party  that  invaded  Central 
America.  His  band  captured  a  number  of  the  citizens  of  Nicaragua,  and 
had  it  not  been  for  Uncle  Sam's  gunboats,  which  took  him  into  camp,  he 
would  have  accomplished  his  aim  to  become  head  of  that  country. 

N.  E.  Whiteside  was  another  of  the  successful  lawyers  of  the  com- 
munity. His  son,  "Bo"  Whiteside,  was  made  a  deputy  sheriff  by  one  of 
the  early-day  sheriffs.  "Bo"  Whiteside  is  now  an  officer  in  Arizona.  The 
elder  Whiteside  married  a  Miss  Vineyard,  sister-in-law  of  Matt  Woods, 
early-day  sheriff.      He  became  famed  as  a  great  orator  and  wit. 

Other  early  lawyers  were  B.  W.  Howser,  who  built  up  a  splendid  office 
business,  E.  G.  Fuller,  and  J.  H.  Craddock,  who  specialized  in  probate  work. 

In  a  later  group  of  Marysville  attorneys  were  M.  C.  Barney,  W.  G. 
Murphy,  C.  L.  Donohoe,  C.  J.  Covillaud,  C.  A.  Webb,  E.  P.  McDaniel,  Edwin 
A.  Forbes,  and  Wallace  Dinsmore.  Forbes  became  district  attorney  of  the 
county  and  later  adjutant-general  of  the  State  of  California.  Donohoe 
moved  to  Willows,  Glenn  County,  where  he  still  lives. 

Still  later  accessions  were  Edward  Tecumseh  Manwell,  who,  while  serv- 
ing as  district  attorney,  was  killed  by  the  I.  W.  AV.'s  in  the  Wheatland  hop- 
riots,  as  is  told  in  another  chapter;  M.  T.  Brittan,  who  also  served  as  district 
attorney,  and  died  in  1922;  W.  S.  Johnson,  who  died  in  the  fall  of  1Q23 ; 
F.  H.  Greely,  now  serving  as  auditor  and  recorder;  and  Arthur  H.  Redington. 

Present-day  members  of  the  Yuba  County  bar  are :  Richard  Belcher, 
W.  H.  Carlin,  W.  E.  Davies,  Arthur  De  Lorimier,  F.  A.  Durvea,  John  E. 
Ebert,  Ray  Manwell,  R.  R.  Raish,  W.  P.  Rich,  E.  B.  Stanwood,"  Alvin  Weis, 
Charles  A.  AYetmore,  and  E.  S.  Norby. 



Judges  and  Justices 

District  Judges,  1850  to  1860:  William  R.  Turner,  Gordon  N.  Mott, 
William  T.  Barbour. 

1860  to  1879:     S.  M.  Bliss,  I.  S.  Belcher  and  Phil  AY.  Keyser. 

County  Judges,  1850  to  1860:  Henry  P.  Haun,  S.  M."  Bliss,  Charles 
Lindley,  L.  R.  Sellon.  and  Charles  Eindley  (returned). 

1860  to  1879:  Charles  E.  Filkins,  Jesse  O.  Goodwin,  S.  M.  Bliss,  and 
L.  R.  Sellon. 

Under  the  new  constitution,  beginning  in  1879,  Phil  W.  Keyser  became 
first  Superior  Court  judge.  Judge  Keyser  and  his  successor,  Edwin  A. 
Davis,  served  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties  jointly  for  many  years.  In  Janu- 
ary, 1903,  Eugene  P.  McDaniel  was  advanced  from  the  position  of  district 
attorney  and  made  the  third  superior  judge  of  the  county,  which  position  he 
holds  at  the  present  time.  Judge  McDaniel  was  first  elected  district 
attorney  in  1893. 

Justices  of  the  Peace:  Samuel  Garber  is  remembered  as  an  early-dav 
justice  of  the  peace  of  Marysville  Township.  Garber  was  preceded  in  the 
office  by  B.  AY  Howser,  Marysville  attorney.     At  the  departure  of  Garber 


for  San  Francisco,  where  he  spent  his  remaining  days,  Isaac  N.  Aldrich 
became  justice  of  the  peace.  At  one  time  the  township  had  two  justices, 
Garber  and  Aldrich. 

At  Aldrich's  death,  James  M.  Morrissey  succeeded  to  the  position,  which 
he  held  for  twenty-three  years.  He  expired  suddenly  in  his  office  in  Decem- 
ber, 1922,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  present  incumbent,  George  F.  Herzog. 
who  had  been  chosen  in  November,  1922,  to  succeed  Judge  Morrissey. 

Constables  serving  in  the  Justice  Court  of  Marysville  Township  during 
these  years  are  recalled  as  follows :  Ezra  E.  Brow,  C.  C.  Kelser,  and  Henry 
Miehe.  The  present  incumbent  is  Thomas  J.  Tyrrell,  who  also  fills  the  posi- 
tion of  deputy  sheriff. 

District  Attorneys 

1850  to  1860:  S.  B.  Mulford,  H.  P.  Watkins,  Jesse  O.  Goodwin,  Charles 
H.  Brvan.  G  N.  Swezy,  L.  Martin,  T.  B.  Reardon,  I.  S.  Belcher,  and 
F.  L.  Hatch. 

1860  to   1870:     George  Rowe,  F.  J.  McCann,-  and  R.   R.   Merrill. 

1870  to  1880:  AVilliam  G.  Murphy,  E.  W.  Halloman,  Edwin  A.  Davis, 
and  E.  A.  Forbes. 

These  were  succeeded  by  the  following:  Eugene  P.  McDaniel,  M.  T. 
Brittan,  Fred  H.  Greely.  Edward  T.  Manwell,  E.  B.  Stanwood,  and  Ray 
Manwell,  the  last  named  being  now  the  incumbent. 

Sheriffs  and  Coroners 

Sheriffs,  1850  to  1860:  R.  B.  Buchanan,  Michael  Gray,  AVilliam  R. 
Thornburg,  Matt  AVoods. 

1860  to  1870:  Richard  H.  Hall,  Herndon  Barrett,  L.  D.  Adkison,  and 
A.  P.  Spear. 

Since  1870  the  following  have  served  in  this  office:  Matt  Woods,  A.  W. 
Torry.  Hank  L.  McCoy,  who  died  August  5,  1885;  S.  E.  Inlow,  J.  A.  Saul, 
Daniel  P.  Donahoe :  R.  E.  Bevan,  George  H.  Voss,  Oscar  E.  Meek,  and 
Charles  J.  McCoy. 

Coroners:  S.  T.  Brewster,  J.  B.  AVarfield,  H.  AV.  Teed,  Edward  B. 
Hand,  E.  Hamilton,  A.  P.  Barnes,  George  M.  Fronk,  A.  B.  Hopkins,  Dennis 
Hayes,  R.  E.  Bevan,  John  K.  Kelly,  and  Frank  T.  Bevan. 

Public  Administrators 

A.  J.  Gray,  E.  D.  AVheeler,  Seymour  Pixley.  B.  F.  Mann,  James  R. 
\rance,  Henry  Eilerman,  C.  G.  Hubbard,  C.  G.  Bockius,  AV.  E.  Eawrence, 
Samuel  Cummins,  C.  A.  Stratton,  Thomas  C.  Martin,  Newton  Seawell,  J.  P. 
Scott,  A.  J.  Cumberson,  A.  J.  Batchelder,  W.  C.  Shaffer,  Patrick  Brannan, 
Joseph  P.  Arnoldy,  AA^allace  S.  Durkee,  F.  E.  Smith,  and  H.  A.  Niemeyer. 

Members  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors 
Those  who  have  served  as  members  of  the  Yuba  County  Board  of  Super- 
visors, representative  of  five  districts,  in  the  years  since  1855,  are:  J.  O. 
Goodwin,  A.  O.  Hyde,  Herndon  Barrett,  Isaac  Allen,  Samuel  Rideout,  F.  R. 
Stryker,  Charles  G.  Bockius,  AA^illiam  Buntin,  Wilson  T.  AVoods,  S.  S. 
Stinchicum,  J.  H.  Beaman,  H.  G.  Russell,  F.  L.  Ande,  AV.  C.  Campbell, 
C.  E.  Stone,  A.  Cross,  A.  G.  Hough,  AV.  AAr.  Presbury,  AAllliam  Gregory, 
R.  H.  Hall,  G.  S.  Saunders,  John  AVhealdon,  Byron  AVhitcomb,  John  Lowery, 
AVilliam  Carpenter,  L.  D.  Adkison,  AV.  H.  Hartwell,  Eli  Teegarden,  Martin 
Knox,  George  AV.  Mallory,  D.  A.  McConnell,  S.  C.  Hutchings,  R.  S.  Jenkins, 
N.  D.  Rideout,  D.  C.  McGanney,  A.  DeCray,  E.  A.  Harrington,  John  Stine- 
man,  J.  H.  Bowman,  C.  F.  Brown,  J.  P.  Brown,  Fred  Buttlemann,  H.  Lohse, 
C.  K.  Dam.  Joseph  A.  Flint,  AVilliam  Slingsby,<  S.  D.  Wood,  D.  P.  Derrick- 
son,  A.  S.  AVight,  L.  H.  Babb,  J.  F.  Flathman,  B.  F.  Dam,  Charles  C.  Duhain, 


Tames  Lowerv.  John  H.  Beatty,  Jr.,  G.  W.  Pine,  James  Malaley,  W.  T. 
Ellis,  Jr.,  S.  H.  Bradley,  T.  B.  Hopkins,  T.  J.  Arnold,  James  O.  Rusbv. 
T.  M.  Hawley,  J.  A.  Saul,  W.  B.  Atkisson,  Louis  Conrath,  Hugh  J.  McGuire, 
Lewis  Wilder,  A.  C.  Irwin,  John  Stineman,  W.  J.  Mellon,  W.  B.  Filcher, 
W.  M~.  Jefferds,  Fred  Roberts,  Phil  J.  Divver,  David  Morrison,  A.  G.  Wheaton, 
I.  T-  Casev,  Harry  E.  Hyde,  G.  E.  Nutt,  William  J.  Forbes,  Clarence  E. 
Swift,  W.  J.  Mello'n.  and  Frank  M.  Booth. 

County  Assessors,  Treasurers,  and  Tax-Collectors 

County  Assessors:     S.  C.  Tompkins,  Mix  Smith,  F.  M.  Davenport,  Joel 

D.  Martin,  John  Rule,  T.  J.  Sherwood,  Newton  Seawell,  M.  J.  Crawford, 
B.  F.  NewbeVry,  H.  C.  Newberry,  Lewis  M.  Wilder,  W.  B.  Meek,  and  Thomas 

E.  Bevan.  "Tom"  Bevan  has  held  the  office  since  1894,  and  is  now  the 
oldest  assessor  in  the  State  of  California  in  point  of  service,  if  not  in  years. 

County  Treasurers :  L.  W.  Taylor,  George  Rowe,  John  A.  Paxton, 
A.  F.  Williams,  Samuel  P.  Wells,  A.  O.  Hyde,  A.  C.  Chapman,  J.  P.  Brown, 
W.  H.  Hartwell,  J.  R.  Rideout,  J.  Fred  Eastman,  C.  A.  Stratton,  W.  T. 
Ellis,  E.  C.  Ross,  W.  W.  Holland,  George  W.  Pine,  Thomas  Fogarty,  and 
Harvey  D.  Eich. 

County  Tax  Collectors :  During  the  period  between  1856  and  1868  the 
office  of  county  tax  collector  was  independent  of  the  county  treasurer's  office, 
not  combined  with  it  as  it  is  today.  Those  who  served  as  tax  collector  during 
that  period  were :  C.  N.  Felton,  L.  B.  Moore,  John  S.  Love,  Horace  Beach, 
and  C.  E.  Stone.  In  the  period  between  1874  and  1880  these  offices  were 
again  combined,  J.  F.  Eastman  filling  the  place  during  all  that  time. 

County  Clerks  and  County  Auditors  and  Recorders 

County  Clerks :  E.  D.  Wheeler,  Charles  Lindley,  E.  Dorland,  W.  W. 
Dobbins.  Lloyd  A.  Magruder,  William  Sharkey.  William  T.  O'Neale,  E.  M. 
Ragan,  D.  E.  Arnold,  Barney  Eilerman,  Emerson  E.  Meek,  Thomas  J. 
Sherwood,  James  K.  Hare,  Sid  Reardon,  Gordon  Bowman,  J.  F.  Eastman, 
Phil  J.  Divver,  and  W.  M.  Strief.    " 

Auditors  and  Recorders :  Alfred  Lawton,  E.  D.  AVheeler,  Charles  Lind- 
ley, S.  C.  Tompkins,  D.  C.  Berham,  W.  H.  Wickersham,  L.  T.  Crane,  L.  R. 
Sellon,  Barney  Eilerman.  John  H.  Krause,  S.  O.  Gunning,  C.  N.  Jenkins, 
S.  O.  Gunning  (returned),  William  P.  Cramsie,  and  Fred  H.  Greely. 

Other  County  Officials 

Superintendents  of  Schools:  Samuel  P.  Wells.  J.  M.  Abbott,  E.  B. 
Walsworth,  W.  C.  Belcher,  D.  C.  Stone,  H.  H.  Rhees,  Isaac  Upham,  A.  A. 
McAlister,  T.  H.  Steel,  Frank  B.  Crane,  H.  H.  Folsom,  James  A.  Scott,  Jesse 
E.  Rich,  William  P.  Cramsie,  and  Jennie  Malaley.  Miss"  Malaley  has  the  dis- 
tinction of  being  the  first  woman  to  hold  the  position. 

County  Surveyors :  James  B.  Cushing,  W.  W.  O'Dwyer,  D.  B.  Scott, 
Joseph  Johnstone,  Nelson  Wescoatt,  R.  P.  Riddle,  H.  H.  S'anford,  Jason  R. 
Meek,  James  M.  Doyle,  Jason  R.  Meek  (returned),  L.  B.  Crook  and  Tason 
R.  Meek  (returned  at  last  election). 





The  story  of  the  christening  of  the  city  of  Marysville  is  best  told  by 
Stephen  J.  Field,  who  later  was  chosen  first  alcalde  of  the  place.  After 
telling,  in  his  memoirs  of  those  early  days,  how  he  was  attracted  from  his 
home  in  New  York  by  the  report  of  the  finding  of  gold  in  California,  and  how 
he  landed  in  San  Francisco  on  December  28,  1849,  with  but  ten  dollars  in  his 
pockets,  seven  of  which  went  for  cartage  of  his  two  trunks.  Judge  Field 
describes  his  river  trip  to  Vernon  and  his  sudden  determination  to  proceed 
to  Nye's  Ranch  instead. 

Three  or  four  hours  after  leaving  Sacramento  on  the  steamer  Lawrence, 
for  Vernon,  the  captain  suddenly  cried  out  with  great  emphasis,  "Stop 
her!  stop  her!"  and  with  some  difficulty  the  boat  escaped  running  into  what 
seemed  to  be  a  solitary  house  standing  in  a  vast  lake  of  water.  Field  asked 
what  place  this  was,  and  was  told  that  it  was  Vernon — the  town  where  he 
had  been  advised  to  settle  as  a  rising  young  lawyer.  He  turned  to  the  cap- 
tain and  said  he  believed  he  would  not  put  out  his  shingle  just  then  at 
Vernon,  but  would  go  further  on. 

The  next  place  at  which  the  boat  stopped  was  Nicolaus ;  and  the  follow- 
ing" day  the  party  landed  at  a  place  called  Nye's  Ranch,  at  the  confluence  of 
the  Feather  and  Yuba  Rivers.  No  sooner  had  the  vessel  struck  the  landing 
at  Nye's  Ranch  than  all  the  passengers,  some  forty  or  fifty  in  number,  as  if 
moved  by  a  common  impulse,  started  for  an  old  adobe  building  that  stood 
upon  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  near  which  were  numerous  tents.  Judging 
by  the  number  of  these  tents,  Field  concluded  there  were  from  500  to  1000 
people  there.  When  the  newcomers  reached  the  adobe  and  entered  the  princi- 
pal room,  they  saw  a  map  spread  out  upon  the  counter,  containing  the  plan 
of  a  town,  which  was  called  "Yubaville,"  and  a  man  standing  behind  it,  cry- 
ing out,  "Gentlemen,  put  your  names  down ;  put  your  names  down,  all.  you 
that  want  lots !"  Field  asked  the  price  of  the  lots  and  was  told  that  they 
were  "$250  each  for  lots  80  feet  by  160  feet."  Field  then  said,  "But  suppose 
a  man  puts  his  name  down  and  afterwards  doesn't  want  the  lots?"  "Oh  you 
need  not  take  them  if  you  don't  want  them ;  put  your  names  down  gentle- 
men, you  that  want  lots."  Taking  the  man  at  his  word,  Field  wrote  his  name, 
subscribing  for  sixty-five  lots,  aggregating  in  all  $16,250.  This  produced  a 
great  sensation.  While  Field  had  but  about  $20  left  of  money  he  had  raised 
in  San  Francisco  selling  newspapers  from  New  York  at  $1  each,  it  was  imme- 
diately noised  about  that  a  great  capitalist  had  come  up  from  San  Francisco 
to  invest  in  lots  in  the  rising  town.  The  consequence  was  that  the  propri- 
etors of  the  place  waited  upon  Field  and  showed  him  great  attention. 

Two  of  the  proprietors  were  French  gentlemen,  named  Covillaud  and 
Sicard.  They  were  delighted  when  they  found  Field  could  speak  French,  and 
insisted  upon  showing  him  the  townsite.  It  was  a  beautiful  spot,  surrounded 
by  live  oaks  that  reminded  the  visitor  of  the  oak  parks  in  England,  and  the 
neighborhood  Field  considered  lovely.  Field  at  once  saw  that  the  place,  from 
its  position  at  the  head  of  practical  river  navigation,  was  destined  to  become 


an  important  depot  for  the  neighboring  mines,  and  that  its  natural  beauty 
and  the  salubrity  of  its  climate  would  render  it  a  pleasant  place  for  residence. 

Field,  having  handed  Charles  Covillaud,  one  of  the  proprietors,  a  copy  of 
a  New  York  paper  containing  a  notice  of  Field's  departure  for  California  and 
wishing  him  God  speed,  the  Frenchman,  able  to  read  English,  saw  and  read 
the  article.  He  at  once  hunted  up  Field  and  said,  "Ah  Monsieur,  you  are  the 
Monsieur  Field,  the  lawyer  from  New  York,  mentioned  in  the  paper?"  Field 
meekly  and  modestly  confessed,  when  Covillaud  rejoined,  "We  must  have  a 
deed  drawn  for  our  land." 

Field  made  inquiries  and  found  that  the  proprietors  had  purchased  the 
tract  upon  which  the  town  was  laid  out,  and  several  leagues  of  land  adjoining, 
of  General — then  Captain — John  A.  Sutter,  but  had  not  received  a  convey- 
ance of  the  property.  Field  assured  Covillaud  he  would  draw  the  deed. 
Immediately,  a  couple  of  vaqueros  were  dispatched  for  Captain  Sutter,  who 
then  lived  at  Hock  Farm,  six  miles  below  the  present  site  of  Yuba  City  on 
Feather  River.  When  Sutter  arrived,  the  deed  was  ready  for  signature.  It 
was  for  some  leagues  of  land,  a  considerably  larger  tract  than  Field  had  ever 
before  aided  in  transferring.  And  when  it  was  signed,  there  was  no  officer 
to  take  the  acknowledgement  of  the  grantor,  nor  any  office  in  which  it  could 
be  recorded,  nearer  than  Sacramento. 

Field  at  once  suggested  that  in  a  place  of  such  fine  prospects,  where 
much  business  and  many  transactions  in  real  property  were  likely,  there 
ought  to  be  an  officer  to  take  acknowledgments  and  record  deeds,  and  a  mag- 
istrate for  the  preservation  of  order  and  the  settlement  of  disputes.  It  hap- 
pened that  a  new  house,  the  frame  of  which  had  been  brought  in  by  steamer, 
was  put  up  that  day.  It  was  suggested  by  Covillaud  that  the  people  of  the 
new  settlement  should  meet  there  that  evening  and  celebrate  the  execution 
of  the  deed,  and  take  into  consideration  the  subject  of  organizing  a  town  by 
the  election  of  magistrates. 

When  evening  came,  the  house  was  filled.  It  is  true  it  had  no  floor,  but 
the  sides  were  boarded  up  and  a  roof  was  overhead,  and  seats  of  improvised 
planks  were  ready  for  the  assemblage.  The  proprietors  sent  around  to  the 
tents  for  something  to  give  cheer  to  the  meeting,  and,  strange  as  it  may  seem, 
they  found  two  baskets  of  champagne.  These  they  secured,  and  their  con- 
tents were  joyously  disposed  of.  When  the  wine  was  passed  around,  Field 
was  called  upon  for  a  speech.  He  started  out  by  predicting  in  glowing 
terms  the  prosperity  of  the  new  town,  and  referred  to  its  advantageous  situ- 
ation on  the  Feather  and  Yuba  Rivers.  He  told  how  it  was  the  most  acces- 
sible point  for  vessels  coming  from  San  Francisco  and  Sacramento,  and  must 
in  time  become  the  depot  for  all  the  trade  with  the  northern  mines.  He 
pronounced  the  auriferous  region  lying  east  of  the  Feather  River  and  north  of 
the  Yuba  the  finest  and  richest  in  the  country,  and  said  he  felt  certain  that 
its  commerce  must  concentrate  at  the  junction  of  the  rivers.  He  impressed 
upon  the  settlers  the  advisability  of  organizing  and  establishing  a  govern- 
ment, and  said  the  first  thing  to  be  done  was  to  call  an  election  and  choose 
magistrates  and  a  town  council.  These  remarks  met  with  general  favor, 
and  it  was  resolved  that  a  public  meeting  should  be  held  in  front  of  the  adobe 
house  the  next  morning,  and  that  if  this  meeting  approved  the  project,  an 
election  should  be  held  at  once. 

Accordingly,  on  the  following  morning,  which  was  the  18th  of  January, 
1850,  a  public  meeting  of  the  citizens  was  there  held,  and  it  was  resolved  thai 
a  town  government  should  be  established  and  that  there  should  be  elected 
an  ayuntamiento,  or  town  council,  a  first  and  second  alcalde,  and  a  marshal. 
The  alcalde  was  a  judicial  officer  under  the  Spanish  and  Mexican  laws,  having 
a  jurisdiction  something  like  that  of  a  justice  of  the  peace.     But  in  the  anom- 

After   Whom   Marysville   Was   Named 


alous  condition  of  affairs  in  California  at  that  time,  he  assumed  and  exercised, 
as  a  matter  of  necessity,  very  great  powers. 

The  election  ordered  took  place  in  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day.  Field 
had  modestly  whispered  to  different  persons  at  the  meeting  in  the  new  house, 
the  night  before,  that  his  name  was  mentioned  by  his  friends  for  the  office 
of  alcalde.  His  nomination  followed.  But  he  was  not  to  have  the  office 
without  a  struggle.  An  opposition  candidate  appeared,  and  an  exciting  elec- 
tion ensued.  The  main  objection  entered  against  Field  was  that  he  was  a 
newcomer.  He  had  been  in  town  only  three  days ;  his  opponent  had  been 
there  six  days.     Field  won  by  nine  votes. 

On  the  evening  of  the  election,  there  was  a  general  gathering  of  people 
at  the  adobe  house,  the  principal  building  of  the  place,  to  hear  the  official 
announcement  of  the  result  of  the  election.  When  this  was  made,  some  one 
proposed  that  a  name  should  be  adopted  for  the  new  town.  One  man  sug- 
gested "Yubafield,"  because  of  its  situation  on  the  Yuba  River ;  and  another. 
"Yubaville,"  for  the  same  reason.  A  third  urged  the  name  ''Circumdoro" 
(surrounded  with  gold,  as  he  translated  the  word),  because  there  were  mines 
in  every  direction  roundabout.  But  there  was  a  fourth,  a  solid  and  substan- 
tial old  man,  evidently  of  kindly  domestic  affections,  who  had  come  out  to 
California  to  better  his  fortune.  He  rose  and  remarked  that  there  was  an 
American  lady  in  the  place,  the  wife  of  one  of  the  proprietors ;  that  her  name 
was  Mary,  and  that,  in  his  opinion,  her  name  ought  to  be  given  to  the  town, 
and  it  should  be  called,  in  her  honor,  "Marysville."  No  sooner  had  he  made 
the  suggestion  than  the  meeting  broke  out  into  loud  hurrahs ;  every  hat  made 
a  circle  around  its  owrner's  head,  and  the  new  town  was  christened  "Marys- 
ville" without  a  dissenting  voice.  For  a  few  days  afterward,  the  town  was 
called  Yubaville  and  Marysville ;  but  the  latter  name  soon  was  generally 
adopted,  and  the  place  has  been  so  called  ever  since.  The  lady  in  whose 
honor  it  was  named  was  the  late  Mrs.  Mary  (M.urphy)  Covillaud,  wife  of 
Charles  Covillaud,  one  of  the  founders  of  Yuba  County.  She  was  one  of  the 
survivors  of  the  Donner  Party,  which  suffered  so  frightfully  while  crossing 
the  Sierra  Nevadas  in  the  winter  of  1846-1847,  and  had  been  living-  here  ever 
since  that  terrible  time. 

A  Tribute  to  Marysville's  Godmother 

Through  the  courtesy  of  Mrs.  Mary  M.  Fairfowl,  of  Eugene,  Ore.,  the 
editor  is  able  to  produce  with  this  chapter  a  photograph  of  Mrs.  Covillaud. 
It  is  a  likeness  made  by  Mrs.  Fairfowl,  granddaughter  of  Mary  Covillaud, 
from  a  painting  made  by  a  French  artist  while  the  Covillauds  were  still 
residing  in  Marysville.  Mrs.  Fairfowl  is  herself  an  artist  of  no  mean  ability. 
We  quote  from  the  letter  sent  by  her  to  the  editor  with  the  photograph : 

"Since  you  are  writing,  a  history  of  Marysville  and  Yuba  County,  may  I 
use  this  opportunity  to  correct  a  statement  that  is  so  often  erroneously  made, 
namely,  that  Marysville  was  named  for  Mary  Covillaud  because  she  was  the 
first,  or  only,  woman  in  Marysville  at  the  time?  This,  I  have  been  told  by 
those  who  know,  and  were  there  at  the  time,  is  not  true.  In  fact,  there  were 
many  families  living  at  the  place  that  afterwards  became  Marysville,  at  the 
time  grandmother  arrived. 

"In  a  Marysville  Appeal  of  the  year  1871,  the  author  of  the  'Tetters 
from  Juanita'  speaks  incidentally  of  the  naming  of  Marysville.  He  recalls 
William  G.  Murphy  and  his  sister,  Mary  Murphy,  and  adds,  'who  became 
the  wife  of  Charles  Covillaud  on  Christmas  Day,  1848,  and  who  subsequently 
gave  the  name  to  your  now  famed  city.  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  become 
acquainted  with  the  lady,  and,  now  that  she  slumbers  in  the  grave,  say  that 
never  on  the  soil  of  California  has  a  woman  trod  of  a  purer  nature,  more 


amiable  disposition,  a  more  generous  heart.  When  she  went  away  from 
earth,  it  was  with  the  regret  and  lamentations  of  thousands.' 

"And  for  those  who  love  Marysville  and  the  home,  I  feel  they  would 
like  to  know  that  the  one  for  whom  Marysville  was  named  was  one  of  Cali- 
fornia's first  home-makers — 'shedding  its  quiet  life  far  for  those  who  else 
were  homeless.' 

"And  from  all  that  I  have,  been  told  of  her,  she  was  one  of  California's 
first  social  workers — but  one,  who  made  her  home  the  center  for  all  her  good 
works.  And,  although  she  had  servants  in  her  home,  to  send  on  her  errands 
of  mercy,  she  always  went  herself  to  carry  what  was  needed  to  the  poor, 
and  with  her  own  hands  cared  for  and  nursed  the  sick. 

"And  the  books  and  pictures  still  in  the  family  show  that  she  found  a 
way,  although  cut  off  from  civilization,  to  put  art  and  science  and  the  best 
in  "literature  into  her  home.  And  her  worn  books  on  plant  life  show  the 
study  she  gave  to  her  garden.  And  her  garden,  I  have  been  told,  was  one 
of  the  most  beautiful  in  early  California  days.  So  this  valiant  little  woman 
overcame  all  difficulties  to  realize  her  vision  of  a  wife,  a  mother,  and  of  a 
home.  And  I  have  always  believed  that  her  light  shone  on  the  type  of  men 
who  came  to  California  in  the  early  days." 

The  remains  of  Mrs.  Covillaud  now  rest  in  the  family  plot  in  a  Marys- 
ville cemetery.  Each  Memorial  Day  the  Native  Daughters  of  the  Golden 
West,  members  of  Marysville  Parlor,  place  sweet  flowers  above  her  grave. 

A  Highly  Prized  Souvenir 

A  letter  written  by  the  late  Chief  Justice  Stephen  J.  Field  on  July  17, 
1880,  from  Washington,  D.  C,  to  Dr.  R.  H.  McDaniel,  father  of  the  present 
judge  of  the  superior  court  of  Yuba  County,  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Yuba 
County  jurist,  and  is  highly  prized,  both  because  it  bears  the  signature  of 
Judge  Field  and  because  it  makes  reference  to  the  strong  friendship  that 
"in  the  early  days  of  Marysville  existed  between  Judge  Field  and  Dr.  Mc- 
Daniel. Dr.  McDaniel  did"  not  receive  the  letter,  having  died  five  days  before 
it  was  written,  his  death  being  unknown  to  Judge  Field,  who  also  has 
answered  the  final  summons.     The  letter  reads  as  follows : 

"Washington,  D.  C„  July  17,  1880. 
"My  dear  Doctor : 

"I  have  mailed  to  you  today  a  copy  of  my  little  book  entitled  'Personal 
Reminiscences  of  Early  Days  in  California.'  This  narrative  was  dictated 
to  a  shorthand  reporter  in  San  Francisco  in  the  summer  of  1877;  and  it  has 
been  put  in  print  for  the  perusal  of  a  few  friends,  not  published.  It  is  a 
very  meager  account  of  what  I  saw,  and  of  my  experiences  in  Yuba  County. 
Had  I  at  the  time  supposed  it  would  ever  be  printed,  I  should  have  given 
a  much  more  extended  history  of  men  and  things  in  Marysville.  Another 
year  I  shall  probably  issue  a  new  edition,  and  shall  then  give  a  much  more 
full  account  of  those  whom  I  met  and  knew  and  loved  in  old  Yuba.  Among 
other  things,  I  wish  to  incorporate  some  incidents  of  yourself  and  of  your 
experience.  At  your  early  leisure  please  jot  these  down  as  they  may  occur 
to  you,  so  that  when  I  visit  your  city  in  September  next  you  may  give  me 
your  memoranda. 

"I  remember  with  gratitude  your  attentions  to  me  during  my  fearful 
sickness  of  1856,  and  how,  probably,  to  3rour  attentions  I  am  indebted  more 
than  to  those  of  any  other  one,  that  I  passed  safely  through.  I  often  think  of 
those  days  and  of  the  many  friends  I  had  in  Marysville.  Please  present  my 
kind  regards  to  Mrs.  McDaniel  and  believe  me  to  be 

"Very  sincerely  yours, 

"Stephen  J.  Field." 



It  will  be  interesting  to  observe,  in  passing,  how  the  historian  of  other 
days  viewed  the  city  of  Marysville  while  it  still  was  in  swaddling  clothes. 
In  the  preface  to  the  first  directory  ever  printed  of  the  new  settlement,  in 
1853,  a  copy  of  which  the  compiler  found  in  the  possession  of  Steve  C. 
Howser,  now  a  member  of  the  Marysville  police  force,  the  following  sketch 
of  the  city  is  given  : 

"What  is  now  known  as  the  City  of  Marysville,  three  and  a  half  years 
ago  was  called  Nye's  Ranch.  At  that  period  but  one  tenement  graced  the 
northern  bank  of  the  Yuba  River.  Its  locality  was  near  the  site  of  the  'Ohio 
House,'  at  the  foot  of  D  Street.  It  was  an  adobe  structure,  venerable  and 
antique,  but  doomed  to  fall  in  the  great  fire  of  August,  1851.  With  this 
single  exception,  the  plain  upon  which  our  city  now  stands  was  unadorned 
by  the  hand  of  art,  and  uninhabited,  save  by  the  occupants  of  the  castle  and 
the  roving  squads  of  idle  and  worthless  Indians. 

"Early  in  the  winter  of  1849  and  1850,  the  mountain  trade  began  to 
center  at  this  point,  the  small  boats  engaged  in  freighting  from  the  lower 
cities  finding  this  a  natural  and  almost  necessary  terminus.  The  consequence 
was,  that  large  quantities  of  goods  were  soon  deposited  upon  what  is  now 
the  Plaza,  teams  and  packers  came  crowding  in  from  the  mountains,  a  brisk 
and  profitable  trade  sprung  up,  a  hundred  snow-white  tents  lent  their  charm 
to  the  scene,  and  Nye's  Ranch  began  to  give  promise  of  future  importance. 

"The  proprietors  of  the  ranch,  Messrs.  Sampson,  Ramirez,  Covillaud, 
and  Sicard,  did  not  long  remain  blind  to  their  own  interests,  nor  to  the  signs 
of  the  times,  but  as  early  as  December  conceived  the  idea  of  laying  out  a 
city.  A  surveyor  was  accordingly  procured,  and  the  old  ranch  laid  off  into 
lots,  blocks  and  ranges ;  and  city  lots  were  soon  being  sold  and  conveyed  with 
all  the  technical  solemnity  incident  to  the  transfer  of  an  English  manor. 

Earliest  Form  of  Government 

"Things  being  thus  organized,  large  numbers  of  adventurers  from  below 
daily  landed  upon  our  shores,  pitched  their  tents,  and  commenced  business. 
But  up  to  this  period  there  was  no  government,  no  law,  no  officers  of  justice ; 
and  questions  of  interest  and  importance,  involving  the  rights  of  citizens, 
were  constantly  arising.  Accordingly,  on  the  18th  of  January,  1850,  an 
election  was  held,  at  which  some  three  hundred  votes  were  cast.  Stephen 
J.  Field,  Esq.,  was  duly  elected  chief  judiciary  of  the  realm,  or  in  Spanish 
parlance,  alcalde.  T.  M.  Twitchell  was  elected  sheriff,  but  for  some  reason 
declined  serving,  whereupon  R.  B.  Buchanan  was  appointed  in  his  place.  A 
common  council  also  was  elected.  Mr.  Field  soon  after  received  a  com- 
mission from  the  governor,  qualified,  and  commenced  the  administration  of 
law  and  justice  in  an  able  and  satisfactory  manner,  as  the  records  of  his  pro- 
ceedings, now  reposing  in  the  archives  of  the  county,  will  abundantly  testify. 

"The  wheels  of  government  being  thus  set  in  motion  by  the  popular  will, 
the  oil  of  a  liberal  fee  bill  preserved  the  machinery,  and  everything  connected 
with  the  growth  and  prosperity  of  our  city  moved  forward  with  unparalleled 
success.  A  thousand  avenues  to  wealth  opened  before  us ;  trade  increased 
with  a  rapidity  hitherto  unknown  ;  steamers  daily  visited  our  landings  ;  build- 
ings arose  on  every  street  and  corner ;  hotels  were  furnished  and  opened  ; 
saloons  were  erected  and  richly  ornamented ;  and  every  feature  of  the  young 
city  assumed  the  aspect  of  thrift  and  enterprise. 

First  County  Election 

"Thus  matters  progressed  till  the  first  Monday  in  April,  when,  pursuant 
to  an  act  of  the  legislature,  an  election  was  held  for  county  officers.  A 
swarm  of  candidates,  irrespective  of  politics,  took  the  field ;  and  after  a  warm 


though  good-natured  contest,  the  following  named  gentlemen  were  elected: 
County  judge,  H.  P.  Haun  ;  count}'  attorney,  S.  B.  Mulford ;  county  clerk, 
E.  D.  Wheeler;  sheriff,  R.  B.  Buchanan;  county  recorder,  Alfred  Lawton; 
county  surveyor,  J.  B.  Cushing;  county  treasurer,  U.  W.  Taylor;  county 
assessor,  S.  C.  Tompkins ;  coroner,  S.  T.  Brewster.  At  this  election  about 
800  votes  were  cast  in  Marysville. 

New  City  Incorporated 

"During  the  summer  of  1850  improvements  in  town  were  moderate, 
many  feeling  undecided  as  to  which  of  the  up-river  towns  would  be  'the 
place.'  The  following  winter  was  extremely  dull — money  scarce,  and  real 
estate  very  much  depressed.  Notwithstanding  these  unfavorable  signs,  a 
bill,  during  the  winter,  passed  the  legislature,  incorporating  the  'City  of 
Marysville,'  dividing  it  into  four  wards,  and  authorizing  an  election  on  the 
first  Monday  of  March,  1851,  for  mayor  and  eight  aldermen.  The  election 
resulted  in  the  following  choice :  For  mayor,  S.  M.  Miles ;  aldermen,  Messrs. 
Ransom,  Stambaugh,  Shaeffer,  Tallman,  Smith,  Rice,  Covillaud,  and  Tomp- 
kins. AVith  the  return  of  spring,  and  the  establishment  of  a  regular  muni- 
cipal government,  a  new  and  cheering  era  dawned  upon  the  City  of  Marys- 
ville. Business,  in  all  its  phases,  revived ;  and  improvements  of  a  durable 
nature  began  to  be  made.  And  since  that  period  our  city  has  progressed 
with  a  firm,  healthy  step,  constantly  increasing  in  wealth,  population  and 
beauty.  The  river  bed  has  been  cleared  of  obstructions,  so  that  steamers 
visit  us  every  day  in  the  year.  Our  population  now  numbers  nearly  ten 
thousand.  The  canvas  tent  of  1849  and  1850  has  retired,  to  give  room  for 
elegant  brick  structures  which  now  adorn  every  portion  of  our  city,  giving 
pleasing  and  substantia!  evidence  of  our  prosperity,  Mills,  iron  works, 
machine  shops  and  manufactories  are  established  to  supply  the  wants  of  the 
community;  churches  and  schools  to  improve  our  education  and  morals;  and 
charitable  institutions  to  gladden  the  hearts  and  ameliorate  the  condition  of 
the  unfortunate  among  us.  Two  daily  newspapers  are  published,  which 
contain  all  the  important  news,  both  foreign  and  at  home. 

"Thus  do  we  stand  before  the  world,  three  years  having  changed  the 
wilderness  to  a  city;  and.  considering  our  commercial  advantages,  our  beds 
of  gold,  our  lofty  mountain  forests  and  broad,  productive  fields,  we  certainly 
can,  without  exaggeration,  indulge  the  brightest  hopes  for  the  future  great- 
ness of  our  beloved  Marysville." 

In  the  days  when  the  above  was  written,  Marysville  and  Yuba  City  were 
connected  up  with  a  toll-bridge  built  by  Bryan  &  Saunders  at  a  cost  of 
$20,000.  It  was  the  crossing  for  those  going  to  the  valley  points  below 
Marysville  by  Knight's  Ferry,  and  also  for  those  going  to  Shasta,  Trinity 
Diggings  and  Oregon.  The  bridge  was  located  near  the  west  end  of  Third 
Street  and  crossed  the  Feather  River  to  the  central  and  business  part  of  Yuba 
City.  _  G.  M.  Hanson,  who  collected  the  toll,  had  a  charter  on  the  bridge 
covering  twenty  years.  The  bridge  was  over  500  feet  long,  and  was  thirty- 
five  feet  above  low-water  mark  and  six  feet  above  highest  water  mark. 


Marysville's  First  Fire 

Through  the  courtesy  of  Mrs.  Carolyn  E.  Hamilton,  of  Rockford,  III, 
there  will  be  added  to  the  archives  of  the  historical  room  of  the  Packard  Free 
Library  here  a  well-preserved  lithograph  picturing  the  first  disastrous  con- 
flagration ever  to  visit  Marysville— on  the  night  of  August  30,  1851. 

Mrs.  Hamilton,  writing  to  City  Clerk  E.  B.  Stanwood  a  letter  donating 
the  lithograph,   explains  that  she  never  lived   in   Marysville;   that   she   dis- 


covered  the  lithograph  in  a  second-hand  store  in  Rockford  and  realizing  its 
historical  value,  determined  to  present  it  to  the  city  of  Marysville. 

In  the  lower  left-hand  corner  beneath  the  lithograph  is  written  the 
words :  "From  Hiram  Hattley  to  Lucinda  S.  Hattley,"  giving  the  impression 
that  the  donor  lived  in  Marysville  at  the  date  of  the  fire,  when  Marysville 
was  scarcely  two  years  old,  and  that  Hattley  mailed  the  lithograph  to  a 
relative  in  the  East.  The  earliest  history  of  Marysville  published  refers  to 
the  disastrous  fire  as  follows : 

"The  first  baptism  of  fire  occurred  on  Saturday  night,  August  30,  1851. 
The  blaze  originated  in  a  Chinese  wash-house  on  High  Street,  and  spread 
with  the  utmost  rapidity.  The  buildings  were  chiefly  of  board  and  canvas, 
and  so  dry  had  they  become  in  the  long  heat  of  summer  that  in  an  almost 
incredibly  short  space  of  time  three  blocks  of  them  were  burning  fiercely. 

"The  people  were  panic-stricken.  There  was  no  organization  to  combat 
the  flames,  and  no  one  had  authority  as  leader.  The  citizens,  however, 
manfully  disputed  the  advance  of  the  destroyer,  and  in  two  hours  succeeded 
in  subduing  the  flames.  The  district  burned  was  included  between  D,  Sec- 
ond, E  and  First  Streets,  the  Plaza,  and  the  Yuba  River.  The  flames  were 
prevented  from  crossing  D  Street  to  the  east  by  hanging  blankets  over  the 
fronts  of  the  buildings  and  keeping  them  thoroughly  wet. 

"The  buildings  burned,  eighty  in  number,  were  in  the  chief  business 
portion  of  the  city,  and  the  loss  was  estimated  at  about  $500,000.  The  old 
adobe  building  at  the  foot  of  D  Street,  the  first  ever  to  be  erected  in  Marys- 
ville, and  which  was  serving  as  a  jail,  was  among  those  lost.  The  next  day 
new  buildings  were  commenced,  and  soon  the  whole  territory  was  again 
alive  with  business.  The  widespread  destruction  awakened  the  citizens  to  a 
realization  of  their  unprotected  state  and  turned  their  thoughts  to  the  organ- 
ization of  a  fire  department." 

The  lithograph  shows  the  old-time  bucket  fire  brigade  at  work. 

Other  Early  Fires 

Ten  days  later  the  citizens  had  again  to  contend  with  the  enemy.  At 
one  o'clock  Wednesday  morning,  September  10,  1851,  flames  were  seen  issu- 
ing from  the  rear  of  the  wholesale  liquor  store  of  Mitchell  &  Nunes,  on  the 
south  side  of  First  Street,  east  of  D  Street.  In  half  an  hour  twenty-five 
buildings,  situated  between  D  and  First  Streets,  Oak  Street  (then  Maiden 
Lane),  and  the  river  were  in  ruins.  Water  carts  were  used  to  convey  water 
to  the  scene  of  the  conflict,  and  this  was  thrown  upon  the  burning  buildings 
by  the  excited  citizens.    The  estimated  loss  was  $80,000. 

The  origin  of  these  two  earliest  fires  was  doubtful,  although  they  were 
generally  supposed  to  have  been  the  work  of  incendiaries.  Steps  were  im- 
mediately taken  to  form  a  fire  department,  which  resulted  in  the  organization 
of  Mutual  Hook  &  Ladder  Company  No.  1,  on  the  18th  of  September. 

At  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  January  23,  1852,  a  fire  broke  out  in 
the  American  Hotel  in  Maiden  Lane  (now  Oak  Street).  The  new  fire  com- 
pany responded  promptly  to  the  call  to  duty,  with  their  hook-and-ladder 
apparatus,  and  soon  extinguished  the  flames.  Again  a  small  fire  occurred 
on  Thursday  afternoon,  February  19,  1852,  in  a  vacant  building  on  High 
Street.  This  fire  was  also  subdued  before  much  damage  was  done.  Thus, 
by  the  organization  of  this  company,  the  city  was  happily  saved  from  what 
might,  in  both  cases,  have  been  disastrous  conflagrations. 

The  year  1854  was  a  noted  one  in  the  fire  annals  of  the  city,  no  less 
than  three  fires  occurring,  two  of  them  being  very  destructive.  On  May  25, 
1854,  a  fire  was  discovered  in  the  Mansion  House  on  the  east  side  of  D  Street, 
between   Second   and   Third   Streets.     The   Eureka   Hand   Engine   Company 


and  the  Mutual  Hook  &  Ladder  Company  were  quickly  oh  the  spot,  and 
worked  energetically  for  nearly  two  hours  in  their  endeavor  to  arrest  the 
course  of  the  devouring  element.  The  block  bounded  by  D  Street,  Maiden 
Lane,  Second  and  Third  Streets,  was  all  reduced  to  ruins,  except  the  Empire 
Block,  which  still  stands.  The  flames  there  crossed  D  Street  and  fastened 
themselves  on  the  theater  and  courthouse,  formerly  the  old  St.  Charles  Hotel, 
and  with  but  few  exceptions  destroyed  the  entire  block  between  Second, 
Third,  D  and  High  Streets.  Then  they  leaped  over  Third  Street  and  made 
some  progress  north,  reducing  to  ashes  the  Presbyterian  Church  and  a  num- 
ber of  dwellings  between  Third  and  Fourth  Streets.  Here  their  progress  was 
finally  arrested  and  the  fire  extinguished.  The  loss  sustained  in  this  blaze 
was  estimated  at  $158,550. 

The  second  conflagration  of  the  year  was  still  more  extensive  and 
disastrous.  A  fire  originated  in  a  Chinese  house  on  the  corner  of  Second 
Street  and  Virgin  Alley  about  ten  p.  m.,  on  July  18;  and,  although  it  was 
subdued  in  fifty  minutes,  so  fiercely  did  it  burn,  that  five  squares,  comprising 
over  200  buildings,  were  swept  away.  A  high  wind  prevailed,  and  spread  the 
flames  so  rapidly  that  it  was  only  with  the  utmost  exertions  of  the  small 
fire  department,  aided  by  the  citizens,  that  they  were  subdued.  The  bound- 
aries of  the  district  burned  extended  from  the  corner  of  B  and  Second  Streets 
to  the  corner  of  B  and  Fourth  Streets,  down  Fourth  Street  to  C,  north  to 
Fifth  Street,  west  to  D  Street,  down  D  Street  to  Second  Street,  and  then  east 
to  B  Street.  It  will  be  observed  that  the  area  destroyed  covered  some  of 
the  territory  burned  over  by  the  fire  in  May,  which  had  been  largely  rebuilt. 
The  Tremont  House  and  City  Hall  were  included  in  the  loss,  which  footed 
up  the  immense  sum  of  $250, 000. 

The  third  blaze  in  1854  occurred  at  midnight,  October  22.  and  originated 
in  an  unoccupied  house  on  B  Street,  between  First  and  Second  Streets. 
Eleven  houses  were  consumed,  valued  at  $11,000. 

The  city  was  then  free  from  any  disastrous  conflagrations  until  1856, 
when  another  of  the  old-time  visitations  is  recorded.  In  the  month  of 
August,  1856,  a  blaze  was  discovered  in  a  stable  on  F  Street,  between  First 
and  Second  Streets.  The  alarm  was  promptly  sounded  ;  and  the  whole  fire 
department,  consisting  of  three  hand  engines  and  the  hook  and  ladder  com- 
pany, responded.  As  the  fire  was  on  the  river  bank,  two  of  the  engines  were 
placed  on  the  ferry-boat  for  convenience  in  working ;  but  the  clumsy  craft 
sank  with  its  precious  burden,  and  the  fire  raged  on.  The  balance  of  the 
department,  with  the  active  assistance  of  the  citizens,  finally  subdued  the 
flames,  after  they  had  consumed  about  $145,000  worth  of  property.  The 
burned  district  was  in  the  heaviest  business  locality,  and  the  loss  was  great 
in  proportion.  It  extended  along  First  Street  to  the  Merchants'  Hotel,  then 
up  Commercial  Alley,  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  Plaza. 

At  3:30  a.  m.,  November  17,  1864,  fire  was  discovered  in  the  rear  of  a 
clothing  store  under  the  old  brick  theater  on  D  Street,  between  Second  and 
Third  Streets.  The  spread  of  the  flames  to  any  extent  was  prevented ;  but 
the  theater,  with  the  stores  under  it,  was  entirely  destroyed.  The  loss  was 
estimated  at  $40,000. 

The  next  noted  blaze  occurred  on  July  17,  1871.  A  fire  originated  at 
noon  in  Swain's  sash  factory  on  Fourth  Street  and  spread  toward  the  north. 
The  whole  block  lying  between  D,  C,  Fourth,  and  Fifth  Streets  was  des- 
troyed, with  the  exception  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  and  a  few  dwellings. 
W.  C.  Swain's  factory,  John  Pefrer's  factory,  and  Harrington's  factory  were 
all  consumed.     The  loss  was  about  $80,000. 

About  half  past  eleven  o'clock  on  Sunday  night,  September  7,  1879,  fire 
was  discovered  in  the  store  of  E.  C.  Ross  &  Company  on  D  Street.    A  general 


alarm  was  sounded,  and  soon  the  whole  fire  department  was  on  hand  with 
the  three  steamers.  The  fire  had  made  so  much  progress,  however,  that  the 
firemen  were  unable  to  extinguish  it  until  it  had  burned  the  stores  of  E.  C. 
Ross  &  Company  and  N.  D.  Popert,  and  two  houses  on  High  Street.  The 
loss  was  about  $50,000,  besides  the  damage  to  goods  removed  from  stores 
in  danger  of  being  consumed. 

The  Fire  at  the  Southern  Pacific  Freight  Sheds 

In  the  same  year  the  greater  portion  of  the  freight  sheds  and  platform 
of  the  Southern  Pacific  Railroad  Company  at  Sixth  and  A  Streets  was  wiped 
out  by  fire,  together  with  much  additional  property.  Starting  in  the  freight 
shed  at  the  north  end  of  the  unloading  platform,  the  blaze  spread  to  box 
cars  standing  on  the  sidings,  thence  to  the  Denton  House,  a  two-story  brick 
building  on  the  west  side  of  A  Street,  that  occupied  the  lots  where  the 
Fourth  Ward  House  now  stands.  The  Denton  House  was  completely  razed, 
together  with  three  saloons  that  stood  to  the  south  of  Denton's  store  and 
saloon,  which  were  located  on  the  ground  floor  of  his  building.  The  loss 
was  estimated  at  almost  $100,000. 

Fire  and  Flood  Combine 

On  September  19,  1887,  a  large  hole  was  burned  out  of  the  heart  of  the 
business  section  of  Marysville.  About  12:20  a.  m..  Police  Officer  John  Col- 
ford  discovered  what  appeared  to  him  to  be  but  a  bundle  of  shakes  burning 
in  the  driveway  of  the  Union  Lumber  Company's  yard,  which  then  was 
located  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Fourth  and  C  Streets.  Before  Colford 
could  summon  the  fire  department,  the  lumber  yard,  which  covered  the  space 
now  occupied  by  the  Marysville  Water  Company's  attractive  park,  was  a 
seething  mass.  Despite  the  work  of  the  fire  laddies,  the  flames  crossed  the 
alley  now  known  as  Oak  Street  and  ignited  a  frame  barn  on  the  west  side 
filled  with  hay,  and  also  a  dwelling  occupied  by  Mrs.  Wiscotschill  and  her 
daughter.  Soon  the  fire  was  carried  by  the  night  wind  to  the  row  of  then 
frame  structures  occupied  by  Joseph  Brass  as  a  grocery  and  tobacco  store, 
the  shoe  shop  of  Joseph  Bowen,  the  office  of  George  Merritt,  the  tailor  shop 
of  H.  Voss,  and  the  fruit  stand  of  William  Hoffart.  At  the  same  time  the 
fire  attacked  the  Louvre  Saloon,  the  Ben  Bigelow  gun  store,  and  B.  F. 
Oilman's  Red  House.  These,  like  the  frame  stores  to  the  north,  were  gutted, 
and  the  Meyer  bakery  and  the  stores  of  Kertchem  &  Corley,  both  in  the  Odd 
Fellows'  Building,  were  threatened.  At  the  north  end  of  the  block,  the  flames 
ate  into  the  water  works  building  and  destroyed  the  underpinning  of  the 
large  tanks  carrying  the  water  with  which  the  fire  was  being  fought.  In  a 
short  time  the  tanks  collapsed  with  a  roar,  spilling  their  waters  into  D  Street, 
where  they  were  almost  knee-deep. 

Anticipating  the  loss  of  the  tanks,  L.  C.  Williams,  who  was  both  engi- 
neer of  the  fire  department  and  chief  engineer  for  the  water  company,  had 
arranged,  an  hour  before,  to  pump  water  for  the  fire  from  the  company's 
wells  directly  into  the  mains.  The  engine  house  on  the  east  side  of  the  water 
plant  was  then  threatened.  Although  the  heat  became  almost  unbearable, 
and  wet  sacks  had  to  be  thrown  oyer  him  by  citizens  as  he  worked,  John 
Colford,  Jr.,  assistant  engineer,  stayed  at  his  post  and  fed  wood  into  the 
furnaces,  that  the  water-works  engines  might  be  kept  going.  For  his  heroic 
work  that  night  Colford  was  later  presented  with  a  gold  watch  and  chain  by 
the  citizens  of  Marysville. 

The  loss  in  this  fire  was  $165,000.  In  less  than  a  month  the  owners  of 
the  buildings  destroyed  had  let  contracts  to  have  them  rebuilt,  and  in  more 
substantial  form.     On  March  1,  1888,  Joseph  Brass  moved  into  his  new  two- 


story  brick  structure.  Soon  after,  the  water  company  purchased  the  lots 
to  the  north  of  the  Brass  Block  and  placed  one-story  brick  structures  on 
them.    All  the  other  buildings  to  the  south  were  also  rapidly  restored. 

It  was  the  fourth  fire  to  take  place  within  five  weeks  on  Monday  morn- 
ings at  the  same  hour,  and  the  citizens  then  were  convinced  that  a  firebug 
was  at  work  in  the  city.  In  a  short  time  their  suspicions  were  verified ;  for 
several  weeks  later,  on  Monday  morning,  the  large  Denton  barn  at  Seventh 
and  A  Streets,  filled  with  hay,  was  found  ablaze.  Running  from  it,  one  Jack 
Hayes  was  encountered  by  citizens.  Hayes  had  formerly  been  a  drayman 
tor  "the  Buckeye  Mills  Company.  He  was  arrested,  and  confessed  that  he 
was  the  firebug.  His  reason  for  his  crime  was  that  he  had  become  dis- 
couraged, and  vexed  at  the  world,  because  of  injuries  which  he  received  in 
falling  from  the  roof  of  the  Buckeye  flour  mills,  and  from  the  results  of  which 
he  was  left  a  cripple  for  life. 

Frost  &  Shaffer  Fire 

The  next  fire  of  large  proportions  occurred  on  the  morning  of  July  5, 
1888.  Shortly  after  midnight,  and  while  Fourth  of  July  celebrants  were  yet 
discharging  fireworks,  the  blaze"  was  discovered  in  the  packing  room  of  Frost 
&  Shaffer  in  the  Ellis  Block.  A  skyrocket  falling  through  the  skylight  of 
the  building  was  blamed  for  this  conflagration.  The  flames,  fanned  by  a 
strong  wind  from  the  south,  crept  to  the  rear  and  crossed  High  Street  to  the 
stables  of  W.  T.  Ellis  and  J.  R.  Garrett,  and  at  the  same  time  to  the  north 
end  of  the  block,  taking  in  its  course  the  buildings  then  owned  by  C.  J. 
Ripley.  The  barley  rooms  of  W.  T.  Ellis,  to  the  south,  also  were  threatened. 
Besides  Ripley,  Ellis  and  Garrett,  other  losers  in  the  fire  were  the  Marysville 
Savings  Bank,  F.  W.  H.  Aaron,  C.  A.  Glidden,  and  all  the  tenants  on  the 
upper  floors  of  the  structure  who  were  occupants  of  lodgings.  After  the 
fire,  W.  T.  Ellis  purchased  the  interests  of  all  owners  in  this  block,  and  has 
since  owned  it  in  its  entirety.  It  is  now  the  property  of  his  estate,  which  is 
managed  by  his  son,  W.  T.  Ellis.  Jr. 

Later  Fires 

On  July  16,  1890,  the  building  at  Second  and  Elm  Streets,  occupied  by. 
the  Union  Soda  Works,  was  found  in  flames  at  an  early  morning  hour. 
Firemen  working  in  the  building  discovered  the  remains  of  George  Ball, 
driver  for  the  concern,  and  a  highly  esteemed  citizen.  Examination  of  the 
remains  and  of  the  premises  showed  that  he  had  been  murdered  for  money 
supposed  to  be  in  the  building,  and  the  building  ignited  to  cover  up  the 
crime.  As  related  in  another  chapter,  his  slayers  were  captured.  One  died 
in  the  county  jail  while  awaiting  trial.  The  other  was  sent  to  the  peniten- 
tiary. A  third  accomplice,  who  was  said  to  have  planned  the  deed,  was 
killed  in  Stockton. 

In  a  fire  occurring  on  October  11,  1895,  the  city  lost  its  only  fruit-pack- 
ing plant  of  that  time,  located  at  the  corner  of  Twelfth  and  E  Streets,  and 
conducted  by  R.  W.  Skinner,  now  a  Sutter  County  grower.  A  loss  of  $32,000 
was  sustained  in  this  fire. 

On  December  19  of  the  same  year,  the  Empire  Foundry  &  Harvester 
Works,  at  Fifth  and  F  Streets,  went  up  in  smoke  with  a  loss  of  $20,000.  This 
was  another  blow  to  the  city's  industrial  life. 

Twenty-eight  horses,  including  a  noted  racer,  owned  by  Daniel  Morgan, 
were  burned  in  a  fire  that  destroyed  the  New  York  Stables  on  Second  Street, 
between  C  and  Oak  Streets,  on  September  15,  1896. 

On  July  6,  1898,  the  stable  at  Second  and  High  Streets,  built  by  Henry 
Elmore,  who  had  formerly  occupied  the  New  York  Stables,  was  also  des- 


troyed,  together  with  the  warehouses  of  W.  T.  Ellis  and  White,  Cooley  & 
Cutts.  located  at  the  rear. 

On  September  26,  1900,  occurred  the  burning  of  the  Marysville  Brewer)' 
at  Ninth  and  B  Streets,  owned  by  M.  Reisinger.  The  same  year  the  stable  of 
Daniel  McCrate,  on  High  Street,  between  Second  and  Third,  was  destroyed. 

Esteemed  Youth  Loses  Life 

Frank  Peck,  aged  nineteen,  son  of  County  Surveyor  and  Mrs.  W.  F. 
Peck  of  Yuba  City,  Sutter  County,  lost  his  life,  and  the  Marysville  Woolen 
Mills-  Company  sustained  a  loss  of  $150,000,  in  a  fire  that  consumed  the 
woolen  mills  plant,  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Second  and  B  Streets,  on  Friday 
evening,  March  10,  1899.  Young  Peck  followed  the  hosemen  into  the  blazing 
lower  story  of  the  mill,  was  blinded  by  the  heavy  smoke,  became  confused 
when  he  sought  an  exit,  and  succumbed  to  the  terrific  heat  and  to  suffoca- 
tion. His  remains  were  found  the  following  Sunday,  after  relatives  and 
friends  had  hoped  in  vain  that  those  who  reported  the  young  man  at  the 
scene  of  the  fire  were  mistaken.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  Marysville  High 
School,  class  of  1898,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  held  the  State  champion- 
ship amateur  mile  bicycle  record. 

In  this  fire  Marysville  lost  its  largest  manufacturing  establishment. 
The  blaze  was  found  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  evening,  and  did  not  at  first 
cause  much  concern ;  but  soon  the  flames  crept  into  the  upper  portion  of  the 
mill,  putting  the  entire  plant  beyond  saving.  Both  the  south  and  east  walls 
fell  into  the  ruins.  Only  a  portion  of  the  old  engine  room  at  the  south  of  the 
structure  was  saved.    The  insurance  companies  paid  $75,000  toward  the  loss. 

Burning  of  the  Old  Theater  Building 

In  June,  1903,  Marysville  lost  its  old-time  theater  building.  The  fire 
started  in  the  planing  mill  of  Swain  &  Hudson  on  the  south,  and  ate  through 
a  window  in  the  wall  dividing  the  planing  mill  and  the  show-house. 

Out  of  this  fire  grew  the  present  Atkins  Theater,  on  the  site  of  the  old 
planing  mill,  and  the  Elks  Home,  on  the  lot  where  the  old  theater  stood. 

Fire  Chief  Loses  Life 

Loss  of  life,  including  that  of  Fire  Chief  Joseph  J.  Bradley  and  other 
members  of  the  fire  department,  accompanied  a  fire  that  broke  out  in  the 
tin  shop  of  White,  Cooley  &  Cutts  on  High  Street,  December  18,   1906. 

Ignorant  of  the  fact  that  a  shipment  of  dynamite  had  temporarily  been 
stored  in  the  tin  shop,  the  firemen  worked  on  both  the  High  Street  and  E 
Street  sides  of  the  burning  building.  Chief  Bradley  was  directing  the  men  at 
the  nozzle  on  the  E  Street  side  when  the  dynamite  exploded  with  a  deafening 
roar.  Bradley's  body  was  pierced  by  fragments  of  metal  and  other  foreign 
substances.  He  died  in  about  a  week  from  the  wounds,  which  were  con- 
sidered fatal  from  the  start.  R.  Moran,  volunteer  fire-fighter,  lost  a  leg  and 
died  in  a  few  days  from  the  shock.  Others  who  were  injured,  including 
firemen  and  citizens,  were  Harry  Wyrick,  Charles  Onyett,  John  Mock,  Jack 
Darniele,  Bert  Rathburn,  F.  E.  Smith,  John  Thomas,  F.  Hughes,  Viola 
Shaffer,  Mrs.  Earl  Hall,  H.  A.  Niemeyer,  present  public  administrator,  Walter 
Edeler,  Al  Driscoll,  Clark  Matson,  L.  H.  Richards,  Frank  Williams,  George 
Baird,  Albert  Lewek,  Espie  White,  F.  Cunningham,  W.  S.  Kirk,  and  two 
Chinamen  and  three  Japanese.  Several  lawsuits  were  brought  against  the 
firm  of  White,  Cooley  &  Cutts,  and  judgments  were  rendered  for  the  injured. 

Destruction  of  the  Binet  Row 
The  Binet  Row,  frame  dwellings  on  B  Street  near  Seventh,  fed  one  of 
the  hottest  fires  in  the  city's  history.     This  fire  took  place  on  July  21,  1908, 
and  wiped  out  the  row,  spreading  also  to  the  homes  of  Mrs.  Susan  Sheer. 


M.  Schwab,  Kate  A.  Murray,  Mary  Santry,  Mrs.  J.  Lockhart,  John  Galligan, 
and  Mrs.  A.  Lynn,  all  of  which  were  destroyed.  The  old  grammar-school 
building  on  the  north  side  of  Seventh  Street  suffered  damage  in  the  sum  of 
$1000.  Morgan  J.  Williams,  E.  J.  Goodpastor,  Mrs.  J.  F.  Keane,  P.  J.  Binet, 
W.  C.  Poole,  and  A.  L.  Poole,  tenants,  lost  most  of  their  effects. 

Other  Fires 

On  November  4,  1908,  a  fire  that  started  in  the  delicatessen  department 
of  the  W.'T.  Ellis  grocery  store  did  $15,000  damage. 

On  April  7,  1909,  the  Yuba  County  Hospital  had  a  narrow  escape  from 
destruction ;  and  on  November  14  of  the  same  year  the  Peri  Block  on  D 
Street,  between  Third  and  Fourth,  was  destroyed  with  a  loss  of  $75,000. 
This  fire  was  communicated  to  the  stores  of  S.  Ewell  and  the  S.  G.  King 
Company.  The  tenants  in  the  Peri  Block  who  lost  heavily  were  F.  S.  Juch, 
H.  D.  King,  and  F.  B.  Moor. 

Other  fires  showing  a  heavy  loss  were  those  in  the  Marysville  Steam 
Laundry,  on  July  19,  1911;  the  Moran  Packing  Company,  on  August  15, 
1912;  the  Kelly  Brothers  stable,  on  July  21,  1913;  arid  the  Marysville  Woolen 
Mills,  on  January  17,  1918.  In  the  Kelly  Brothers  fire,  County  Surveyor 
Leslie  B.  Crook,  who  climbed  into  the  hayloft  to  fight  the  fire,  narrowly 
escaped  with  his  life.  He  was  badly  burned,  and  his  life  hung  in  the  balance 
for  some  time. 

Biggest  of  All 

For  extent  of  territory  covered,  and  for  damage  done,  the  fire  of  July  2, 
1921,  will  always  be  remembered  as  the  most  thrilling  and  disastrous  in  the 
history  of  the  city,  up  to  the  present  time.  This  fire  started  in  the  Pavilion 
Stables  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Sixth  and  B  Streets  while  the  north  wind 
was  raging  at  a  velocity  said  to  have  been  seventy  miles  an  hour  ;  and  in 
less  time  than  it  takes  to  write  it,  a  dozen  fires  were  started  from  flying 
sparks  in  the  section  bounded  by  Sixth,  First,  B  and  Yuba  Streets.  The  oil- 
soaked  trestle  of  the  Southern  Pacific  Company,  extending  from  Fourth  to 
Second  Street,  carried  the  fire  lightning-like  through  the  doomed  section, 
scattering  the  blaze  to  both  sides  of  A  Street.  Only  the  Front  Street  levee 
stayed  the  flames,  when  there  were  no.  other  buildings  for  the  fire  to  attack. 

The  loss  in  this  fire  amounted  to  $300,000.  Boys  shooting  firecrackers 
at  the  rear  of  the  Pavilion  Stables  were  blamed  for  this  destructive  con- 
flagration. The  burned  section  is  gradually  being  built  up  again,  for  the  most 
part  with  residences  and  hotels. 

The  City's  First  Fire  Company 

The  devastating,  fires  that  visited  the  young  city  of  Marysville  in  1851 
caused  the  question  of  a  fire  department  to  be  seriously  discussed.  The 
need  of  such  a  department  was  now  very  apparent,  and  the  fact  was  con- 
ceded by  all  that  an  organization  of  some  kind,  provided  with  suitable 
apparatus  for  fighting  the  devouring  element,  was  imperatively  necessary 
to  protect  the  city  from  the  frequent  accidental  and  incendiary  fires.  With 
vhis  object  in  view,  a  number  of  citizens  met  on  September  18,  1851,  and 
perfected  the  organization  of  a  fire  company,  which  was  christened  Mutual 
Hook  &  Ladder  Company,  No.  1.  At  the  inception  of  the  movement,  the 
company  was  a  purely  independent  organization  ;  but  soon  after,  it  was  placed 
under  the  control  and  patronage  of  the  city  authorities. 
Other  Early  Companies 

The  names  of  the  companies  that  followed  in  the  wake  of  Mutual  No.  1 
were :     Eureka   Engine   Company,   No.    1 ;   Yuba   Engine   Company,   No.   2 ; 


Eureka  Hose  Company,  No.  1  ;  Mutual  Engine  Company,  No.  3 ;  Yuba  Hose 
Company,  No-  2 ;  Mutual  Hose  Company,  No.  3 ;  Salamander  Hook  &  Ladder 
Company,  No.  1 ;  Warren  Engine  Company,  No.  4 ;  Pioneer  Engine  Com- 
pany, No.  5 ;  Protection  Engine  Company,  No.  2 ;  Pacific  Engine  Company, 
No.  3  ;  and  Tiger  Engine  Company,  No.  4. 

Fraternity  and  Rivalry  Among  the  Early  Companies 

Among  firemen,  especially  in  the  volunteer  departments,  there  always 
has  existed  in  a  remarkable  degree  a  fraternal  feeling;  and  although,  in  the 
hurry  and  heat  of  action,  sharp  rivalries  and  seeming  animosities  may  spring 
up,  when  the  work  is  over,  all  such  bitter  spirit  vanishes,  and  the  members 
of  different  organizations  mingle  together  in  the  most  amiable  and  harmoni- 
ous social  intercourse.  This  fraternal  spirit  goes  beyond  the  limits  of  one 
city,  extending  over  miles  of  distance  to  meet  a  kindred  feeling  in  the  hearts 
of  firemen  in  other  cities. 

It  was  no  different  in  early  days.  On  Thanksgiving  Day,  November 
27,  1851,  an  exhibition  of  this  fraternal  spirit  was  given  on  the  occasion  of  a 
visit  by  the  Mutual  Hook  &  Ladder  Company,  No.  1,  of  Sacramento,  to  the 
Marysville  Company.  The  guests  were  entertained  at  a  grand  banquet  in 
the  evening,  at  which  the  mayor  and  prominent  citizens  were  present.  The 
visitors  returned  to  Sacramento  the  next  day.  This  visit  was  subsequently 
returned,  and  the  Marysville  company  was  received  with  great  honors  and 
courtesies.  On  June  17.  1852,  the  Howard  Engine  Company  of  San  Fran- 
cisco visited  Marysville.  In  the  afternoon,  after  the  procession,  the  members 
of  the  fire  companies,  with  invited  guests,  sat  down  to  a  banquet  in  the 
Hotel  du  Commerce.  The  stay  of  the  Howards  was  necessarily  brief,  and 
they  embarked  at  four  o'clock  on  the  Governor  Dana  for  Sacramento. 

These  were  but  the  first  of  many  similar  courtesies  between  the  various 
volunteer  companies  of  Marysville  and  those  of  her  sister  cities.  Frequent 
balls,  receptions,  and  parades  were  given,  which  were  productive  of  much 
enjoyment  and  pleasure.  Not  to  be  a  member  of  the  fire  department  was 
in  those  days  to  be  outside  the  pale  of  social  activities. 

Competitive  trials  were  frequent,  and  great  rivalry  existed  as  to  the 
length  of  time  required  to  make  a  run  and  get  on  a  stream  of  water,  and 
especially  as  to  the  distance  to  which  a  stream  could  be  thrown.  At  the 
first  State  fair  held  in  Marysville,  in  1858,  the  Warren  Engine  Company, 
No.  4,  using  a  Hunneman  tub  hand  engine,  threw  a  stream  of  water  215  feet, 
which  was  about  thirteen  feet  farther  than  any  of  the  rival  companies'  best 
efforts.  This  company  was  but  one  of  about  twelve  companies  organized 
in  Marysville  after  the  formation  of  Mutual  Hook  &  Ladder  Company,  No.  1. 
All  of  the  rival  companies  were  equipped  with  hand  pumps,  and  were  on  an 
equal  footing,  as  regards  equipment,  in  tests  of  skill  and  strength. 

In  1862,  however,  the  Eureka  Company,  aided  by  the  city,  purchased 
in  the  East  what  was  then  considered  the  last  word  in  fire-fighting  apparatus. 
In  these  days  of  powerful  gasoline  engines,  the  old-time  steamer  would 
probably  cut  a  poor  figure ;  but  so  great  a  bone  of  contention  was  the  intro- 
duction of  the  steamer  in  the  ranks  of  the  rival  companies,  that  the  common 
council  put  an  end  to  the  constant  bickering  by  ordering  the  other  companies 
to  disband,  leaving  the  Eureka  Company  alone  in  the  field. 

This  condition  of  affairs  existed  for  about  a  year,  when  it  became 
apparent  that  but  one  engine  would  not  afford  the  rapidly  growing  city 
adequate  protection ;  so  the  council  permitted  the  formation  of  three  addi- 
tional engine  companies,  equipped,  of  course,  with  hand  engines.  This 
arrangement  proved  satisfactory  until  1872,  when  the  council  found  it  expedi- 
ent to  purchase  another  steamer.     In  1876,  a  third  steam  engine  was  added 


to  the  equipment,  being  the  one  that  had  been  on  exhibition  at  the  Centennial 
Exhibition.  The  first  steam  engine  coming  to  this  coast  was  shipped  to 
Marysville.     It  is  now  a  permanent  exhibit  at  Sutter's  Fort,  in  Sacramento. 

Personnel  of  the  Department 

Chief  Engineers:  During  the  fifties  the  following  firemen  filled  the 
position  of  chief  engineer,  in  the  order  named :  D.  Buckley,  P.  H.  Pierce,  Jr., 
Charles  Ball,  A.  W.  Nightingill,  and  P.  J.  Welch,  the  latter  serving  until 
1861.  During  the  later  sixties  the  following  filled  the  position,  in  the  order 
named :  W.  P.  Winkley,  Jim  B.  Leaman.  William  Murphy,  F.  D.  Hudson, 
William  C.  Ogden,  and  D.  H.  Harney.  The  last-named  served  also  during 
the  years  1870,  1872,  1873,  and  after  a  short  lapse,  from  1874  to  1878.  In  the 
days  since  Harney  (now  deceased),  who  was  the  father  of  Horticultural 
Commissioner  George  W.  Harney  of  Yuba  County,  the  position  has  been 
filled  by  the  following,  in  the  order  named:  John  Colford,  Sr.,  L.  C.  Will- 
iams, James  O.  Rusby,  George  B.  Baldwin,  Fred  C.  Meyers,  B.  B.  Divver, 
Clarence  E.  Rockefeller,  Joseph  J.  Bradley,  C.  H.  Hedges,  William  B.  Meek. 

In  the  past  thirtv  years  death  has  removed  many  of  the  once  valiant 
fire-fighters  of  the  city,  among  them  Luther  Gates,  driver  of  the  early-day 
hpse-wagon ;  William  Gates,  his  son,  an  engine  driver ;  and  the  following 
hosemen:  Louis  P.  Knorsa,  Jacob  Knorsa,  Edward  Knorsa  (brothers), 
James  Sullivan,  Clinton  Cunningham,  Francis  Heenan,  Porter  Andross, 
Henry  Hadlich,  Jesse  Rathburn,  J.  M.  Morrissey,  and  Leo  Haggerty.  Fire 
Chief  Joseph  J.  Bradley ;  C.  J.  Price,  engineer ;  Thomas  Norman,  assistant 
engineer ;  and  Phil  J.  Divver,  engineer,  have  also  answered  the  final  call. 

Present  Officers  and  Members :  The  officers  and  members  of  the  depart- 
ment in  1923  were:  William  B.  Meek,  chief;  William  Reilly,  assistant  chief; 
Goya  J.  Rodriguez,  captain  of  the  house ;  William  H.  Norman  and  Frank 
Looze,  engine  drivers ;  Lloyd  Sligar,  relief  driver ;  and  the  following  ten 
hosemen :  Louis  Anthony,  John  J.  Barrett,  Francis  Johnson,  Carl  Syvertsen, 
Edward  Kneebone,  Eugene  Correll,  Charles  H.  Rowe,  Edwin  Brow,  James 
Durkin,  and  E.  H.  Holmes. 

Reminiscent  of  the  fire-fighting  days  of  1854  in  Marysville  is  a  fireman's 
certificate,  yellow  with  age  and  worn,  and  yet  well  preserved  considering 
it  was  secreted  for  sixty-three  years.  This  paper,  resurrected  five  years  ago 
in  the  ruins  of  the  pioneer  town  of  Shasta,  Shasta  County,  is  now  among 
the  effects  of  the  late  Judge  James  M.  Morrissey,  justice  of  the  peace  of 
Marysville  Township,  who  died  suddenly  in  his  office  in  December,  1922. 
The  certificate  was  found  during  a  Grand  Parlor  session  of  the  Native  Sons 
of  the  Golden  West,  held  in  Redding,  Shasta  County,  in  1917.  It  reads: 
"Marysville  Fire  Department.     Fireman's  Certificate. 

"Office  of  Chief  Engineer.     Marysville,  November  27,  1854. 

"This  certifies  that  George  Schrater  is  a  fireman  of  the  City  of  Marys- 
ville, attached  to  Eureka  Hose  Company,  No.  1,  he  having  been  duly  con- 
firmed as  such  by  the  City  Council  on  the  19th  day  of  October,  1854. 

"Signed,  Charles  Ball,  Chief  Engineer, 
"G.  E.  Winter,  Mayor, 
"W.  Wilsonsmith,  City  Clerk." 

Improvements  in  Equipment 
In  the  year  1917  the  horse-drawn  fire  apparatus  used  for  so  many  years 
in  the  fire  department  was  put  away  by  the  common  council,  at  the  urge  of 
the  board  of  fire  underwriters.  In  its  stead  were  purchased  a  motor-driven 
chemical  and  hose  wagon  and  a  motor-driven  engine,  at  a  cost  of  $15,000. 
The  old  steam  engines,  two  in  number,  are  kept  in  reserve,  giving  to  the 


city  what  is  thought  to  be  adequate  protection.  The  motor-driven  engine 
has  a  pump  capacity  of  1100  gallons  per  minute;  the  chemical-and-hose- 
wagon  engine,  a  capacity  of  550  gallons  a  minute.  At  the  present  time  the 
department  carries  3500  feet  of  2j4-inch  hose,  and  600  feet  of  lJ/2-inch  hose. 
In  the  early  part  of  the  year  1923,  the  old  City  Hall  fire-bell,  which  for 
more  than  half  a  century  had  sounded  the  fire  alarms  and  tolled  many  a 
requiem,  was  lowered  from  the  City  Hall  tower,  and  a  siren  substituted.  A 
general  protest  was  sounded  by  the  people,  who  had  learned  to  love  the  old 
bell  because  of  the  part  it  had  taken  in  both  their  joys  and  their  sorrows. 
The  protest  grew  so  strong  that  at  the  end  of  a  month  the  city  council  was 
forced  to  replace  the  bell  and  dispense  with  the  siren. 

The/  Marysville  Herald 

Marysville  was  laid  out  in  December,  1849,  and  within  five  months 
thereafter  Col.  R.  H.  Taylor,  a  San  Francisco  merchant  of  1849,  was  so 
favorably  impressed  with  the  future  before  the  new  city  that  he  decided  to 
establish  a  paper  here.  As  soon  as  he. could  negotiate  for  a  press  and  type, 
he  put  his  ideas  into  form,  and  on  August  6,  1850,  issued  the  first  number  of 
the  Marysville  Herald,  the  pioneer  journal  of  the  city.  At  first  the  paper 
appeared  semi-weekly ;  but  so  successful  was  it,  that  in  October  the  editor 
announced  that  he  would  in  the  future  issue  tri-weekly,  only  he  should  need 
"more  advertisements  to  help  fill  up."  On  January  28,  1851,  Stephen  C. 
Massett,  a  talented  young  man  from  Sacramento,  became  interested  with 
Colonel  Taylor,  and  the  paper  was  then  edited  and  published  by  Taylor  & 
Massett.  On  July  15,  1851,  L.  AY.  Ransom  purchased  a  one-third  interest, 
and  the  style  of  the  firm  was  changed  to  Taylor,  Massett  &  Company. 

At  its  inception,  the  Herald  was  independent  in  politics ;  but  it  soon  fell 
into  the  Whig  ranks,  where  it  did  good  work  for  some  time.  The  impos- 
sibility of  procuring  a  sufficient  quantity  of  white  paper  compelled  the 
publishers  frequently  to  print  their  issue  upon  brown  paper,  or,  as  the  editor 
remarked,  "do  it  up  brown."  A  feature  of  this  paper  was  a  column  of  news 
and  opinions  printed  in  the  French  language.  In  addition  to  its  regular 
issue,  the  Herald  published  a  "steamer  edition"  a  few  days  prior  to  the  sailing 
of  each  steamer  for  the  East. 

On  August  8,  1853,  the  Herald  was  changed  to  an  evening  paper,  issued 
daily,  and  called  the  Daily  Evening  Herald.  Again  on  January  9,  1854,  it 
was  changed  to  a  morning  paper,  and  bore  the  name  of  the  Marysville  Daily 
Herald.  During  the  troubles  in  San  Francisco  in  1856,  the  Herald  supported 
the  actions  of  the  Vigilance  Committee. 

The  California  Express 

The  Herald  was  printed  little  more  than  a  year  before  Marysville  had 
a  second  newspaper,  the  California  Express,  a  full-fledged  Democratic  paper. 
The  first  number  was  issued  on  November  3,  1851,  by  George  Giles  &  Com- 
pany, and  edited  by  Col.  Richard  Rust.  Following  many  changes  in  the 
editorial  and  managing  departments,  we  find  the  Express  issued  in  1861  by 
the  Express  Printing  Company. 

The  Express  was  from  the  first  an  exponent  of  pure,  unadulterated 
States'  Rights  Democracy,  and  during  the  long  Civil  War,  was  an  earnest 
advocate  of  the  "Lost  Cause,"  and  the  right  of  the  Southern  States  to 
secede  from  the  Union.  So  distasteful  did  its  course  become  to  the  loyal 
citizens  of  Marysville,  that  it  was  several  times  threatened  with  destruc- 
tion at  their  hands.  The  Express  was  ably  edited,  and  had  for  contributors 
some  of  the  most  talented  men  on  the  Coast.     It  was  very  successful  and 


influential  until  it  adopted   its  policy  in   defense   of  the   South.     From   this 
time  it  began  to  decline,  and  in  1866  was  compelled  to  succumb. 
The   Daily   Inquirer 

Although  there  already  was  one  well-established  Democratic  paper  in 
the  field,  yet  on  November  1,  1855,  J.  DeMott  &  Company  commenced  the 
issue  of  another,  the  Daily  Inquirer.  George  C.  Gorham,  who  later  became 
prominent  in  the  community,  wielded  the  editorial  pen.  The  paper  fell  into 
the  hands  of  Oscar  O.  Ball  the  next  year,  who  published  it  until  December, 
1857,  when  it  ceased  to  exist. 

During  the  two  years  of  its  existence  the  Inquirer  was  politically 
Democratic,  Neutral,  Know-Nothing,  and  finally  Democratic  again. 

The  Weekly  Spiritualist 

The  first  number  of  the  Weekly  Spiritualist  was  issued  in  February, 
1857,  by  L.  W.  Ransom,  editor  and  publisher.  It  was  an  exponent  of  the 
school  of  Andrew  Jackson  Davis'  Harmonial  Philosophy,  and  met  with 
such  faint  encouragement  that  it  ceased  publication  the  following  May. 

Marysville  Daily  News,  and  Daily  National  Democrat 

The  first  issue  of  the  Marysville  Daily  News,  an  independent  paper, 
made  its  appearance  on  January  9,  1858.  The  publishers  were  A.  S.  Randall 
&  Company.  They  purchased  the  Herald  from  L,.  R.  Lull  &  Company,  and 
the  Daily  Inquirer  from  Oscar  O.  Ball.  The  paper  was  placed  under  the 
editorial  charge  of  James  Allen.  On  August  12,  1858,  Allen  sold  his  inter- 
est to  John  R.  Ridge,  and  the  paper  became  the  Daily  National  Democrat. 

John  R.  Ridge,  having  retired  from  the  California  Express,  purchased 
an  interest  in  the  Daily  News,  and  assumed  the  position  of  editor.  The 
News  had  been  an  independent  paper  ;  but  now  it  was  changed  to  an  advocate 
of  Douglas  Democracy,  and  was  issued  on  August  12,  1858,  as  the  Daily 
National  Democrat.  On  April  23,  1861,  Ridge  retired  and  George  C.  Gorham 
took  editorial  charge. 

Although  Democratic,  the  paper  was  thoroughly  Union  in  its  sentiment ; 
and  as  there  was  another  Union  paper  published  in  Marysville,  the  Appeal, 
it  was  thought  best  for  them  to  combine.  Consequently,  in  October  the 
Democrat  was  merged  in  the  Appeal,  which  appeared  as  a  Republican  organ. 

The  Daily  and  Weekly  Appeal 

The  first  number  of  the  Daily  Appeal  appeared  on  January  23,  1860, 
with  H.  B.  Mighels  as  editor.  It  was  issued  by  G.  W.  Bloor  &  Company, 
and  was  independent  in  politics.  B.  P.  Avery  &  Company  purchased  the 
Appeal  on  June  5,  1860,  and  began  issuing  a  thorough  Republican  paper, 
Avery  managing  the  editorial  department.  It  began  at  this  time  to  issue  a 
weekly  edition. 

On  October  29,  1861,  the  Daily  National  Democrat  was  combined  with 
the   Appeal.     The   paper   was    published    by   the    Appeal    Association,    with 

B.  P.  Avery  as  editor,  and  A.  S.  Randall  as  business  manager.  In  1862,  C.  V. 
Dawson  purchased  an  interest  in  the  paper.  Avery  relinquished  the  editorial 
duties  in  1862  to  A.  S.  Smith.  In  January,  1866,  E.  AY.  Whitney  became 
manager,  and  was  succeeded  the  following  May  by  L.  Barney  Ayers,  who  is 
still  very  well  remembered  in  Marysville.  On  April  26,  1870,  A.  S.  Smith 
resigned  the  editorial  chair  to  Frank  AY.  Gross,  and  in  September  of  the  same 
year  P.  H.  Warner  became  manager.  In  November,  1871,  H.  S.  Hoblitzell, 
who  afterwards  became  city  clerk  and  also  police  judge,  assumed  the  man- 
agement, which  he  resigned  on  August  13,  1873,  to  H.  W.  Haskell. 

The  Appeal  has  since  passed  through  the  hands  of  E.  J.  Lockwood  and 

C.  D.  Dawson,  A.  S.  Smith,  F.  W.  Johnson;  E.  A.  Forbes,  and  V.  M.  Cassidy, 


who  moved  to  Marysville  from  Yuba  City  in  1922.  In  May,  1923,  the  Appeal 
was  taken  over  by  James  M.  Cremin,  former  State  printer  and  State  statisti- 
cian, who  purchased  from  V.  M.  Cassidy. 

The  Marysville  Daily  Standard 

When  A.  S.  Smith  retired  from  the  editorial  rooms  of  the  Appeal,  he 
commenced  the  issue  of  an  independent  daily,  called  the  Marysville  Daily 
Standard.  The  first  few  numbers,  commencing  on  May  16,  1870,  were 
printed  at  the  office  of  the  Weekly  Sutter  Banner,  while  Smith  was  awaiting 
the  arrival  of  his  printing  material.  On  June  6,  1870,  the  Standard  was 
enlarged  from  a  six-column  to  a  seven-column  paper.  The  Standard  was 
edited  with  vigor  and  ability  for  three  years,  when  the  material  was  sold  to 
the  Appeal  Association. 

The  Marysville  Democrat 

In  1883  the  Marysville  Democrat  was  established  by  a  company  made 
up  of  Yuba  County  Democrats,  who  purchased  shares  in  order  that  they 
might  have  an  organ  of  influence  in  the  city  and  county  for  political  purposes. 
It  is  still  in  existence  as  Marysville's  only  evening  paper,  and  is  owned  by 
Arthur  W.  Gluckman,  a  Republican.  The  first  editor  was  Milton  McWhor- 
ter,  now  deceased. 

Since  McWhorter's  time,  the  paper  has  been  owned  by  W.  H.  Phillips, 
the  Democrat  Publishing  Company,  W.  S.  O'Brien,  and  Gluckman.  T.  J. 
Sherwood  edited  the  paper  for  a  time.  The  late  William  M.  Cutter  was 
editor  of  this  paper  for  a  number  of  years.     L.  A.  P.  Eichler  is  now  editor. 


Marysville  Foundry 

The  first  foundry  and  machine  shop  in  Marysville  was  established  in 
1852  by  Stombs,  Daggett  &  Company,  and  was  at  first  located  at  the  corner 
of  A  and  Seventh  Streets.  The  business  increasing  from  the  start,  it  became 
necessary  to  move  to  larger  quarters,  and  the  corner  of  B  and  Fourth  Streets 
was  chosen  as  the  new  location.  The  firm  became  known  as  the  Marysville 
Foundry.  Under  this  name  it  was  conducted  by  F.  H.  Booth  and  later  by 
Booth  &  Scheidel.  I.  G.  Shepherd  for  many  years  was  superintendent, 
and  Charles  M.  Gorham,  manager.  From  thirty  to  fifty  men  were  employed 
in  the  machine  shop  and  molding  room,  and  in  the  yards.  A  specialty  was 
made  of  mining  machinery,  and  the  output  was  sent  to  Nevada,  Arizona, 
Utah,  and  Montana,  and  to  many  points  in  California.  A  few  of  the  men 
who  were  employed  in  this  foundry  in  its  latter  days  are  still  living  in  this 
section,  but  it  can  be  safely  said  they  can  now  be  counted  on  the  fingers  of 
one  hand.  The  foundry  building  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  conflagration 
of  July  2,  1921. 

Empire  Foundry 

In  1870,  H.  B.  Williamson  and  C.  S.  Cary  established  the  Empire  Foun- 
dry, which  still  exists  at  the  corner  of  Fifth  and  F  Streets.  John  H.  ("Jack") 
Collins  is  the  present  owner.  In  1878  the  plant  was  sold  to  Richard  Hoskin, 
who  for  a  time  retained  H.  B.  Williamson  as  superintendent.  In  the  days 
of  hydraulic  mining,  the  firm  reaped  a  harvest  in  the  manufacture  of  the  mon- 
itors used  in  that  business  in  the  mountains.  Engine  boilers  and  agricultural 
implements  also  were  turned  out.  The  gang-plow  American  Chief,  and 
the  Eittle  Giant,  a  piece  of  hydraulic-mining  machinery,  were  turned  out 
here.  Some  of  the  products  went  into  South  America  and  other  foreign 
countries.  The  Western  States  and  Territories  also  proved  a  splendid  field. 
The  Hoskin  giants  and  deflectors  helped  spread  the  fame  of  the  foundry, 
which  for  a  time  became  known  as  the  Empire  Foundry  &  Harvester  Works. 


Marysville  Woolen  Mills 

Among  the  great  industries  of  Yuba  Count}-  in  the  three  and  a  half 
decades  following  the  year  1867,  there  were  none  that  attracted  more  wide- 
spread interest  and  proved  of  more  importance  than  the  manufacture  '■  of 
woolen  goods.  Among  the  manufacturing  establishments  in  this  part  of 
California,  the  Marysville  Woolen  Mills  stood  preeminent  in  their  line. 

It  was  in  1867  that  the  plant  was  established,  with  a  capital  stock  of 
$50,000.  Located  at  the  corner  of  Second  and  B  Streets,  for  thirty  years  the 
mill  continued  uninterrupted  operations,  until  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  year 
1899.  When  rebuilt,  the  mill  was  constructed  on  a  larger  scale,  being 
equipped  with  the  latest  improved  machinery  operated  by  means  of  elec- 
tricity. The  late  D.  E.  Knight,  who  gave  to  Marysville  the  race-track 
grounds,  now  known  as  Knight  Recreation  Park,  was  for  years  the  moving 
spirit  at  the  head  of  the  concern.  The  trade,  which  was  large,  extended  over 
the  Western  and  Northern  States,  Mexico  and  British  Columbia,  and  finally 
to  London,  England.  Besides  giving  employment  to  many,  the  establish- 
ment provided  a  home  market  for  the  wool-raisers  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Coun- 
ties. It  was  an  institution  of  which  Marysville  was  justly  proud;  for  its 
blankets,  underwear,  and  suit  material  became  known  both  in  Europe  and 
America.  Toward  the  end  of  its  career,  after  the  death  of  D.  E.  Knight,  the 
establishment  was  owned  by  John  Martin.  A  second  fire  left  the  mill  in  its 
present  ruined  condition. 

The   Marysville  Winery 

Another  establishment  that  flourished  early  in  Marysville  was  the 
Marysville  Winery.  At  its  zenith,  none  in  the  State  enjoyed  a  higher  repu- 
tation for  the  excellence  of  its  products.  The  business  was  established  by  a 
stock  company  in  1872,  and  was  purchased  by  the  late  Gottlieb  Sieber  in 
1884.  The  distillery  consisted  of  very  substantial  buildings  equipped  with 
the  latest  improved  continuous  stills,  with  a  capacity  of  250, 000  gallons  of 
high-grade  brandies  and  sweet  and  dry  wines  per  year.  Sieber  was  assisted 
in  the  management  of  the  concern  by  his  son,  Henry  Sieber,  now  of  Berke- 
ley, Alameda  County.  Until  it  ceased  operations  in  the  late  nineties,  the 
winery  afforded  a  ready  market  to  the  grape-growers  of  the  two  counties. 

Buckeye  Flour  Mills 
An  influential  factor  that  contributed  to  the  prosperity  of  the  city  of 
Marysville,  and  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties  in  general,  in  the  days  when  the 
farmers  of  the  two  counties  depended  chiefly  upon  grain-raising,  was  the 
Buckeye  Flour  Mills  at  Fifth  and  Yuba  Streets.  The  name  of  the  late  Justus 
Greely,  father  of  the  present  county  auditor  and  recorder,  Fred  H.  Greely, 
was  almost  synonymous  with  the  concern,  at  the  head  of  which  he  stood  for 
years.  During  Mr.  Greely's  regime,  shipment  of  Buckeye  flour  to  China 
began.    The  concern  has  since  been  absorbed  by  the  Sperry  Flour  Company. 

A  Faithful  Watchman 

The  Buckeye  Flour  Mills,  and  its  successor,  the  Sperry  Flour  Company, 
had  about  its  properties  for  many  years  a  well-known  night  watchman, 
Samuel  Harrington,  whose  death  was  only  recently  recorded.  On  August 
9,  1893,  during  an  encounter  by  night  with  a  trespasser  on  the  property  of 
his  employers,  Harrington  was  shot  in  the  arm  and  disabled  for  some  time. 
Besides  more  substantial  recognition  as  a  reward  for  his  faithfulness  at  all 
times,  the  flour  company  gave  Mr.  Harrington  favorable  mention  and  ex- 
tended tribute  in  a  magazine  published  by  the  concern. 

"Sam"  Harrington  had  as  his  loyal  companions  during  many  a  night  his 
well-trained  dogs;  and  woe  be  to   the   intruder  who  ignored  these  faithful 


animals  when  once  their  master  commanded  them  to  investigate  an  unusual 
noise  on  the  premises. 

Trayner  &  Ellis  Flour  Mills 

Just  west  of  the  depot  of  the  Sacramento  Northern  passenger  and  freight 
depot,  in  early  days,  stood  the  Trayner  &  Ellis  Flour  Mills.  James  Trayner, 
long  deceased,  was  the  father  of  John  H.  Trayner  of  Gridley,  and  the  grand- 
father of  James  Trayner  of  this  city. 

This  firm  did  a  thriving  business  until  their  plant  was  ruined  by  a  flood 
of  the  early  days,  when  they  were  forced  to  discontinue. 

Early  Carriage  and  Wagon  Works 

During  the  early  days  in  Marysville  there  were  several  wagon-making 
concerns.  Among  the  owners  of  these  were  the  following :  George  P.  Hunt, 
A.  W.  Cutts,  Suber  &  Cutts,  Charles  Raish,  Katzner,  Russell  &  Chase, 
Easton  &  White,  S.  H.  Bradley  &  Co.,  W.  C.  Ogden  &  Sons,  James  Sneed 
and  A.  M.  Goff. 

To  Charles  Raish,  who  commenced  work  in  Marysville  in  1853,  belonged 
the  honor  of  making  the  first  top  buggy.  This  vehicle  was  made  by  him  in 
1854.  and  sold  for  $500. 

A.  AY.  Cutts,  who  started  a  shop  in  1851,  built,  in  the  summer  of  the  next 
year,  the  first  wagon  manufactured  in  the  city.  In  the  summer  of  1851, 
George  P.  Hunt  had  built  two  stages  for  John  Adrient,  to  run  to  Long  Bar 
and  Parks  Bar.  In  1880,  the  firm  of  Suber  &  Cutts,  formed  in  1854,  had  the 
record  of  being  the  only  firm  mentioned  in  the  directory  of  1855  which  had 
remained  unchanged. 

The  spring  wagons  made  later  by  S.  H.  Bradley,  for  delivery  purposes, 
gained  State-wide  reputation.  In  the  earlier  period,  Bradley  tried  his  hand  at 
stages  and  Concord  coaches  for  use  in  the  mountains,  with  decided  success. 

Katzner,  Russell  &  Chase  excelled  in  road  carts  for  a  number  of  years, 
in  which  line  they  specialized. 

Union   Lumber   Company 

The  Union  Lumber  Company  was  established  in  1852  by  W.  K.  Hudson 
and  Samuel  Harryman,  under  the  name  of  Hudson  &  Company.  In  1854, 
Harryman  sold  out  to  W.  H.  and  G.  B.  Pepper.  The  yard  was  burned  in 
1854.  In  1857,  the  firm  was  acquired  by  A.  P.  Willey,  EHsha  Scott  and  Thad- 
deus  Dean,  who  did  business  under  the  name  of  Willey,  Dean  &  Company. 
Dean  sold  out  to  P.  P.  Cain ;  and  in  1858  W.  K.  Hudson  again  became  a 
member,  the  firm  name  being  changed  to  Hudson,  AVilley  &  Cain. 

In  1864,  the  firm  was  incorporated  as  the  Union  Lumber  Company.  W. 
K.  Hudson  was  elected  president,  and  A.  P.  AVilley  vice-president ;  T.  E. 
Perkins,  R.  S.  Jenkins  and  A.  J.  Batchelder  were  the  other  directors.  In 
1873  Hudson  died,  and  A.  P.  AAilley  was  chosen  president,  and  F.  D.  Hud- 
son vice-president.  The  company  at  one  time  owned  and  operated  fifteen  saw- 
mills in  the  county,  and  several  in  other  counties.  Since  1873  the  company 
has  been  limiting  its  activities  to  yard  business  only.  H.  Cheim  has  owned 
the  controlling  interest  in  this  business  for  many  years  now. 

Other  Manufacturing  Industries  of  Early  Days 

Other  factories  and  firms  that  Marysville  boasted  in  the  earlier  days 
were  :  The  California  Brewery,  which  was  owned  by  Gottlieb  Sieber ;  boot  and 
shoe  shops,  conducted  in  a  small  way  by  F.  Terstegge  &  Company,  P.  J. 
Flannery,  E.  Healy,  Philip  Fisher,  and  Moon  &  Creighton ;  a  broom  factory, 
run  by  W.  F.  Lefavre  ;  the  Pioneer  Tannery,  built  by  Drake  &  Spindler  in 
1852;  marble  works,  started  by  McCready  &  Brothers  in  1859;  the  Marysville 
Coal  &  Gas  Company,  established  in  1858;  the  H.  M.  Harris  Saddlery,  which 


still  is  in  existence;  a  sash,  door  and  blinds  factory,  built  in  1854  by  C.  H. 
Goodwin;  the  Marysville  Soap  Works,  established  in  1863,  by  J.  W.  Cowan 
and  later  conducted  by  James  Cook  and  others  ;  and  a  wine  and  brandy  man- 
ufactory. In  the  tinware  line,  the  writer  recalls  E.  C.  Ross  &  Company, 
Cooley  &  Cady.  Kertchem  &  Corley,  and  White,  Cooley  &  Cutts,  as  firms 
no  longer  in  existence. 

Early   Express   Companies 

Adams  &  Company's  Express  had  an  office  at  the  corner  of  High  Street 
and  the  Plaza.  They  advertised  :  "Our  express  will  always  be  accompanied 
by  faithful  messengers,  and  thus  we  are  enabled  to  offer  to  our  patrons  the 
greatest  security  for  the  transmission  of  treasure  and  valuable  packages  at 
the  lowest  possible  rates."  Daily  expresses  were  sent  from  Marysville  to 
Sacramento,  San  Francisco,  Benicia,  Grass  Valley,  Nevada,  Auburn,  Co- 
loma,  Shasta,  Stockton,  Sonora,  Jackson,  Placerville,  Mormon  Island,  "and 
all  parts  of  the  Northern  and  Southern  Mines."  The  express  for  the  Atlantic 
States  and  for  Europe  was  forwarded  by  every  mail  steamer,  and  also  by 
the  Nicaragua  Line. 

Everts,  Snell  &  Company  had  the  "Feather  River  Express,"  connecting 
with  Adams  &  Company  to  Sacramento,  San  Francisco  and  all  parts  of  the 
Northern  and  Southern  Mines.  Their  principal  offices  were  located  at  Marys- 
ville, St.  Louis,  Gibsonville,  Pine  Grove,  and  Chandlerville. 

Wells,  Fargo  &  Company  also  had  an  express  office  at  Marysville. 

Other  Early   Business   Firms 

A  Lager  Beer  and  Refreshment  Saloon  was  conducted  by  "William  Clark 
in  connection  with  the  City  Baths,  corner  First  and  D  Streets,  in  1856.  "At 
Home  Again"  is  the  way  Clark's  advertisement  read.  He  assured  his  friends 
that  he  would  be  happy  to  meet  them  again  at  his  old  stand.  "To  be  up 
with  the  times,  I  have  made  several  additions,"  he  said,  "among  which  is  a 
Lager  Beer  and  Refreshment  Saloon  in  the  basement,  equal  to  any  in  the 
city."     Bathers  were  furnished  with  refreshments  in  their  rooms,  if  desired. 

Others  engaged  in  business  in  Marysville  at  that  time  were :  Reynolds 
Bros.,  bankers ;  S.  T.  Watts,  wholesale  druggists ;  J.  McGlashan  &  Co.,  books 
and  bookbinding;  the  Commercial  Steam  Book  and  Job  Printing  Establish- 
ment ;  G.  &  O.  Amy,  books  and  music ;  Thomas  Aliment,  coffee  and  spices ; 
Bourne,  Elwell  &  Co.,  groceries,  provisions  and  liquors ;  H.  F.  Tarrant  &  Co., 
Burton  Ale  House ;  J.  S.  and  W.  C.  Belcher,  attorneys-at-law ;  Marysville 
Iron  Foundry  and  Machine  Shops,  Benham  &  Booth  ;  Mark  Brumagim  & 
Co.,  bankers ;  California  Stage  Co. ;  Canfield  &  Wright,  watchmakers  and 
jewelers ;  Eugene  Dupre,  real  estate  and  money  brokers ;  S.  Decker,  Phoenix 
Saloon;  Denckla  &  Bro.,  commission  merchants;  Samuel  L.  Dewey,  gro- 
ceries and  liquors ;  Deardorff  &  Lowery,  carpenters  and  builders ;  French  & 
Blackman,  clothing;  Charles  Carl,  stationers;  A.  P.  Flint,  crockery;  J.  H.  and 
J.  R.  Gassaway,  barbers ;  Isaac  Glazier  &  Co.,  "old  corner  cigar  store,"  corner 
First  and  D,  Sign  of  the  Big  Indian  ;  James  Grant,  storage,  commission  and 
forwarding;  Haun  House,  George  Rowe,  prop.;  Hudson  &  Co.,  lumber; 
Hartwell  &  Co.,  hardware;  J.  Hisey  &  Co.,  harness  and  saddlery;  Heuston, 
Hastings  &  Co.,  tailors;  W.  Hawley  &  Co.,  groceries;  Hudson,  Eilerman  & 
Co.,  tailors ;  Langton  &  Co.,  bankers ;  Pioneer  Cigar  Store,  L.  Lewis  &  Co. ; 
Levi  W.  Taylor,  general  agent  and  collector ;  J.  C.  Smith,  Magnolia  Saloon ; 
John  T.  McCarty,  lawyer;  McFarlane  &  Co.,  wholesale  and  retail  grocers; 
Prof.  F.  Grambss,  teacher  of  piano ;  O.  M.  Evans,  Merchants'  Hotel ;  J.  C. 
Miller,  furniture;  John  McQuinn,  green  and  dried  fruits;  McCormick  & 
Tennent,  forwarding  and  commission;  Murray's  Western  House;  Philadel- 
phia House,   Bause  &  Harrington ;   Pegram   &   Presbury,   drugs,  etc. ;  E.   M. 


Pierson,  livery ;  Frank  Baker,  upholsterer;  A.  Prou  &  Co.,  painters;  J.  N. 
Rohr,  house  and  sign  painter ;  Randal  &  Co.,  agents  for  San  Francisco 
papers;  J.  Ruth,  daguerreian,  ambrotypist  and  photographer;  Rice-Coffin, 
drugs ;  The  Spring  House,  John  Spring,  prop. ;  Joseph  F.  Smith,  lumber ; 
C.  F.  Scholl,  gunsmith;  E.  B.  Stephens  &  Co.,  groceries  and  feed;  J.  M. 
Schermier,  tailor ;  Queen  City  Mills,  Soule,  Bordewell  &  Co.,  props. ;  United 
States  Hotel,  Lee  &  Shields  ;  H.  Wagner,  books  and  stationery ;  Warren  & 
Hill,  stoves  and  tinware ;  AVorthington  &  Fox,  wines  and  brandies ;  A. 
Walker,  groceries ;  Winter  &  Burlingame,  dentists ;  Watkins  &  Keyser, 
attorneys;  J.  H.  Wright  &  Co.,  hardware;  D.  S.  Lord  &  Co.,  stationery;  Jo- 
siah  J.  LeCount,  stationery;  Macy,  Lowe  &  Co.,  bankers;  Taylor  &  Wads- 
worth,  clothing;  W\  C.  Stokes,  bottling;  and  Cox  &  Dougherty,  "El  Dorado" 
bar  and  billiard  saloon. 


The  character  and  standing  of  the  financial  institutions  of  a  locality  form 
a  basis  from  which  may  be  determined  the  genuine  worth,  stability  and 
enterprise  of  its  communities ;  for  no  feature  of  progress  in  any  community 
sustains  more  important  relations  to  its  mercantile  and  manufacturing  in- 
terests than  the  banking  institutions.  Therefore,  in  reviewing  the  business 
interests  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties,  it  is  just  and  proper  that  more  than 
passing  notice  should  be  given  to  the  banking  houses  of  the  "twin  counties," 
the  chief  of  which  are  located  in  Marysville  and  Wheatland  in  Yuba  County, 
and  in  Yuba  City  and  Live  Oak  in  Sutter  County.  These  will  be  described 
in  connection  with  the  cities  or  towns  in  which  they  are  located. 

Earliest   Banking    Houses 

The  first  banking  institution  in  the  city  of  Marysville  was  that  of  Cun- 
ningham &  Brumagim.  In  the  first  directory  of  the  city,  this  firm  adver- 
tised as  having  a  "fire-proof  building  on  D  Street,  third  door  south  of  the 
United  States  Hotel."  (All  advertisers  in  those  early  days  of  the  city  seemed 
to  direct  the  stranger  to  their  places  of  business  from  the  hotel.)  The  adver- 
tisement says  further :  "Cunningham  &  Brumagim  have  a  treasure  vault  of 
the  most  approved  construction,  and  are  prepared  to  receive  deposits,  special 
or  otherwise.  Sight  and  time  exchange  on  the  Eastern  States  for  sale  at  all 
times,  in  sums  to  suit  purchasers.  Gold  dust  purchased  at  the  highest  rates. 
Sight  drafts  on  San  Francisco  at  par." 

The  firm  early  had  opposition  in  Adams  &  Company,  bankers,  who  also 
advertised  a  "fire-proof  building,  corner  High  Street  and  the  Plaza."  They 
issued  bills  of  exchange  drawn  on  the  leading  cities  in  the  East  and  payable 
at  many  banks  distant  from  those  they  were  drawn  upon.  C.  B.  Macy  was 
the  agent  of  this  bank. 

Decker-Jewett  Bank 

In  1858  Peter  Decker  and  John  H.  Jewett  took  over  the  existing  banking 
business  of  Mark  Brumagim  &  Company,  and  formed  the  partnership  of 
Decker  &  Jewett,  later  changed  to  Decker,  Jewett  &  Company,  when  the  late 
A.  C.  Bingham  became  a  member  of  the  firm.  On  the  death  of  Peter  Decker 
in  1888,  the  business  was  incorporated  with  additional  capital  by  the  Decker 
Estate,  John  H.  Jewett,  A.  C.  Bingham,  W.  T.  Ellis.  D.  E.  Knight,  Thomas 
Dougall  and  I.  S.  Belcher.  A.  C.  Bingham  was  the  bank's  cashier,  and  until 
1917  carried  on  its  traditions  and  policies.  He  had  commenced  with  the  bank 
as  a  young  man  in  1867,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  had  completed  fifty 
years  of  active  work.  W.  H.  Parks,  whose  generous  character  and  winning 
personality  are  well  remembered,  had  been  with  the  bank  thirty  years,  and  at 
the  time  of  his  death  in  1913  was  its  vice-president. 


The  present  cashier,  H.  B.  P.  Carden,'  joined  the  bank's  forces  in  1888, 
and  became  a  director  in  1909.  President  Elliott  McAllister  became  a  direc- 
tor to  represent  the  Decker  interests  in  1903,  and  president  in  1910,  after 
acquiring  the  Jewett  stockholding.  John  K.  Kelly,  recently  elected  vice-pres- 
ident, and  W.  T.  Ellis  became  directors  in  1913. 

Of  the  447  banks  in  California  doing  business  under  the  State  charter 
in  1918,  the  Decker- Jewett  Bank  was  the  oldest.  The  present  officers  of  this 
bank  are:  President,  Elliott  McAllister;  vice-president,  T-  K.  Kelly;  cashier, 
H.  B.  P.  Carden  ;  directors,  Elliott  McAllister,  J.  K.  Kelly,  H.  B.  P.  Carden, 
and  AY.  T.  Ellis. 

Originally  this  bank  was  located  at  the  corner  of  First  and  High  Streets. 
In  1873  it  moved  to  its  present  location  on  D  Street,  between  Second  and 
Third  Streets,  west  side. 

The  Rideout  String  of  Banks 

The  late  N.  D.  Rideout  for  many  years  stood  prominently  among  the 
heads  of  the  banking  business  in  the  field  north  of  Sacramento.  Gaining  his 
first  experience  as  an  associate  of  Brown  &  Company  in  a  bank  instituted 
at  Camptonville,  Yuba  County,  Rideout,  in  1861,  launched  the  Rideout  Bank 
in  Marysville,  which  later  became  the  Bank  of  Rideout  &  Smith.  The  busi- 
ness grew  rapidly  and  earned  the  confidence  of  all  classes.  At  the  death  of 
Rideout,  there  were  branches  in  Oroville,  Gridley,  Live  Oak,  Auburn,  and 
Wheatland.  In  1922,  the  Rideout  interests  in  Marysville  were  purchased  by 
the  Bank  of  Italy,  which  at  that  period  was  buying  up  established  banking 
institutions  in  all  sections  of  the  State. 

At  the  entry  of  the  Bank  of  Italy  into  the  local  field  in  1922,  Dunning 
Rideout,  a  nephew  of  the  founder  of  the  Rideout  string  of  banks,  was  made 
the  local  manager  for  the  concern.  W.  B.  Swain  is  assistant  to  Rideout,  his 
long  experience  with  the  Rideout  institutions  making  him  a  valuable  asset. 

In  the  early  nineties,  the  bank  and  the  community  suffered  a  distinct 
loss  in  the  death  of  Norman  A.  Rideout,  son  of  the  founder.  He  was  crushed 
to  death  in  a  mine  .near  Bangor  by  the  falling  of  a  huge  boulder,  while  mak- 
ing a  survey  of  the  property,  in  which  he  was  interested. 

Northern  California  Bank  of  Savings 

One  of  the  most  creditable  and  interesting  histories  of  steady  progress 
in  a  financial  way  is  that  of  the  Northern  California  Bank  of  Savings,  which 
was  duly  organized  under  the  laws  of  the  State  of  California  in  1889.  It  has 
made  itself  a  bank  for  the  people,  and  has  always  been  a  favorite  with  the 
business  interests  of  Marysville.  Its  large  deposits  are  drawn  from  all 
classes  of  citizens,  including  many  leading  business  firms,  farmers,  and  in- 
dividuals of  Marysville,  and  of  other  towns  and  localities  in  Yuba  and  Sutter 
Counties ;  and  from  its  inception  its  career  has  been  one  of  marked  success. 
The  bank  was  for  a  long  time  located  at  the  corner  of  Fourth  and  D  Streets, 
in  the  water-works  building.  It  now  owns  its  own  building  on  the  west  side 
of  D  Street,  between  Fourth  and  Fifth  Streets. 

In  1923  the  officers  of  this  bank  were :  President,  Phoebe  M.  Rideout, 
widow  of  N.  D.  Rideout ;  vice-president,  Heiman  Cheim ;  cashier,  S.  J.  Flan- 
ery;  assistant  cashier,  E.  S.  C.  Farrant. 

First  National  Bank  of  Marysville 

"As  Solid  as  the  Buttes"  is  the  business  slogan  of  the  First  National 
Bank  of  Marysville,  the  youngest  banking  house  in  the  city  at  the  present 
time.  This  bank  was  instituted  on  July  3,  1918,  establishing  headquarters  at 
the  corner  of  D  and  Third  Streets,  where  it  still  is  located.  The  present  offi- 
cers of  the  bank  are:    President,  Thomas  Mathews;  vice-president,  Dunning 


Ricleout ;  cashier,,  P.  T.  Smith ;  assistant  cashier,  Wesley  C.  Owen ;  directors, 
Phoebe  M.  Rideout,  T.  A.  Gianella,  P.  T.  Smith,  A.  W.  Lewis,  Thomas 
Mathews,  Dunning  Rideout,  J.  E.  Strain,  and  Lloyd  H.  Wilbur. 


Strange  as  it  may  seem,  Marysville,  which  at  this  time  can  boast  no 
more  than  three  bona  fide  hotels,  saw  built  during  the  fifties  no  less  than 
thirty  hostelries  in  which  to  house  the  stranger  in  a  new  land. 

The  first  hotel  in  Marysville  was  an  old  adobe  structure,  which  served 
also  as  a  trading  post  and  the  residence  of  the  proprietor. 

The  next  was  the  United  States  Hotel,  a  canvas  structure,  on  the  east 
side  of  D  Street,  between  First  and  Second  Streets,  which  gave  way  to  the 
"Selby  Building,"  now  occupied  as  a  garage  and  offices  of  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce  and  the  Red  Cross.  This  canvas  hotel  was  erected  about  Jan- 
uary, 1850,  and  during  the  latter  part  of  February  and  first  part  of  March 
was  replaced  with  a  board  house.  A  few  years  later  the  brick  building 
now  still  standing  was  erected. 

The  City  Hotel,  another  canvas  building  on  the  northeast  corner  of  D 
and  First  Streets,  was  also  erected  in   1850. 

In  July,  1851,  the  following  hotels  were  opened:  Fremont  House,  cor- 
ner Maiden  Lane  (now  Oak  Street)  and  Second  Street;  the  Eagle  Hotel, 
on  High  Street ;  and  the  Hotel  De  France  on  the  Plaza.  About  this  time 
several  other  public  houses  were  opened:  The  Oriental  House,  corner  of 
Second  and  High  Streets ;  the  Express  Hotel  on  First  Street ;  St.  Charles 
Hotel,  in  the  postoffice  building,  corner  D  and  Third  Streets ;  and  the  Marys- 
ville Hotel  and  brewery,  corner  Front  and  C  Streets.  Before  the  end  of 
the  year  Coleman's  restaurant  was  started  on  High  Street,  between  First 
and  Second ;  and  the  Washington  Hotel,  corner  of  Second  and  High  Streets. 

The  Merchants'  Hotel  was  built  in  1852  on  the  Plaza,  at  the  corner  of 
First  Street.  This  was  the  first  brick  hotel  in  the  city.  Humphrey  &  Clash- 
ing kept  a  hotel  on  Second  Street,  between  C  and  Maiden  Lane,  in  1852. 
Humphrey  removed  to  the  site  of  the  United  States  Hotel  and  put  up  a 
brick  building  there. 

The  Western  Hotel 

The  Western  Hotel  was  built  of  wood  about  1852,  on  the  corner  of  D 
and  Second  Streets,  and  "was  destroyed  by  fire  in  May,  1854.  Upon  the  site 
of  the  old  hotel,  R.  J.  Murphy,  at  a  cost  of  $30,000,  erected  a  brick  building, 
opening  it  in  November,  1854.  The  owner  had  charge  of  the  hotel  and  made 
of  it  a  profitable  institution.  In  1858,  Gideon  Woodward  was  the  manager. 
In  1861,  Moody  &  Smith  were  the  proprietors,  and  in  1870,  M.  C.  Dufficy  & 
Company.  In  1871,  the  management  was  taken  by  George  Wappel,  formerly 
of  the  Dawson  House.  The  property  at  that  time  was  owned  by  M.  T. 
Keller.  Successors  in  interest  thereafter  were  John  A.  Woodward,  Berg 
Brothers  and  Captain  J.  R.  Foster.  The  Western  Hotel  Company,  organ- 
ized by  Captain  Foster,  who  died  in  1921,  now  owns  the  structure,  which 
was  remodeled  and  enlarged  by  Captain  Foster. 

The  Dawson  House 

The  Dawson  House  was  erected  of  brick  on  the  northeast  corner  of  E 
and  Second  Streets  in  1855  by  John  Linhill,  at  a  cost  of  $10,000.  For  years 
this  was  a  very  popular  house  under  Linhill's  management.  In  1861  and 
1870,  respectively,  G.  V.  Dawson  and  G.  F.  Wappel  were  proprietors.  For 
years  it  was  quite  the  proper  thing  to  put  up  there.  In  1922  this  building 
was  razed  to  give  place  to  a  service  station. 


United   States   Hotel 

A  second  and  lasting  United  States  Hotel,  still  standing,  was  built  in 
1856.  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Third  and  C  Streets,  where  it  was  opened 
by  Lee  &  Hoffman.  Subsequently  W.  C.  Stokes  and  A.  M.  Shields  assumed 
the  management.  They  were  followed  by  Scheu  &  Swank,  who  in  turn  sold 
in  the  early  eighties  to  Sol  Lewek.  He  conducted  the  place  until  1917,  when 
the  building  was  purchased  by  Fred  Peardon  and  A.  C.  Powell,  who  remod- 
eled it  for  lodgings  only,  on  the  upper  floors.  The  lower  floor  is  now  occu- 
pied as  a  hardware  store  by  Booth  &  Herboth.  The  lodgings  portion  is 
managed  by  Charles  J.  Becker,  the  city's  mayor. 

Other  Early-Day  Hostelries 

The  Golden  Eagle  Hotel,  a  three-story  brick  building  containing  forty 
rooms,  was  erected  in  1862  by  A.  Farnham.  This  hostelry  is  now  known  as 
the  National  Hotel.  At  one  time  it  was  conducted  by  Bernard  Mehl,  and 
later  by  Joseph   Errissey. 

The  Vandevere  House  (now  lodgings)  was  established  in  1869,  at  the 
northwest  corner  of  B  and  Third  Streets.  The  Ebner  House,  on  B  Street, 
between  Fourth  and  Fifth,  was  built  in  the  seventies.  The  Denton  House, 
erected  about  the  same  time  at  the  southwest  corner  of  A  and  Seventh 
Streets,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  nineties. 

Other  hotels  built  in  the  early  days  but  no  longer  in  existence,  are : 
Hotel  de  France,  1851,  High  Street,  near  Second;  Phoenix  House,  1853, 
on  High  Street,  between  First  and  Second ;  Ohio  House,  1853,  corner  D  and 
Front  Streets;  Atlantic  Hotel,  1853,  Maiden  Lane,  between  First  and  Second; 
Mansion  House,  1853,  D  Street,  between  Second  and  Third;  Hotel  de  Com- 
merce, 1853,  Front  Street,  in  the  Plaza  block;  American  Hotel,  1854,  Maiden 
Lane,  between  First  and  Second;  Crescent  City  Hotel,  1854,  east  side  of 
High  Street,  between  First  and  Second;  Virginia  Hotel,  1854,  Second  Street, 
near  Maiden  Lane ;  Philadelphia  House,  1854,  corner  C  and  Second  Streets ; 
Pacific  House,  1855,  corner  A  and  Seventh  Streets ;  Orleans  Hotel,  1856,  49  C 
Street;  Spring  House,  1857,  Third  Street,  between  D  and  High  Streets; 
What  Cheer,  1857,  corner  Second  and  Maiden  Lane ;  St.  Louis,  1857,  126  D 
Street;  Haun  House,  1858,  corner  D  and  Third  Streets;  St.  Charles,  1858, 
corner  Second  and  High  Streets ;  St.  Nicholas,  1860,  corner  D  and  Third 
Streets;  Railroad  House,  137  Third  Street;  Hotel  du  Nord,  1860,  corner  High 
and  Second  Streets;  Washington  Hotel,  1860,  70  C  Street;  Globe  Hotel, 
1862,  C  and  Second  Streets;  and  Merchants'  Hotel,  1863,  west  side  of  D 
Street,  between  First  and  Second. 

Projected  Hotel 

Marysville  is  now  looking  forward  to  the  early  completion  of  a  modern 
hotel  of  six  stories  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Fifth  and  E  Streets,  on  lots 
formerly  occupied  by  the  Rideout  Memorial  Hospital,  which  was  razed  to 
make  room  for  it.  The  cost  of  this  structure  is.  to  be  $400,000,  including 
furnishings.  Rossi  &  Nelson,  experienced  hotel  men,  are  to  be  the  lessees. 
The  money  for  its  construction  was  raised  by  the  Marysville  Hotel  Com- 
pany through  popular  subscriptions  gathered  in  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties. 
The  building  is   to   be   practically   fireproof. 


Public  Buildings  erected  in  Marysville  in  the  early  fifties,  of  brick, 
nearly  all  of  which  still  stand  in  testimony  of  the  lasting  material  and  un- 
stinted artisanship  of  those  early  days,  are : 

1854-1855:  Yuba  County  Courthouse,  corner  D  and  Sixth  Streets,  80  by . 
SO  feet,  two  stories;  cost  $45,000.    Yuba  County  Jail,  28  by  50  feet,  one  story; 


cost,  $15,000.  Gity  Hall,  corner  Third  and  Maiden  Lane,  now  Oak  Street, 
40  by  70  feet,  two  stories;  cost,  $25,000.  Center  Market,  between  Second 
and  Third  Streets,  fronting  on  both  C  Street  and  Maiden  Lane  (now  Oak 
Street),  42  by  142  feet,  one  story;  cost,  $11,000.  Owned  at  the  time  of  erec- 
tion by  D.  C.  Haskins  and  Packard  &  Woodruff. 

1856:  Yuba  County  Hospital,  on  Seventeenth  Street,  between  H  and  I, 
north  side,  54  by  75  feet,  two  stories;  cost,  $16,000.  Razed  when  present 
hospital  building  was  erected  on  J  Street,  between  Fourteenth  and  Fifteenth. 
In  1856  a  jailor's  dwelling  was  built  on  the  south  side  of  the  Courthouse  at 
a  cost  of  nearly  $6000.     The  Hall  of  Records  now  occupies  this  site. 

1859:     Yuba    Engine    House,   40   by   60   feet,    two    stories;   cost,   $5000. 

Some  of  these  are  described  more  in  detail  below. 

The  Courthouse 

The  first  building  erected  for  the  transaction  of  county  business  was  a 
canvas  structure  built  on  the  corner  of  E  and  Third  Streets  in  1850.  It  was  a 
room  about  twenty  feet  wide  and  thirty  feet  long,  the  second  story  being 
used  as  a  Masonic  hall.  In  this  place  were  held  the  sessions  of  the  court, 
public  meetings  and  religious  services. 

In  September,  1850,  a  one-story  frame  jail,  18  by  28  feet,  was  completed 
on  the  lot  at  the  corner  of  D  and  Sixth  Streets,  at  a  cost  of  $8000.  The  jail 
lot  cost  $300.     The  expense  of  grading  it  was  greater  than  its  original  cost. 

In  December,  1852,  the  Court  of  Sessions,  which  body  filled  the  place 
now  occupied  by  the  Board  of  Supervisors,  appropriated  $6000  for  the  pur- 
chase of  the  St.  Charles  Hotel  property,  on  the  southwest  corner  of  D  and 
Third  Streets,  for  a  courthouse.  They  also  gave  $500  to  repair  it.  There 
were  only  canvas  partitions  in  the  building  at  the  time.  After  the  present 
Courthouse  was  built,  the  old  property  was  sold,  in   1855,  for  $10,725. 

In  1854,  Lot  5,  Block  3,  was  bought  by  the  Court  of  Sessions.  The  need 
was  now  felt  for  a  more  improved  and  convenient  courthouse.  Accordingly, 
in  1855,  a  new  building,  with  jail  attached,  was  erected  at  the  corner  of  D 
and  Sixth  Streets,  and  was  occupied  in  November.  The  contract  price  was 
$28,000;  but  the  structure  probably  cost  as  high  as  $45,000. 

The   County  Hospital 

In  September,  1853,  the  city  established  a  hospital,  in  charge  of  John 
T.  McLean,  M.  D..  on  Maiden  Lane,  between  Sixth  and  Seventh  Streets. 
This  was  in  part  a  private  institution.  The  French  citizens  at  this  time 
also  had  a  hospital,  which  they  maintained,  in  charge  of  Dr.  Amouroux. 

The  first  County  Hospital  was  erected  in  1856,  the  lot  costing  $1600. 
The  contract  at  first  called  for  a  one-story  structure,  for  $8292.  Before  it 
was  completed,  a  second  story  was  added  at  an  additional  cost  of  $6820. 
Before  it  was  ready  for  occupation,  more  money  had  to  be  expended  in  fur- 
nishings and  making  the  necessary  arrangements  for  the  reception  of  the 
patients.  This  building  was  located  on  the  north  side  of  Seventeenth  Street, 
between  H  and  I  Streets,  a  site  now  outside  the  levee. 

The  present  County  Hospital  on  J  Street,  between  Fifteenth  and  Six- 
teenth, was  built  in  the  late  eighties.  The  specifications  called  for  the  use 
of  wood  as  the  material  for  the  construction  of  the  building.  Against  this 
there  was  considerable  protest ;  but  Dr.  C.  E.  Stone,  who  was  then  on  the 
board  of  supervisors,  insisted  on  the  original  plans,  and  won  out.  For  this 
reason  the  building  was  for  some  time  referred  to  as  "Stone's  Folly." 

The  City  Hall  and  Other  Buildings 

The  present  City  Hall  was  contracted  for  in  October,  1854,  for  $16,000, 
although  when  finished  it  cost  $25,000. 


The  present  station  house  was  erected  in  1857,  taking  the  place  of  a 
residence  property  that  stood  on  the  lot.  It  was  completed  in  the  spring  of 
1858.  About  the  same  time  the  city  erected  a  circular  building  on  Frank- 
lin Square,  thirty  feet  in  diameter,  one  story  high,  and  thoroughly  fireproof. 
This  was  used  as  a  powder  magazine  for  the  storage  of  that  dangerous  sub- 
stance.    In  the  eighties  it  was  destroyed  in  an  explosion  of  unknown  cause. 

The  Marysville  Library  Association 

The  splendid  free  public  library  at  present  maintained  by  the  city  of 
Marysville  grew  out  of  a  literary  and  scientific  association  organized  in 
1855.  On  the  10th  of  February  in  that  year  a  number  of  citizens  assembled 
and  formed  a  society  called  the  Young  Men's  Literary  and  Scientific  Asso- 
ciation, which  was  subsequently  incorporated  under  the  name  of  the  Marys- 
ville Library  Association,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $25,000,  divided  into  1000 
shares.  They  elected  Edwards  Woodruff  president ;  Dr.  D.  W.  C.  Rice,  vice- 
president  ;  Dr.  J.  T.  McLean,  corresponding  secretary ;  F.  H.  Woodward, 
recording  secretary;  Mark  Brumagim,  treasurer;  John  S.  Eckman,  J.  E.  Gal- 
loway, Rev.  D.  A.  Dryden,  Warren  T.  Miller,  William  K.  Hudson,  William 
Hawley,  T.  B.  Reardon,  D.  C.  Benham,  and  A.  A.  Vantine,  directors. 

The  object  of  the  association  was  to  collect  a  library  and  maintain  a 
reading  room  where  the  members  could  enjoy  themselves  in  a  manner  not 
possible  elsewhere,  and,  by  pleasant  social  communion,  and  the  literary  ad- 
vantages offered  by  such  an  association,  improve  themselves  in  mental  cul- 
ture. It  was  afterwards  decided  that  the  advantages  of  the  library  should 
be  extended  to  all  the  citizens ;  and  to  that  end  the  trustees  of  the  association, 
on  December  15,  1858,  deeded  the  library  to  the  city,  making  it  conditional 
in  the  deed  of  transfer  that  the  library  should  be  kept  open  during  certain 
hours  every  day  and  should  be  free  to  the  citizens  of  Marysville,  and  that 
the  council  should  annually  appropriate  $250  for  the  purchase  of  books, 
and  should  pay  the  expenses  of  the  library  and  the  salary  of  the  librarian. 
All  these  requirements,  and  more,  are  being  lived  up  to  at  the  present  time. 
Thus,  the  Marysville  Public  Library  grew  out  of  this  original  organization. 

At  the  outset,  the  library  collection  was  kept  in  the  upper  story  of  a 
building  located  at  the  corner  of  the  Plaza  and  First  Street,  the  rent  being 
$25  a  month.  During  all  the  early  meetings,  John  O.  Packard  was  the  lead- 
ing spirit;  and  he  was  ably  assisted  by  W.  T.  Ellis,  Sr.  The  records,  as 
kept  by  the  different  secretaries,  begin  in  1856,  the  first  meeting  recorded 
being  that  of  February  22  of  that  year,  held  in  the  office  of  Mark  Brumagim 
&  Company.  This  was  a  special  meeting  called  to  organize  a  new  board  of 
trustees.  The  first  regular  meeting  was  held  on  March  4,  1856,  the  follow- 
ing being  present:  M.  Brumagim,  president;  W.  A.  Bollinger,  A.  G.  Coffin, 
W.  T.  Ellis,  Sr.,  C.  M.  Patterson,  and  J.  H.  AVright.  At  this  meeting  an 
offer  was  made  by  Henry  Gordon  Walton  to  act  as  librarian,  his  services 
being  offered  without  remuneration.  John  O.  Packard  was  one  of  the  early 
directors  of  the  association,  and  resigned  as  such  in  1856,  his  place  being 
taken  by  A.  P.  Flint. 

At  these  first  meetings  a  series  of  lectures  was  conducted,  to  which  an 
admission  of  one  dollar  was  charged.  Among  the  lecturers  named  in  the  early 
records  are  noted  G.  N.  Swezy,  Dr.  McLean,  Judge  Stephen  J.  Field,  and 
T.  B.  Reardon.  There  seemed  to  be  great  interest  taken  then  in  establish- 
ing a  permanent  library,  as  is  evidenced  by  the  efforts  to  obtain  reading  mat- 
ter, and  by  the  many  volumes  donated  by  citizens,  some  of  which  are  yet 
to  be  found  on  the  library  shelves. 


Besides  the' lectures,  as  a  means  of  revenue,  there  were  several  benefits 
given,  among  which  was  part  of  the  proceeds  derived  from  a  performance 
by  "Rowe's  Equestrian  Circus,"  the  library  realizing  a  net  sum  of  $289. 

Organization  and  Growth  of  the  City  Library 
As  previously  stated,  the  Marysville  Library  Association,  on  December 
15,  1858,  donated  all  its  books,  maps,  etc.,  to  the  city  of  Marysville,  "said 
city  agreeing  to  furnish  all  the  necessary  rooms,  to  pay  the  librarian,  and 
to  provide  a  sinking  fund  for  the  increase  of  the  library,  the  same  to  be 
controlled  by  a  board  of  directors,"  of  which  the  mayor  was  to  be  ex-ofHcio 
chairman,  the  directors  to  consist  of  three  aldermen  (to  be  elected  by  the 
city  council),  and  three  citizens. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  new  board  under  city  management  was  held 
on  December  29,  1858,  and  was  presided  over  by  Mayor  Peter  Decker.  T. 
Dean,  S.  J.  Lover,  and  S.  W.  Selby  were  present  as  councilmen ;  Rev.  E.  S. 
Wadsworth,  S.  C.  Tompkins,  and  W.  C.  Belcher,  as  school  commissioners ; 
and  A.  G.  Coffin,  Dr.  John  T.  McLean,  and  John  H.  Jewett,  as  repre- 
sentatives of  the  donors. 

Miss  Jane  Jones  held  the  position  of  librarian  from  April  19,  1880,  until 
her  death  in  1894,  when  Mrs.  J.  A.  Saul  was  elected.  Mrs.  Saul  held  the 
office  until  her  resignation  on  March  8,  1898,  when  the  present  librarian,  Mary 

E.  Suber,  was  elected.  In  Miss  Suber  the  public  has  a  most  efficient  and 
faithful  official.  She  keeps  the  office  in  excellent  order,  is  kind  and  con- 
siderate, and  deservedly  popular  among  the  patrons  of  the  institution  on 
account  of  the  very  able  and  courteous  manner  in  which  she  assists  in  the 
selection  of  the  books   desired. 

As  a  means  for  procuring  new  reading  matter  from  time  to  time,  the 
library  has  a  lasting  fund  from  donations  made  by  wills  and  otherwise.  The 
interest  from  bequests  made  to  the  library  through  all  the  years  since 
Marysville  established  it,  more  than  pays  for  the  new  books  and  for  re- 
bindings.  In  the  order  of  the  bequests  made  by  citizens  who  had  come  to 
love  their  adopted  city  are:  The  William  Fletcher  Fund,  $1000;  the  John 
Nash  Fund,  $1000;  the  Peter  Decker  Fund,  $1000;  the  Phil  W.  Keyser  Fund, 
$250;  the  Edwards  Woodruff  Fund,  $1000;  the  W.  C.  Belcher  Fund,  $1000; 
the  D.  E.  Knight  Fund,  $3000;  the  W.  H.  Parks,  Jr.,  Fund,  $500;  and  the 

F.  Alfred  Peel  Fund,  $500.  The  money  at  the  present  time  is  invested  as 
follows :  In  bonds  of  the  city  of  Marysville,  bearing  eight  per  cent  interest, 
S3500;  and  in  stock  in  the  Marysville  Elks'  Home,  $6500,  bearing  interest 
at  the  rate  of  six  per  cent. 

The  Library  Building 

For  many  years,  indeed  up  to  1906,  the  library  was  housed  in  crowded 
apartments  in  the  City  Hall.  Then  John  Q.  Packard  came  to  the  rescue,  and 
gave  to  Marysville  the  handsome  free  library  building  standing  at  the  north- 
west corner  of  Fourth  and  C  Streets.  On  Friday  evening,  October  12,  1906, 
at  seven  o'clock,  the  doors  of  this  building  were  thrown  open  to  the  public. 
It  was  built  by  Packard  at  a  cost  of  $75,000.  It  was  his  wish  that  the  men's 
rooms  on  the  lower  floor  be  kept  open  on  Sundays  as  well  as  during  the 
other  days  of  the  week. 

The  main  reading  room  is  on  the  second  floor,  and  at  the  rear  is  the 
librarian's  desk.  Back  of  the  partitions  behind  this  desk  and  the  serving 
counter,  are  the  stack-rooms,  private  office,  and  children's  room.  At  one 
end  of  the  desk  is  a  stairway  leading  to  the  basement,  where  the  men  are 
made  comfortable.  During  the  World  War,  a  portion  of  this  basement  was 
used  by  the  women  of  Yuba-Sutter  Chapter,  American  Red  Cross,  for  sew- 


ing,  reception  of  donations,  and  packing-  of  the  soldiers'  packs  and  other 
articles  sent  "over  there." 

On  the  top  floor  of  the  library  building  is  a  hallway  and  a  large  audi- 
torium with  a  stage  for  speakers.  This  stage  is  made  large  enough  for 
amateur  performances.  Entrance  to  the  top  floor  is  gained  by  two  stairways, 
one  at  each  side  of  the  building,  leading  from  the  vestibule  to  a  mezzanine 
floor  above  the  librarian's  desk  and  overlooking  the  main  reading  room. 

The  building  was  completely  furnished  by  the  city  council,  and  is  as 
convenient  and  beautiful  in  its  appointments  as  any  in  the  West. 

John  Q.  Packard,  Philanthropist 

John  Ouackenbos  Packard,  the  pioneer  merchant  who  gave  to  the  city 
of  Marysville  her  magnificent  library  building,  to  be  at  all  times  free  to  her 
people,  was  a  retiring  man,  one  who  strenuously  objected  to  publicity,  or 
notoriety  of  any  kind.  He  allowed  no  celebration  of  his  gift.  "Ladies,  will 
you  permit  me  to  conduct  my  affairs  as  I  see  fit?"  was  his  reply  to  a  delega- 
tion of  women  who  waited  upon  him  to  insist  that  some  ceremony  be  held  in 
dedication  of  his  handsome  donation  to  the  city.  When  the  corner-stone  was 
laid,  Mr.  Packard  supposed  there  would  be  a  total  absence  of  ceremony ; 
but  the  contractor,  R.  Dewar,  San  Francisco  architect,  and  the  sub-contrac- 
tors, together  with  a  number  of  citizens,  saw  to  it  that  a  receptacle  was 
made  in  the  great  piece  of  stone  for  the  usual  copper  box.  Into  this  box 
were  placed  a  number  of  coins  of  the  realm,  cards  of  the  interested  firms, 
a  brief  history  of  the  building,  and  of  the  local  conditions  at  the  time  of  the 
erection  of  the  library.  The  late  Col.  Edwin  A.  Forbes,  who  later  became 
adjutant  general,  at  the  head  of  the  National  Guard  of  California,  wrote  the 
history  that  went  into  the  corner-stone.  Copies  of  the  Marysville  Democrat 
and  of  the  Marysville  Appeal  were  also  placed  in  the  box.  Further  than 
this,  there  was  no  ceremony  at  any  time  in  connection  with  the  building. 

When  the  library  was  turned  over  to  the  city,  the  gift  was  acknowledged 
in  the  adoption  of  the  plainest  form  of  resolution  that  could  be  prepared. 
No  flowery  words,  or  adjectives  of  praise,  were  allowed. 

John  O.  Packard  was  born  in  Johnstown,  N.  Y.,  November  26,  1822. 
He  was  eighty-six  years,  of  age  at  his  death,  which  occurred  in  Santa 
Cruz  in  this  State  in  1908,  and  eighty-four  at  the  time  of  the  dedication  of 
the  building,  which  is  a  monument  to  his  memory,  notwithstanding  his  mod- 
est}'. Mr.  Packard  was  a  direct  descendant  of  the  Packard  family  of  Hol- 
land. He  received  his  education  in  the  common  schools,  and  at  the  age  of 
eighteen  he  became  a  clerk  in  a  silk  house  in  New  York.  When  the  discov- 
ery of  gold  in  California  was  heralded  to  the  world,  he  was  attracted  to  the 
West  and  came,  with  others,  by  way  of  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  and  thence 
on  the  old  ship  Equator  to  San  Francisco.  Eighty-seven  days  were  spent 
on  the  trip.  He  first  went  to  the  San  Joaquin  district  and  there  worked  in 
the  mines  at  Jacksonville.  Later,  after  some  privations  on  prospecting  trips, 
he  returned  to  San  Francisco,  where  he  leased  a  lot  on  Montgomery  Street 
and  erected  thereon  a  wooden  structure  in  which  he  started  a  mercantile 
business.     He  later  sold  to  a  partner. 

After  this  venture  he  came  to  Marysville,  then  the  center  of  mining 
activities.  Here  he  formed  a  partnership  with  the  late  Col.  Edwards  Wood- 
ruff, which  partnership  continued  until  the  death  of  Woodruff  in  1899.  They 
conducted  a  general  merchandising  business  until  the  flood  of  1862,  when 
they  sold  out.  In  the  seventies,  while  the  two  were  en  route  to  New  York, 
Packard  became  interested  in  Salt  Lake  City,  and  acquired  an  interest  in 
the  Eureka  Hill  Mine  in  the  Tintic  district.  Later  he  and  his  brother. 
Joseph,    acquired    a    controlling    interest.      Packard    became    president    and 


manager,  remaining  as  such  until  1895.  He  located  other  mines  in  the  dis- 
trict, and  as  a  result  of  his  good  judgment  and  foresight  he  was  rewarded 
with  immense  wealth  from  the  properties. 

In  1900  he  again  made  his  residence  in  Marysville ;  and  although  he 
spent  most  of  his  time  at  his  fine  residence  in  Santa  Cruz,  he  called  this  city 
his  home  and  visited  Marysville  frequently.  He  owned  large  property 
interests  in  Santa  Cruz,  and  not  long  before  his  death  sold  large  holdings 
and  water  rights  to  the  Martin-DeSabla  Syndicate  for  power  purposes.  Be- 
sides his  holdings  at  Santa  Cruz  and  in  Nevada,  he  owned  large  tracts  in 
Yuba  and   Sutter  Counties. 

In  spite  of  his  years,  Mr.  Packard  remained  hale  and  hearty,  and  a 
delightfully  pleasant  gentleman,  to  the  end.  Plain  and  honest,  he  was  re- 
spected wherever  known.  He  was  a  life  member  of  the  Society  of  California 
Pioneers  and  vice-president  of  the  Pioneer  Society  of  California.  He  well 
performed  his  share  in  the  development  and-  upbuilding  of  the  West :  and 
notwithstanding  he  never  would  allow  the  applause  of  those  who  would 
honor  him,  he  is  revered  in  the  memory  of  thousands.  It  is  only  fair  that 
the  building  he  presented  to  the  city  of  Marysville  shall  always  be  known 
as  the  Packard  Free  Library. 

Through  the  efforts  of  Richard  Belcher,  attorney  of  this  city,  who  was 
a  close  friend  of  John  O.  Packard,  an  enlarged  photograph  of  the  philan- 
thropist decorates  the  library  over  the  desk  of  the  librarian.  It  is  the  only 
sign,  or  token,  by  which  the  donor  of  the  handsome  building  may  be  known 
to  the  stranger  ignorant  of  the  history  of  the  structure.  Air.  Belcher  gives 
much  of  his  time  to  the  affairs  of  the  library,  selecting  and  purchasing. 
from  the  funds  appropriated  by  the  city  and  the  donors,  the  new  volumes 
being  constantly  added. 


The  founders  of  the  city  of  Marysville  wisely  set  apart  arid  held  for 
the  community  use  many  breathing  spots.  They  provided  that  the  parks 
should  revert  to  the  original  owners  in  the  event  they  are  ever  converted 
to  other  use.  Of  a  dozen  such  places,  four  are  at  present  made  especially 
attractive  to  the  weary  visitor  and  to  the  home  folks.  Here  again  the 
Women's  Civic  Improvement  Club  is  to  the  fore.  If  a  tree  dies,  or  the  work 
of  maintaining  the  parks  is  neglected,  these  women  report  the  matter  to 
the   city  council. 

The  four  parks  thus  far  made  inviting  by  trees  and  vegetation  are  Cor- 
tez.  Napoleon,  Washington  and  Yuba  Squares.  The  first  two  have  each 
a  band-stand,  from  which  free  concerts  are  rendered  during  the  summer 
months.  These  concerts  always  are  well  attended,  showing  the  apprecia- 
tion of  the  people.  Gradually  the  improvement  will  extend  to  the  other 
parks  given  the  city  by  the  pioneers.  In  1922,  Mrs.  Corinne  Kimball  Ride- 
out,  widow  of  a  former  mayor,  left,  through  a  clause  in  her  will,  a  trust  fund 
insuring,  for  all  time,  free  concerts  in  the  public  parks  of  the  city. 

Knight  Recreation  Park 

Another  splendid  gift  to  the  city,  ranking  with  the  bequest  of  Mrs. 
Rideout  and  with  that  of  John  Q.  Packard,  who  gave  Marysville  her  library 
building,  is  the  race-track  grounds,  bequeathed  by  the  late  David  E.  Knight, 
and  now  known  as  Knight  Recreation  Park.  Here  the  Marysville  Golf  Club 
has  its  links,  a  popular  retreat  for  the  business  man  seeking  diversion. 

Marysville's  Free  Motor  Park 

The  city  council  of  Marysville,  realizing  the  need  of  providing  accom- 
modations  for  the   hundreds   of   automobile   tourists   who   are   now    passing 


through  Yuba  County,  maintains  a  free  auto  park,  which  is  in  a  class  by 
itself.  Its  renown  has  traveled  to  all  parts  of  the  Union.  Frequently  the 
local  Chamber  of  Commerce  receives  from  some  far-off  Eastern  community 
a  request  for  its  plans,  with  a  view  to  creating  similar  grounds. 

Free  shelter  houses,  free  telephone,  free  correspondence  material,  free 
bathing  facilities  and  free  water  are  provided  visitors  to  the  camp  ground, 
which  is  kept  as  attractive  in  appearance  as  any  of  the  city's  parks.  Gas 
for  cooking  is  provided  through  meters.  Almost  yearly  there  is  need  of 
new  shelter  houses. 

The  city  is  indebted  to  the  Carpenters'  Union  for  free  labor  in  erect- 
ing these  shelter  houses.  From  the  creation  of  the  park,  the  carpenters  have 
builded  these  shelters  gratis.  Nature  has  done  the  rest,  causing  the  protect- 
ing vine  to  grow  over  and  around  them. 

The  Marysville  Women's  Civic  Improvement  Club  see  to  it  that  the 
Free  Motor  Park  has  an  abundance  of  flowering  shrubs,  evergreen  trees, 
rose  bushes  and  every  sort  of  plant.  Two  gardeners  keep  the  walks  and 
lawns  spotless.  In  the  height  of  the  motoring  season,  a  man  is  in  attend- 
ance night  and  day.  The  visitor  is  made  to  go  away  shouting  the  hospitality 
of  .the  people  of  Marysville.  Marysville  is  as  proud  of  its  Free  Motor  Park- 
as it  is  of  its  Free  Library. 

List  of  the  City's  Breathing  Spots 
Marysville's  public  parks,  inclusive  of  the  Plaza  at  the  foot  of  E  Street, 
number  eleven.  Their  names  and  locations  are  as  follows :  Cortez  Square, 
bounded  by  Fifth,  Sixth,  B  and  C  Streets ;  Miner's  Square,  bounded  by 
Fourteenth,  Fifteenth,  Swezy  and  Sampson  Streets ;  Sacramento  Square, 
bounded  by  Fourteenth,  Fifteenth,  B  and  C  Streets ;  Market  Square,  bounded 
by  Fifteenth,  Sixteenth,  G  and  H  Streets ;  Sutter  Square,  bounded  by  Four- 
teenth, Fifteenth,  L  and  M  Streets ;  Franklin  Square,  bounded  by  Fifth, 
Sixth,  L  and  M  Streets ;  Napoleon  Square,  bounded  by  Fifth,  Sixth,  G  and  H 
Streets;  Yuba  Square,  bounded  by  Eighth,  Tenth,  Yuba  and  Ramirez  Streets; 
Washington  Square,  bounded  by  Ninth,  Eleventh,  E  and  F  Streets ;  and 
Lafayette  Square,  bounded  by  Ninth,  Eleventh,  J  and  K  Streets. 

Fealty  of  a  Fraternity 

In  the  Marysville  City  Cemetery  stands  a  monument  over  a  well-kept 
grave  attesting  the  fealty  of  an  Eastern  fraternity  for  a  brother.  In  the 
plot  lie  the  remains  of  John  Templeton  McCarty,  early-day  attorney  of 
Marysville,  who  died  in  this  city  on  February  4,  1860. 

For  many  years  the  members  of  the  college  fraternity  Phi  Gamma  Delta, 
away  back  in  Brookville,  Ind.,  had  lost  trace  of  John  Templeton  McCarty, 
their  fraternity  fellow.  Finally,  after  the  death  of  McCarty,  they  traced  him 
to  Marysville,  and  then  learned  of  his  demise.  At  once  the  fraternity  became 
interested  in  his  final  resting-place,  following  a  custom  the  members  have 
of  following  a  brother  even  beyond  the  death  call ;  and  by  order  of  the  fra- 
ternity a  headstone  bearing  this  inscription  now  marks  the  grave : 


Born  in  Brookville,  Indiana,  August  28,  1828; 
died  in  Marysville,  California,  February  4,  1860. 
This  memorial  was  erected  to  his  memory  by  the 
College  Fraternity  of  Phi  Gamma  Delta,  of  which 
he  was  a  founder,  and  the  influence  of  which, 
magnified  beyond  his  fondest  hopes,  lives  to  en- 
noble his  memory. 



Marysville  residents  early  took  to  various  amusements  as  a  diversion ; 
and  while  at  the  start  nothing  more  than  fair  talent  was  seen  in  the  compan- 
ies of  strollers,  the  patronage  always  was  encouraging.  The  first  public  en- 
tertainment ever  presented  in  Marysville  was  given  by  H.  Rossiter.  It  con- 
sisted of  a  few  legerdemain  tricks  and  slack-wire  dancing.  The  entertain- 
ment was  given  in  the  winter  of  1850  in  the  ballroom  of  the  St.  Charles 
Hotel,  corner  of  D  and  Third  Streets. 

Shows  and  Showhouses 

Early  in  the  summer  of  1851,  Dr.  Robinson  opened  a  spacious  canvas 
theater  on  the  corner  of  High  and  Second  Streets,  with  a  very  fair  vaudeville 
company,  and  was  very  successful. 

Following  him  came  James  Stark,  the  California  tragedian,  supported 
by  Nesbitt  McCron,  an  English  actor  of  much  merit,  and  Mrs.  J.  H.  Kirby, 
who  later  became  Mrs.  Stark.  The  season  was  a  good  one  for  both  mana- 
gers and  audiences. 

In  1852,  the  somewhat  celebrated  George  Chapman  furnished  some 
economical  theatricals  in  a  little  room  on  First  Street.  The  drama  was  still 
patronized,  and  the  patience  of  the  people  exercised. 

In  October  of  the  same  year,  C.  E.  Bingham  visited  Marysville  with  a 
company  and  held  forth  in  a  bathhouse  at  the  corner  of  D  and  Front  Streets. 
His  success  was  such  that  it  was  thought  a  theater  might  be  sustained,  but 
who  would  build  it?  It  might  be  a  failure,  and  money  was  paying  five  per 
cent  a  month  interest.  At  last,  however,  two  enterprising  citizens — Seymour 
Pixie}-,  architect,  and  William  W.  Smith,  city  clerk,  entered  upon  the  experi- 
ment. A  neat  and  tastefully  decorated  theater  was  completed  in  December, 
and  was  opened  by  Bingham,  who,  though  himself  a  good  actor,  had  col- 
lected around  him  a  company  more  numerous  than  talented.  He  did  well 
for  more  than  two  months,  which  was  considered  a  long  season  for  so 
small  a  town. 

This  theater  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1854,  and-  in  its  stead  another  show- 
house  was  erected  on  its  ruins  by  R.  A.  Eddy.  Ten  years  later,  this  latter 
theater,  situated  on  the  west  side  of  D  Street,  between  Second  and  Third, 
was  razed  by  a  fire  that  started  in  a  clothing  store  on  the  lower  floor.  Dr.  S. 
T.  "Watts  and  Charles  P.  Henry,  owners,  lost  heavily. 

The  lot  now  occupied  by  the  Elks'  Home  and  the  paint  store  of  the 
Robinson-Brooks  Company  was  next  selected  as  a  theater  site.  The  building 
erected  here  served,  under  several  ownerships,  until  June,  1903,  when  it,  too, 
was  burned  low,  from  a  fire  that  started  in  the  Swain  •&  Hudson  planing  mill 
on  the  south.  W.  C.  Swain  was  the  then  owner.  When  the  Elks  decided  to 
build,  they  chose  the  Swain  lot. 

The  present  Atkins  Theater  was  built  on  the  ruins  of  the  planing  mill, 
the  citizens  of  Marysville  giving  to  Frank  Atkins,  Sr.,  a  bonus  to  engage  in 
the  enterprise,  in  order  that  there  might  be  a  continuance  of  the  theatricals  to 
which  they  had  become  accustomed. 

Marysville  is  particularly  favored  with  visits  from  the  best  shows  that 
visit  the  Coast,  chiefly  because  of  its  splendid  railroad  connections,  night 
and  day.  A  troupe  showing  in  San  Francisco  and  desiring  to  "jump"  to 
Portland,  Ore.,  must  lose  at  least  one  night  en  route.  That  night  is  generally 
given  to  Marysville,  because  of  the  fact  that  the  troupe  can  make  a  stand 
here  and  catch  a  train  Portland-bound  that  passes  not  long  after  midnight. 

Besides  the  big  showhouse,  Marysville  supports  two  moving-picture 
houses  at  the  present  time. 


The  Famed  Intrepid  Baseball  Club 

Marysville  always  has  leaned  to  sports  of  a  cleanly  nature — the  uplift- 
ing, helpful  sort — and  the  national  game  of  baseball  has  always  been  in  the 
lead.  This  city  was  the  home  of  the  famed  Intrepid  Baseball  Club,  which 
gained  State-wide  reputation  in  the  seventies,  eighties,  and  nineties. 

The  club  was  formed  on  March  10,  1875,  by  George  W.  Elder,  "Low"  C. 
Williams  and  others.  The  members  were  Marysville  young  men  who  made 
no  claim  for  qualifications  above  the  amateur,  on  the  diamond.  Some  of  the 
players  went  East  in  1884  and  made  good  with  Eastern  clubs.  George  Cum- 
mings,  pitcher,  who  gained  the  sobriquet  of  "Speedy  George"  because  of  the 
speed  of  his  delivery,  went  to  Harrisburg,  Pa. ;  Mike  DePangher,  catcher  for 
the  Intrepids,  was  called  to  Detroit,  Mich. ;  and  Jack  Cullen,  also  catcher, 
than  whom  there  never  was  a  more  graceful  player,  went  to  Reading,  Pa. 

Among  the  notable  victories  of  the  club  were  those  won  by  the  Intrepids 
in  their  games  against  the  Eurekas  of  Sacramento,  score  11  to  2 ;  the  Unions 
of  Sacramento,  score  12  to  3,  in  1883;  and  the  Enterprises  of  San  Francisco, 
score  9  to  7,  in  1885.  Jack  Cavanaugh  of  Chicago,  half-brother  of  second- 
sacker  Low  C.  Williams,  played  for  Marysville  in  the  last-mentioned  game. 
Many  games  were  played  between  the  Intrepids  and  the  Riversides  of 

The  Intrepids  were  defeated  in  San  Francisco,  in  1878,  by  the  Eagles, 
score  10  to  0.  Here  the  Marysville  boys  faced  for  the  first  time  a  curved- 
ball  pitcher.    His  deliveries  were  truly  puzzling,  as  the  score  plainly  shows. 

The  Intrepids  continued  as  a  club  for  about  twelve  years,  and  their 
strength  always  lay  in  their  team  work.  Among  the  members  were :  George 
W.  Elder,  who  afterwards  became  State  purchasing  agent  and  lived  in  Sac- 
ramento ;  Lowell  C.  Williams,  who  became  mayor  of  Marysville,  and  who 
now  holds  a  responsible  position  with  the  Marysville  Water  Company ; 
George  B.  Baldwin,  who  became  first  mayor  of  Nome,  Alaska,  and  who  now 
is  with  the  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  Company  in  Sacramento ;  James  M.  Cre- 
min,  who  later  was  State  statistician,  State  printer,  and  a  member  of  the 
State  Reclamation  Board ;  and  John  McDonald,  who  is  with  the  Sacramento 
fire  department  as  an  engineer.  John'  Baugh,  better  known  as  Barr,  was  the 
first  baseman.  He  stood  six  feet,  four  inches  high ;  so  the  high  throws  did 
not  bother  him.  Then  there  were  Jack  and  Jim  Haggerty,  Kelly  Derrickson, 
James  Kertchem,  Les  Jennings,  Chub  Casey,  and  Phil  J.  Divver.  Hank  Ly- 
don  was  also  a  member  in  later  years. 

Low  Williams  and  Chub  Casey  still  reside  in  Marysville.  Though  not 
so  active  as  in  the  days  of  the  Intrepids,  their  hearts  are  still  in  the  game. 
Specific  plays  made  in  .the  several  important  contests  in  which  the  Intrepids 
figured,  are  still  recalled  when  this  pair  play  with  the  "hot  stove"  league. 

Harvest  Festival  in  Marysville's  Chinatown 
Chinatown  in  Marysville  is  one  of  the  oldest  Chinese  settlements  in  the 
United  States.  At  one  time  it  was  the  headquarters  for  about  3000  Celestials 
employed  in  the  mines,  and  later  in  railroad  building.  During  the  gold  rush, 
the  Chinese  came  in  droves ;  casting  their  lot  with  the  white  man,  they 
were  with  him  in  his  privations  and  in  his  successes.  Five  dollars  a  day,  an 
amount  often  dug  from  the  earth  in  a  day's  work,  looked  good  to  one  who  had 
been  glad  to  earn  ten  cents  a  day,  or  even  less,  in  his  native  country.  For 
many  years  Ah  Fee,  a  merchant  wdio  came  early  to  Marysville, -was,  the  go- 
between  for  the  whites  and  Chinese. 

Those  were  the  days  when  the  Chinese  had  their  annual  celebration  of 
the  Harvest  Festival,  a  holiday  that  ranked  with  the  Fourth  of  July  celebra- 
tion of  the  whites,  and  which  brought  quite  as  many  people  to  the  city  as 


did  the  Independence  Day  festivities  or  the  circus.  There  always  was  a  big 
parade,  with  the  big  dragon,  of  nation-wide  fame,  as  a  feature.  Fifty  men 
were  required  to  carry  the  silken,  jointed,  and  high-spirited  reptile.  Three 
or  four  others  were  employed  to  prance  in  front  of  Mr.  Dragon,  waving  in 
front  of  him  a  model  of  a  fish,  intended  to  tease  him  into  writhings,  which 
writhings  were  produced  by  the  carriers  of  the  "big  fish,"  a  half  block  long. 
The  high  priests,  representatives  of  the  tongs,  and  delegations  from  the  Chin- 
ese lodges  took  part  in  the  parade.  Delegations  depicting  the  warriors  of  old 
brought  up  the  rear,  headed  by  a  Chinese  band. 

The  day's  ceremonies  centered  in  Bock  Ky  Church,  an  edifice  which  still 
stands  at  the  corner  of  Front  and  D  Streets.  The  "bomb  throwing,"  which  in 
the  earlier  days  was  accompanied  by  battles  calling  for  the  interference  of 
the  police,  is  still  a  custom.  At  the  explosion  of  the  bomb,  a  ring  of  bamboo, 
to  which  is  attached  a  strip  of  red  cloth  bearing  a  number,  is  sent  heaven- 
ward. The  contestants  on  the  ground  reach  for  this  ring  in  its  descent,  and 
must  catch  it  before  it  touches  the  earth.  From  the  characters  on  the  red 
strip  of  cloth,  the  "catchee"  learns  the  prize  that  has  come  to  him — gener- 
ally considered  as  a  token  of  good  luck.  The  man  who  catches  the  capital 
prize  has  charge  of  the  church,  and  also  receives  certain  emoluments  during 
the  next  twelve  months. 

Early  Vigilance  Committees 

Yuba  County,  like  all  other  districts  of  California  settled  in  the  early 
days,  was  forced  to,  have  its  Vigilance  Committee.  Legal  proceedings  were 
carried  on  under  the  old  Mexican  laws.  With  the  insufficient  force  of  officers 
provided,  it  was  difficult  to  apprehend  a  criminal ;  and  under  the  laws  in 
force,  it  was  quite  as  difficult  to  convict  a  man  of  crime.  The  miners,  real- 
izing this  fact  and  knowing  the  consequence  of  leniency  toward  the  criminal 
class,  took  the  law  into  their  own  hands.  If  a  crime  was  committed,  the 
neighboring  miners  quickly  captured  the  suspected  person;  a  judge  was  ap- 
pointed, a  jury  was  summoned  and  sworn,  attorneys  (unlearned  in  the  law) 
were  provided,  and  the  trial  proceeded  with  all  the  gravity  and  formality  of 
a  legally  organized  court.  The  testimony  was  heard,  arguments  were  made, 
and  the  case  was  then  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  jury.  Their' decision  was 
final ;  and  upon  it  depended,  in  most  instances,  the  life  of  the  prisoner,  for 
hanging  in  those  days  was  a  favorite  and  common  punishment,  not  only  for 
murder,  but  even  for  stealing. 

Soon  after  the  organization  of  the  celebrated  Vigilance  Committee  in 
San  Francisco,  the  people  of  Marysville  decided  to  unite  and  form  a  similar 
institution  for  mutual  protection.  The  tendency  of  the  actions  in  the  metrop- 
olis was  to  drive  the  criminal  class  into  the  interior  cities ;  and  is  was  for 
this  reason,  partly,  that  the  Vigilance  Committee  was  formed  in  Marysville. 

It  was  in  July,  1853,  that  the  local  committee  organized,  with  addresses 
by  prominent  citizens  upon  the  need  for  the  body.  At  a  meeting  of  the 
Marysville  committee  held  on  August  19,  1851,  the  following  resolutions 
were  passed,  which  clearly  showed  the  spirit  of  the  organization : 

"Resolved,  that  this  committee  will  never  lend  its  aid  to  any  man 
or  set  of  men,  for  the  purpose  of  disorganizing  established  government  or 
nullifying  the  laws ; 

"Resolved,  that  our  aim  and  object  is  to  create  order  in  society,  and  not 
to  foster  anarchy  and  confusion." 

About  August  of  the  same  year,  a  Vigilance  Committee  was  organized 
at  Barton's  Bar  on  the  Yuba  River,  probably  growing  out  of  the  action  taken 
in  punishing  a  man  named  Reynolds,  a  gun  thief. 


On  October  13,  1851,  a  special  committee  was  appointed  by  the  Marys- 
ville  Vigilance  Committee  to  make  assessments,  to  collect  the  same,  to  de- 
fray the  debt,  and  to  dispose  of  the  property  of  the  organization.  A  com- 
mittee of  ten  was  made  a  standing  executive  committee.  The  general  com- 
mittee, finding  no  more  work  to  perform,  ceased  to  function. 

Officers  of  the  Police  Department 

In  November,  1853,  William  H.  Lent,  later  a  San  Francisco  capitalist, 
was  appointed  first  captain  of  police  by  the  city  council  of  Marysville.  In 
1854  the  police  force  was  one  marshal,  one  captain  and  eight  policemen.  Now 
it  is  composed  of  the  chief,  six  policemen  and  a  night  watchman,  the  latter 
being  paid  by  the  merchants  through  private  subscriptions.  The  council  has 
the  power  to  name  such  other  policemen  as  they  see  fit,  and  extras  are  often 
named  in  emergencies. 

Only  a  few  of  the  present  generation  living  in  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties 
can  hark  back  to  the  days  when!  M.  R.  ("Mart")  Casad  was  head  of  the  po- 
lice force  of  the  city  of  Marysville,  working  with  one  or  two  regular  officers 
in  the  beginning,  and  sometimes  assisted  by  special  men,  including  the 
Chinatown  policeman  and  a  constable.  Casad  first  appeared  as  city  marshal 
in  1872.  Those  who  preceded  him  in  the  office  were:  A.  S.  Miller,  1851  and 
1852;  L.  L.  Springer,  1853;  S.  P.  Wells,  part  of  1853  and  of  1854;  J.  W. 
Easterling,  1854  and  1855;  I.  M.  Anderson,  1855  and  1856;  A.  W.  Nightin- 
gill,  1856  and  1857;  A.  J.  Barkley,  1857  to  1861;  A.  W.  Johnston,  1862  and 
1863;  P.  W.  Winkley,  1864  and  1865;  J.  C.  Donley,  1866  and  1867;  G.  R. 
Nightingill,  1868  and  1869;  Samuel  Garber,  1870  and  1871.  Mart  Casad  served 
from  1872  to  1880,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  M.  C.  ("Mike")  Hogan,  who 
had  served  as  police  officer  under  him.  Hogan  served  one  term,  when  he  was 
defeated  for  the  office  by  James  A.  Maben.  The  latter  held  the  office — most 
of  the  time  without  opposition — for  nearly  thirty  years,  until  his  death. 
Maben's  successor  was  Charles  J.  McCoy,  the  present  sheriff  of  Yuba 
County.  When  McCoy  was  promoted  to  the  county  office,  he  was  succeeded 
by  Chester  A.  Smith,  the  present  head  of  the  police  department. 

During  the  decade  when  Mart  Casad  was  marshal,  he  had  as  subordinate 
officers,  with  power  of  arrest,  Hank  L".  McCoy,  who  afterward  became  sheriff, 
Jim  Devolt,  J.  B.  ("Jim")  Leman,  John  Cunningham,  Patrick  Corr,  J.  F. 
Smiley,  P.  P.  Polley,  John  Colford,  E.  E.  Van  Sickle,  H.  A.  ("Fawn")  Clark, 
and  G.  W.  Harris,  who  was  a  special  officer  employed  at  the  theater. 

In  the  next  decade,  the  eighties,  the  following  names  appear  on  the 
record :  D.  P.  Derrickson,  H.  A.  Clark,  John  Colford,  M.  C.  Hogan,  William 
T.  Gore,  E.  B.  Morse,  Robert  Finn,  John  L.  Murphy,  and  John  Spillane.  Finn 
and  Murphy  resigned  to  take  positions  on  the  San  Francisco  police  depart- 
ment's force,  both  having  made  local  records  deserving  of  the  promotions. 
H.  J.  McCoy  succeeded  Murphy. 

During  the  nineties,  Spillane  continued  in  office  for  a  short  time,  when 
he  too  was  called  to  the  San  Francisco  force.  At  Spillane's  promotion,  W.  C. 
Burroughs  was  added  to  the  force ;  and  he  had  as  co-workers  H.  J.  McCoy, 
Gus  Musselman,  Oscar  L.  Meek,  and  J.  E.  Parmelee.  Others  who  served 
in  that  decade  were  J.  H.  Single,  present  under-sheriff,  and  Charles  J.  Becker, 
present  councilman. 

New  names  appearing  on  the  record  between  1900  and  1910  were: 
Charles  J.  McCoy,  John  Colford,  Jr.,  Erwin  Sayles,  and  Chester  A.  Smith, 
who  is  the  present  police  head.  Sayles  became  under-sheriff  under  Charles  J. 
McCoy.  He  died  in  Eos  Angeles  in  the  fall  of  1922,  following  an  extended 
illness  that  forced  his  removal  from  this  section. 

Between  1910  and  1920,  new  additions  were:  Henry  Blue,  present  coun- 
cilman,  John   Sperbeck,    B.   J.    Chapman,    Henry   Harrington,   James    Mock, 


Francis  M.  Heenan,  Richard  Barrett,  William  Booth,  and  S.  C.  ("Steve") 
Howser.  Of  this  set  of  officers,  three  gave  up  their  lives  in  the  performance 
of  their  duties — John  Sperbeck,  James  Mock,  and  Francis  M.  Heenan.  A  de- 
tailed account  of  their  killing,  in  the  period  between  1915  and  1922,  is  given 
in  the  chapter  entitled  "Crimes  and  Criminals." 

Since  1920,  the  officers  who  have  served,  and  those  still  serving,  are : 
William  Booth,  S.  C.  Howser,  A.  E.  Allread,  Dennis  McAuliffe,  Thomas 
Bennett,  J.  Ed  Wemple,  Lewis  M.  Allen,  Henry  Faul,  and  Samuel  Johnson. 
The  last  named,  and  also  William  Finley,  George  Anderson,  George  K. 
Meyers,  William  Anderson,  O.  W.  Holland,  and  Eewis  M.  Allen,  served 
the  city  of  Marysville  as  traffic  officers  from  time  to  time.  George  K.  Meyers 
met  injuries  during  his  term  as  traffic  officer,  which  later  caused  his  death  in 
the  southern  portion  of  the  State. 

Through  all  the  years  since  the  organization  of  the  Marysville  police 
department  its  officers  have  won  enviable  spurs  in  their  trying  work.  Im- 
portant captures  have  been  made  for  other  sections  by  the  local  force ;  and 
the  reputation  of  the  department  not  only  has  become  State-wide,  but  reaches 
beyond  the  boundaries  of  California. 

Mayors  and  Aldermen 

1851  and  1852:  Mayor,  S.  M.  Miles;  aldermen,  E.  W.  Ransom,  S.  C. 
Stambaugh,  F.  W.  Shaeffer,  B.  Tallman,  J.  G.  Smith,  and  D.  W.  C.  Rice. 

1852  and  1853:  Mayor,  John  H.  Jewett;  aldermen,  E.  Garst.  Edwards 
Woodruff,  H.  Beach,  S.  A.  Duval,  D.  W.  C.  Rice,  D.  C.  Haskin,  B.  Green, 
and  W.  H.  Chapman. 

1853  and  1854:  Mayor,  S.  M.  Miles ;  aldermen,  I.  A.  Eaton,  E.  Woodruff, 
W.  C.  Armstrong,  J.  A.  Paxton,  H.  P.  Osgood,  W.  T.  Fonda,  C.  McLaugh- 
lin, and  E.  Slosson. 

1854  and  1855 :  Mayor,  G.  E.  Winters ;  aldermen,  J.  C.  Fall,  E.  Garst, 
J.  A.  Paxton,  W.  B.  Thornburg,  H.  P.  Osgood,  J.  T.  Dickey,  F.  C.  Chase, 
and  A.  Ellison. 

1855  and  1856:  Mayor,  James  Allen;  aldermen,  William  Hawley,  J.  E. 
Galloway,  H.  B.  Summers  C.  H.  Hedges,  W.  P.  Thompson,  W.  P.  Miller, 
W.  K.  Hudson,  A.  J.  Lucas,  C.  G.  Moxley,  B.  F.  Mann,  E.  E.  Stephens,  and 
P.  M.  Chandler. 

1856  and  1857 :  Mayor,  Levi  Hite ;  aldermen,  J.  E.  Galloway,  J.  H. 
Tennant,  I.  Mears,  J.  C.  Wilson,  J.  A.  Paxton,  P.  W.  Randle,  S.  C.  Tompkins, 
S.  Paine,  M.  Fuller,  H.  J.  Booth,  M.  Brumagim,  and  E.  Teegarden. 

1857:  Mayor,  S.  C.  Tompkins;  aldermen,  F.  F.  Lowe,  E.  Garst,  John  S. 
Love,  W.  B.  Thornburg,  J.  A.  Paxton,  George  F.  Thomas,  E.  Woodruff,  W. 
C.  Dougherty,  J.  T.  Dickey,  W.  K.  Hudson,  A.  Putnam,  and  J.  T.  Campbell. 

1858:  Mayor,  Peter  Decker;  aldermen,  S.  W.  Selby,  F.  L.  Hatch,  W.  P. 
Weaks,  Thad  Dean,  W.  P.  Miller,  John  S.  Love,  W.  C.  Stokes,  George  W. 
Aubery,  H.  M.  Heuston,  E.  D.  Wheeler,  E.  Teegarden,  and  A.  Ellison. 

1859:  Mayor,  William  Singer;  aldermen,  John  H.  Jewett,  T.  P.  Otis, 
J.  H.  Tennant,  John  S.  Love,  J.  S.  Eshom,  L.  Mann,  W.  C.  Stokes,  P.  J. 
Welsh,  C.  B.  Fowler,  A.  Ellison,  C.  Covillaud,  and  Joshua  Davis. 

1860  and  1861 :  Mayor,  C.  B.  Fowler ;  aldermen,  John  S.  Love,  W.  P. 
Weaks,  A.  Walker,  L.  Mann,  J.  S.  Eshom,  O.  Wood,  J.  T.  Dickey,  A.  M. 
Shields,  W.  K.  Hudson,  A.  J.  Hann,  Joshua  Davis,  and  C.  L-  Thomas. 

1862  and  1863:  Mayor,  C.  B.  Fowler;  aldermen,  William  Hawley,  P. 
W.  Winkley,  J.  B.  Emmal,  S.  Moody,  J.  H.  Lassiter,  N.  D.  Rideout,  A.  D. 
Starr,  and  John  T.  Bayley. 


1864  and  1865  :     Mayor,  C.  B.  Fowler ;  aldermen,  William  Hawley,  W. 

C.  Ogden,   C.    P.   Pollard,   T.   W.   McCready,   William   L.    Lawrence,   Jacob 
Tomb,  S.  H.  Bradley,  and  C.  Meyers. 

1866  and  1867 :  Mayor,  W.  K.  Hudson ;  aldermen,  William  Hawley,  E. 
Van  Muller,  George  North,  R.  G.  Stanwood,  J.  H.  jewett,  J.  Trayner,  A.  D. 
Starr,  and  D.  E.  Knight. 

1868  and  1869:  Mayor,  Charles  M.  Gorham :  aldermen,  Sanford  Blod- 
gett,  A.  W.  Torrey,  P.  W.  Winkley,  J.  O.  Foster,  Dr.  S.  J.  S.  Rogers,  G.  B. 
Hornish  (vice  Frank  Hudson,  resigned),  J.  B.  Roblin,  and  S.  Cummins. 

1870  and  1871 :  Mayor,  C.  M.  Gorham ;  aldermen,  A.  W.  Torrey,  S. 
Blodgett,  Ed  Harrington,  James  Williamson,  Dr.  S.  J.  S.  Rogers,  John  L. 
Steward,  Dr.  E.  Parish,  and  C.  N.  Jenkins. 

1872  and  1873:  Mayor,  C.  M.  Gorham;  aldermen,  H.  B.  AVilliamson, 
A.  J.  Cumberson,  A.  J.  Binney,  W.  T.  Ellis,  Jacob  Tomb,  F.  A.  Hill,  C. 
Meyers,  and  S.  H.  Bradley. 

1874  and  1875:  Mayor,  William  Hawley;  aldermen  H.  B.  Williamson, 
W.  C.  Shaffer,  C.  N.  Jenkins,  T.  C.  Martin,  W.  L.  Lawrence,   Tacob  Tomb, 

D.  E.  Knight,  and  S.  H.  Bradley. 

Mayors  and  Councilmen 

In  1875,  a  legislative  act  reduced  the  number  of  aldermen,  who  there- 
after were  called  "members  of  the  common  council,"  to  four — one  from  each 
ward,  instead  of  two. 

1876  and  1877:  Mayor,  Dr.  C.  E.  Stone;  councilmen.  G.  W.  Peacock,  A. 
C.  Bingham,  Dr.  S.  J.  S.  Rogers,  and  James  Cook. 

1878  and  1879:  Mayor,  N.  D.  Rideout;  councilmen,  George  W.  Pine,  P. 
C.  Slattery,  Frank  D.  Hudson,  and  Fred  A.  Grass. 

1880  and  1881  :  Mayor,  Dr.  C.  E.  Stone ;  councilmen,  John  P.  Swift,  E. 
C.  Ross,  J.  H.  Krause,  J.  A.  Saul  (July  6,  1881,  vice  J.  H.  Krause,  resigned), 
and  John   Peffer. 

1882  and  1883:  Mayor,  A.  C.  Bingham;  councilmen,  Henry  Block,  A.  D. 
Cutts,  Jerry  A.  Saul,  and  George  S.  Cooley. 

1884  and  1885 :  Mayor,  A.  C.  Bingham  ;  councilmen,  J.  B.  Fuller,  A.  J. 
Wightman,  J.  A.  Saul,  and  H.  R.  D.  Townsend. 

1886  and  1887:  Maj'or,  Fred  H.  Greely ;  councilmen,  A.  W.  Lewis, 
George  W.  Elder,  Frank  D.  Hudson,  and  D.  J.  Kertchem. 

1888  and  1889:  Mayor,  P.  C.  Slattery;  councilmen,  George  F.  Adams, 
Joseph  Heyl,  Isaac  W.  Bradley,  and  V.  C.  Putman. 

1890  and  1891 :  Mayor,  J.  U.  Hofstetter ;  councilmen,  H.  M.  Harris,  N. 
V.  Nelson,  David  Condon,  and  John  Peffer. 

1892  and  1893 :  Mayor,  Norman  A.  Rideout ;  councilmen,  George  W. 
Peacock,  J.  B.  Fuller  (April  3,  1893,  vice  G.  W.  Peacock,  deceased),  R.  W. 
Skinner,  Ed  H.  Hudson,  and  Alex  C.  Irwin. 

1894  and  1895 :  Mayor,  W.  T.  Ellis,  Jr. ;  councilmen,  W.  F.  Kelly,  Mar- 
tin Sullivan,  Lowell  C.  Williams,  and  Bernard  Mehl. 

1896  and  1897:  Mayor,  W.  T.  Ellis,  Jr.,  reelected;  councilmen,  W.  F. 
Kelly,  Martin  Sullivan,  Lowell  C.  Williams,  and  Bernard  Mehl,  all  reelected. 

1898  and  1899:  Mayor,  Charles  S.  Brooks;  councilmen,  Adam  Euler, 
F.  W.  Potter,  L.  C.  AVilliams,  and  Henry  Sieber. 

1900  and  1901 :  Mayor,  Charles  S.  Brooks ;  councilmen,  J.  C.  Baldwin, 
J.  W.  Steward,  G.  W.  Hammerly,  and  Phil  J.  Divver. 

1902  and  1903:  Mayors,  Lowell  C.  Williams  and  G.  W.  Harney  (vice 
Lowell  C.  AVilliams,  who  resigned  on  account  of  ill  health  after  serving  five 
months  of  term  ;  Harney  was  chosen  by  the  council)  ;  councilmen,  Thomas 
J.  O'Brien,  Joseph  P.  Heyl,  N.  V.  Nelson,  and  Phil  J.  Divver. 


1904  and  1905 :  Mayor,  George  R.  Eckart :  councilmen,  G.  AY.  Hall, 
Michael  Katzner,  Peter  J.  Delay,  and  James  L.  Hare. 

1906  and  1907 :  Mayor,  G.  AY.  Hall ;  councilmen,  George  F.  Herzog, 
C.  Frank  Aaron,  Peter  T.  Delay,  and  Tohn  P.  Herbert. 

1908  and  1909 :  Mayor,  Peter  J.  Delay ;  councilmen,  William  F.  Corey, 
Toseph  A.  Haubrich.  Henry  A.  Bruce,  and  John  Gavin. 

1910  and  1911:  Mayor.  G.  AY.  Hall ; 'councilmen,  AV.  F.  Corey,  S.  D. 
Johnson,  R.  E.  Bevan,  and  John  AA^.  Mock. 

1912  and  1913 :  Mayor,  Harry  E.  Hyde ;  councilmen,  Matt  Arnoldy, 
S.  D.  Johnson,  R.  E.  Bevan  and  John  AY.  Mock. 

1914  and  1915:  Mayor,  Harry  E.  Hvde :  councilmen,  Matt  Arnoldy, 
J.  F.  Tapley.  R.  E.  Bevan,  and  John  AV.  Mock. 

1916  and  1917:  Mayor,  Harry  E.  Hyde;  councilmen,  C.  E.  Swift,  Frank 
M.  Booth,  Thomas  F.  Mathews,  and  F.  E.  Smith. 

1918  and  1919:  Mayor,  Matt  Arnoldy:  councilmen,  C.  E.  Swift,  Frank 
M.  Booth,  Thomas  F.  Mathews,  and  F.  E.  Smith,  all  reelected. 

Mayors  and  Councilmen  under  New  Charter 

The  election  of  the  spring  of  1920  was  held  under  a  new  charter,  which 
provided  for  the  election  of  five  councilmen  at  large,  instead  of  four  council- 
men  elected  by-  wards  as  provided  in  the  old  charter.  Three  of  the  council- 
men  were  chosen  for  a  long  term  of  four  years'  duration,  and  two  for  the 
short  term  of  two  years.  The  candidate  receiving  the  largest  number  of 
votes  in  this  election  was  made  mayor. 

Elected  in  1920 :  Mayor,  Thomas  Mathews :  councilmen,  long  term, 
Thomas  Mathews,  Frank  M.  Booth,  and  George  W.  Richards ;  short  term. 
Matt  Arnoldy-  and  Leslie  B.  Crook. 

In  the  spring  of  1922,  Frank  M.  Booth  was  promoted  to  the  office  of 
mayor,  and  in  the  spring  of  the  following  year  the  honor  was  conferred  upon 
George  W.  Richards,  through  authority  given  the  board  under  the  new  char- 
ter. At  the  close  of  the  terms  of  Matt  Arnoldy  and  Leslie  B.  Crook,  Charles 
J.  Becker  and  Henry  Blue  were  chosen  to  the  vacancies  by  the  electors. 

On  December  17,  1923,  George  W.  Richards  resigned  the  office  of  mayor 
on  account  of  the  press  of  private  business.  He  was  succeeded  by  former 
Mayor  Frank  M.  Booth  upon  the  vote  of  the  council.  The  vacancy  caused 
by  Booth's  promotion  was  filled  by  the  appointment  of  L.  A.  AA'illiams  by 
the  council. 

On  January  21,  1924,  a  municipal  election  was  held  to  fill  the  expiring 
terms  of  Frank  M.  Booth.  Thomas  Mathews  and  L.  A.  A\rilliams.  Of  eleven 
candidates  nominated,  James  C.  Baldwin,  with  785  votes,  John  W.  AA'atson. 
with  618  votes,  and  AA'alter  A.  Kynoch,  with  614  votes,  were  elected.  They- 
were  inaugurated  into  office  on  February  4,  1924. 

E.  B.  Stanwood  having  resigned  as  city-  clerk  on  January  15.  the  first 
official  act  of  the  new  council  was  to  elect  George  A\r.  Richards  to  the 
vacancy,  which  had  been  filled  temporarily,  from  Stanwood's  retirement  to 
February  4,  by  Miss  Elice  AV.  Gern,  a  deputy  clerk  under  Stanwood. 

Other  City  Officials 

Recorders :  Between  the  years  1855  and  1860,  the  office  of  recorder 
existed.  Those  who  filled  that  position  were :  G.  N.  Mott,  S.  B.  Mulford, 
J.  T.  McCarty,  J.  O.  Goodwin,  and  J.  I.  Kyle. 

Police  Judges :  The  office  of  police  judge  was  created  in  1876  and  has 
been  filled  byr  the  following  incumbents:  C.  M.  Gorham,  H.  S.  Hoblitzell, 
Thomas  H.  Kernan,  Samuel  Garber,  R.  R.  Raish,  and  W.  E.  Langdon. 

City  Clerks  and  Assessors:  The  office  of  city  clerk,  since  1851  to  date, 
has  been  filled  by  the  following:     R.  H.  Tavlor,  AA*.  W.   Smith,  George  C. 


Gorham,  C.  M.  Patterson,  C.  M.  Gorham,  B.  Eilerman,  A.  Gibson,  H.  Barrett, 
Michael  Fitzgerald,  George  W.  Pine,  F.  E.  Smith,  A.  H.  White,  James  L. 
Hare,  George  W.  Richards,  E.  B.  Stanwood,  and  George  W.  Richards  (re- 
turned). The  office  of  assessor  was  combined  with  this  office  until  the 
adoption  of  the  new  city  charter  in  1920. 

City  Marshals :  A.  S.  Miller,  E.  E.  Springer,  S.  P.  Wells,  J.  W.  Easter- 
ling,  E  M.  Anderson,  A.  W.  Nightingill,  A.  J.  Barkley,  A.  W.  Johnston,  P. 
W.  Winkley,  J.  C.  Donley,  G.  R.  Nightingill,  Samuel  Garber,  M.  R.  Casad, 
Michael  C.  Hogan,  J.  A.  Maben,  Charles  J.  McCoy,  and  Chester  A.  Smith. 

City  Attorneys :  F.  J.  McCann,  J.  J.  Foster,  G.  N.  Swezy,  Charles  Lind- 
ley,  W.  C.  Belcher,  I.  S.  Belcher,  J.  G.  Eastman,  C.  E.  Filkins,  William  G. 
Murphy,  Ed  A.  Belcher,  C.  A.  Webb,  Wallace  Dinsmore,  W.  H.  Carlin,  A. 
H.  Redington,  E.  B.  Stanwood,  and  W.  P.  Rich. 

City  Treasurers :  L.  Cunningham,  M.  Brumagim,  S.  P.  Wells,  A.  G. 
Souk,  G.  M.  Scott,  A.  D.  Starr,  J.  W.  Moore,  W.  E.  Williams,  W.  T.  Ellis, 
James  Trayner,  E.  C.  Ross,  A.  C.  Bingham,  Justus  Greely,  C.  S.  Brooks, 
George  R.  Eckart,  W.  H.  Parks,  Jr.,  and  W.  B.  Swain. 

City  Surveyors  and  City  Engineers :  Early-day  city  surveyors  were : 
W.  Wescoatt,  Joseph  Johnston,  H.  H.  Sanford,  and  Jason  R.  Meek.  This 
office  later  was  made  that  of  city  engineer,  and  it  has  been  filled  by  L.  B. 
Crook  and  William  M.  Meek. 



The  school  system  of  the  city  of  Marysvilk  had  its  birth  in  a  sheet- 
iron  building  eighteen  feet  in  length  and  ten  feet  in  width.  The  teacher  was 
Rev.  S.  V.  Blakeslee,  who  conducted  a  private  school.  When  he  opened  his 
school,  in  May,  1850,  he  had  nine  pupils,  male  and  female,  ranging  from 
eleven  to  seventeen  years.  After  a  session  of  three  weeks,  he  was  obliged 
to  discontinue  on  account  of  the  great  heat  and  the  uncomfortable  quarters. 
From  this  modest  start,  the  schools  of  the  county  have  grown  to  thirty- 
seven  in  number,  including  a  union  high  school  in  Marysvilk  with  branches 
at  Smartsvilk,  Dobbins  and  Camptonvilk,  and  a  union  high  school  in  Wheat- 
land;  and  instead  of  one  teacher,  managing  his  private  school,  the  number 
of  teachers  has  now  grown  to  ninety  throughout  the  county.  This  includes 
a  kindergarten  school,  connected  with  the  Marysvilk  Grammar  School. 

Sometime  during  the  latter  part  of  1851,  a  school  was  established  by 
Rev.  Mr.  Thatcher  in  the  Presbyterian  Church  on  D  Street. 


Organization  and  Growth 

During  the  first  years  of  the  growth  and  settlement  of  Marysvilk,  the 
population  was  composed  almost  entirely  of  males.  But  in  the  latter  part 
of  1851,  and  the  first  part  of  1852,  several  gentlemen  brought  from  their 
Eastern  homes  their  wives  and  families.  It  was  then  that  the  need  of  pub- 
lic schools  became  apparent;  and  on  May  4,  1852,  a  meeting  was  held  in 
the  recorder's  office,  of  citizens  interested  in  establishing  a  free  public  school. 


The  attendance  .at  this  meeting  was  small ;  but  a  committee  was  appointed 
to  submit  at  the  next  meeting  the  basis  of  a  plan  for  the  organization  of  a 
school  association.  The  meeting  adjourned  to  the  6th,  and  on  that  evening 
John  H.  Jewett,  afterward  mayor,  presided.  The  attendance  was  large, 
and  definite  action  was  taken.  A  committee  of  two  from  each  ward  was 
appointed  to  draft  a  plan  and  make  an  estimate  on  a  house  for  school  pur- 
poses, and  to  solicit  subscriptions  amounting  to  $10,000,  for  that  purpose. 
Before  taking  final  action,  the  promoters  made  an  offer  to  the  Methodists, 
who  already  had  a  school  at  a  cost  of  $5000.  to  join  them ;  but  the  sugges- 
tion was   declined. 

In  the  middle  of  June,  1852,  an  ordinance  was  passed,  establishing  a 
system  of  common  schools  in  the  city  of  Marysville.  In  July,  the  first  public 
school  was  opened.  Since  that  time,  with  the  exception  of  the  necessary 
vacations,  teaching  in  the  public  schools  of  the  county  has  been  continuous. 
The  basement  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  was  fitted  up,  and  the 
public  schools  started  there. 

The  school  building  at  B  and  Seventh  Streets,  which  still  stands  and  is 
used  for  manual  training,  municipal  band  practice,  and  other  purposes,  was 
completed  in  1858.  It  was  66  feet  long,  56  feet  wide,  and  two  stories  high. 
Later  it  was  remodeled.  In  the  beginning,  there  were  four  school  rooms  and 
one  recitation  room.     The  contractor  was  J.  A.  Steel. 

In  1857  the  county  had  thirteen  school  districts,  as  follows :  Marys- 
ville, Bear  River,  Oregon  House,  Peoria  House,  Foster  Bar,  Pleasant  Grove, 
Linda,  Keystone,  Camptonville,  Rose  Bar,  Browns  Valley,  Bear  River  No.  2, 
and  Linda  No.  2. 

Before  1862,  the  public  schools  were  divided  into  six  departments,  of 
which  the  following  were  located  in  the  then  new  building  at  B  and  Seventh 
Streets.  Grammar  Department,  Boys'  Intermediate  Department,  Girls"  In- 
termediate Department,  and  Girls'  Primary  Department.  Two  primary 
classes  of  boys  occupied  the  rooms  in  the  basement  of  the  Methodist  Church. 
The  number  in  attendance  during  the  year  1861  was  over  300,  with  an  aver- 
age daily  attendance  of  250. 

In  the  spring  of  1870,  a  wooden  building,  finished  in  imitation  of  stone, 
was  erected  on  E  Street,  corner  of  Seventh  Street,  W.  C.  Swain  being  the 
architect.  It  cost  $10,000,  and  was  furnished  at  an  additional  outlay  of  $1500. 
The  girls  occupied  this  building.  This  is  the  same  structure  which  was 
recently  removed  to  a  lot  north  of  the  Marysville  Union  High  School,  facing 
on  Seventh  Street. 

A  school  for  colored  children  was  kept  in  the  basement  of  Mt.  Olivet 
Baptist  Church  on  Sixth  Street,  corner  of  High  Street.  Miss  Carrie  Oldfield 
was  the  teacher. 

Marysville  Eclectic  Institute 
The  Marysville  Eclectic  Institute  was  opened  on  August  18,  1853,  in  the 
Methodist  Episcopal   Church  by  Rev.  James  H.   Bristow  and  wife.      They 
announced    that   the   various    branches    of   a    thorough    American   education 
were  to  be  taught  and  the  discipline  was  to  be  prompt,  yet  mild.     Spelling, 
reading  and  writing  were  taught  for  five  dollars  a  month ;  arithmetic  (mental 
and   practical),    geography,    definitions,    and    critical    reading,    six    dollars    a 
month ;  and  English,  grammar,  logic,   and  rhetoric,   eight  dollars  a   month. 
In  the  fall  C.  C.  Cummings  became  the  principal. 
Poston  Seminary 
This   school  was  opened   in   November  of   1857,   on   E   Street,   between 
Seventh  and  Eighth   Streets,  by  Miss  E.  C.   Poston.     Subsequently  it  was 


removed  to  the  corner  of  D  and  Sixth  Streets,  where  it  flourished  until  the 
late  seventies,  under  Miss  Poston  and  others.  On  its  site  now  stands  the 
residence  of  Dr.  J.  L.  Sullivan. 

How  the  Eugenia  C.  Poston  Seminary  came  to  be  instituted  in  Marys- 
ville  is  best  told  in  a  sketch  written  by  Miss  Poston  not  long  before  her 
death,  which  sketch  is  in  the  possession  of  Judge  Eugene  Poston  McDaniel 
of  the  superior  court,  whose  middle  name  came  to  him  through  a  warm 
friendship  that  grew  up  between  Dr.  R.  H.  McDaniel,  early-day  physician, 
his  family,  and  Miss  Poston.     Miss  Poston  wrote : 

"My  work  as  a  teacher  in  California  began  in  January,  1856,  in  a  coun- 
try public  school  located  near  the  Sutter  Buttes,  within  the  limits  of  the 
present  Sutter  City.  The  position  was  obtained  for  me  by  George  Brittan, 
an  influential  rancher  in  the  vicinity,  and  trustee  of  the  school.  His  children 
were  my  scholars  then,  and  his  two  daughters  were  afterwards  with  us  at 
the  Seminary.  The  early  death  of  the  eldest,  Mary,  was  a  great  loss  to  me. 
The  friendship  of  this  family,  so  valuable  at  the  beginning  of  my  life 
struggle  in  this  new  and  strange  country,  has  continued  through  all  the 
subsequent  years. 

"The  experience  gained  in  this  school — ungraded,  of  mixed  classes,  boys 
and  girls  of  different  ages — was  ultimately  of  great  service  to  me,  giving 
an  insight  into  the  special  needs  of  California  girls,  differing  even  then 
from   their  sisters  on  the  Atlantic  Coast. 

"The  term  of  teaching  was  brought  to  an  abrupt  close  by  an  accident — 
a  fall  from  my  horse,  and  the  breaking  of  a  collar-bone.  This  led  to  an 
acquaintance  with  Drs.  R.  H.  McDaniel  and  E.  T.  Wilkins,  and  other  promi- 
nent citizens  of  Marysville,  the  result  of  which  acquaintance  was  the  erection 
of  the  Poston  Seminary  in  that  place. 

"The  following  letter  from  Dr.  McDaniel  gives  somewhat  in  detail  the 
preliminary  steps  by  him,  in  view  of  my  opening  a  school  in  Marysville. 
and  the  considerations  that  rendered  that  city  preferable  to  Nevada,  of  which 
there  had  been  some  question : 

"  'Marysville,  July  9,   1857. 
"Dear  Miss  Poston : 

"  T  received  yours  of  the  4th  instant,  and  should  have  answered  imme- 
diately, but  I  wished  time  to  make  the  necessary  inquiries  in  relation  to  the 
chance  of  your  establishing  a  paying  school  in  this  place.  From  all  I  can 
learn,  you  can  start  in  with  a  school  that  will  pay  you  $150  per  month,  with 
the  chance,  if  you  give  satisfaction  (of  which  I  have  no  doubt),  of  greatly 
increasing  your  income.  This  place  presents  a  better  field  for  teaching  than 
Nevada,  for  the  reason  that  it  has  more  permanent  inhabitants  and  the 
winters  are  less  severe.  The  snows  of  Nevada,  which  often  last  for  five  or 
six  months,  must  of  necessity  interrupt  the  progress  of  a  school.  Here-,  if 
you  chose  to  do  so,  you  can  teach  the  whole  year. 

"  T  have  made  inquiries,  and  find  that  you  can  have  ten  music  pupils 
at  once — Miss  Thompson,  the  two  daughters  of  Dr.  Geller,  Miss  Nye,  Miss 
Magruder,  Miss  Selby,  Miss  Davis,  Mrs.  Brumagim  and  Nina.  All  the  above 
parties  expect  to  pay  ten  dollars  per  month.    They  can  be  depended  on. 

"  T  have  spoken  to  a  builder  here  in  regard  to  a  room,  and  he  agrees 
to  put  up  an  academy,  20  feet  by  40  feet,  of  brick,  hard  finish,  with  a  good 
well,  etc.,  for  $45  per  month,  the  house  to  be  situated  on  E  Street,  between 
Seventh  and  Eighth,  only  three  blocks  from  our  house,  good  brick  pavement 
all  the  way.  The  house  can  be  ready  to  go  into,  thirty  days  from  the 
time  you  say  you  will  take  it.  Write  me  what  you  think  of  it,  so  that 
I  can  gfive  an  answer. 


"  'I  am  not  over  sanguine  in  relation  to  any  matter,  as  I  know  to  some 
extent  the  genus  homo  and  know  that  they  are  little  to  be  trusted  :  but  at 
the  same  time  I  feel  assured  that  you  can  make  a  handsome  support  here  and, 
without  misfortune,  can  lay  up  in  a  few  years  a  competency  for  a  rainy  day. 

"  'Respectfully  your  friend, 

'"R.   H.   McDaniel. 

"  'P.  S. — I  expect  you  will  have  to  send  this  letter  to  my  wife  to  read 
for  you,  as  no  one  else  can  read  my  handwriting.'  " 

"An  answer  expressing  thanks  for  Dr.  McDaniel's  kindly  interest,  and 
agreeing  to  the  proposed  arrangement  with  builder,  was  sent  without  delay. 
The  architect,  Thomas  Seaward  (grandfather  of  Mrs.  Elden  Bryan  of  Sutter 
County),  had  the  building  finished  in  thirty  days.  Friends,  Mr.  C.  C.  Good- 
win and  others,  had  the  rooms  fitted  with  necessary  furniture,  and  in  Sep- 
tember the  school  was  opened. 

"One  bright  morning  in  September,  1857,  a  group  of  young  girls  with 
some  of  their  parents  assembled  in  the  just  completed  Seminary  on  E  Street, 
to  greet  the  new  teacher.  The  eager,  inquiring  faces  come  before  me  now, 
and  the  surroundings — the  large  hall,  the  platform  and  desk  and  chair  for 
teacher,  the  scholars'  desks,  the  blackboards,  the  little  music  room  in  the 
rear — I  see  them  all.  Truly  grateful  for  the  kindly  welcome,  I  felt  yet  more 
deeply  the  confidence  placed  in  me — a  stranger  and  untried — by  these  par- 
ents in  entrusting  me  with  the  training  of  their  daughters,  the  future  women 
of  California — a  work  of  vital  importance  to  a  State  still  in  the  formative 
period.  And  I  vowed  on  that  first  day,  God  helping,  to  be  true  to  the  best 
interests  of  those  given  into  my  charge. 

"As  our  numbers  increased,  the  lack  of  yard  room  was  keenly  felt.  A 
change  became  imperative;  and  in  1863,  counseled  by  friends,  I  bought  the 
Lindley  property  on  D  Street,  and  a  smaller  lot  cornering  on  D  and  Sixth 
Streets.  On  the  latter  a  one-story  brick  building  was  erected  for  school  pur- 
poses, and  the  residence  of  Judge  Lindley  was  occupied  by  the  boarding- 
school  department,  music  classes,  etc.  Thus,  in  1863,  wre  found  ourselves 
located  under  our  own  'vine  and  fig-tree'  in  as  homelike  a  corner  as  was 
ever  dignified  with  the  title  of  Seminary.  The  Marysville  courthouse  bound- 
ing our  view  on  one  side,  we  felt  ourselves  under  the  special  protection  of 
the  officers  of  the  law,  and  indeed  our  grateful  acknowledgements  are  due 
them  for  many,  many  kindnesses. 

"With  the  enlargement  of  our  premises,  the  school  grew  rapidly.  The 
rancher  on  the  plains  sent  his  daughters ;  the  miner  in  the  foothills  sent 
his  daughters,  and  his  'nuggets' ;  towns  far  and  near — Smartsville,  Grass 
Valley,  Nevada,  Downieville,  Shasta,  etc. — gave  their  girls  and  their  good- 
will.    We  grew  apace." 

State  Reform  School 

Marysville,  in  1859,  became  a  contender  for  the  State  Reform  School, 
which  an  act  of  the  legislature,  in  the  session  of  that  year,  provided  should  be 
instituted.  Up  to  that  time  Marysville  had  been  sadly  neglected  as  regarded 
State  favors,  and  so  was  considered,  by  other  places  seeking  the  prize,  as 
having  the  preference. 

The  common  council,  at  a  meeting  held  on  November  7,  1859,  appointed, 
as  a  committee.  Aldermen  Mann,  Covillaud  and  Fowler,  who,  in  conjunction 
with  a  citizens'  committee,  were  to  attend  to  the  interests  of  Marysville  in 
the  matter.  In  December,  1859,  the  State  commissioners  reported  that  they 
had  selected  a  site  for  the  school,  the  spot  chosen  being  100  acres  of  land 
on  Feather  River,  about  five  miles  north  of  Marysville,  and  owned  by  Charles 
Covillaud.  This  land  had  been  surveyed  and  purchased  by  the  city  of  Marys- 
ville, and  conveyed  to  the  State  by  a  deed  executed  December  6,  1859. 


The  next  legislature  passed  an  act  for  the  erection  of  a  building  for  a 
State  Reform  School.  Hon.  William  H.  Parks  framed,  introduced,  and 
secured  the  passage  of  the  bills  necessary.  At  the  same  session  John  Lowery, 
Nelson  Wescoatt,  and  H.  S.  Foushee  were  elected  a  board  of  trustees,  and 
$30,000  were  appropriated  for  the  erection  of  buildings. 

Although  the  appropriation  fell  short  of  the  amount  needed,  three  stories 
and  a  basement  were  built,  and  the  building  was  partly  enclosed  by  a  high 
brick  wall.  The  legislature  of  1861  made  a  further  appropriation  of  $25,000, 
which  served  to  make  the  interior  arrangements  more  complete  and  finished. 
During  the  erection  of  the  building,  Mr.  Foushee  died,  and  John  C.  Pelton 
was  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy.  He  resigned  shortly  afterwards,  and  was 
succeeded  by  John  C.  Fall. 

The  dedicatory  exercises  were  held  on  December  2,  1861,  and  consisted 
of  addresses  by  John  Lowery,  president  of  the  board  of  trustees,  and  Hon. 
Jesse  O.  Goodwin.  The  superintendents  were  J.  C.  Pelton,  who  served  for 
twenty  months ;  George  C.  Gorham,  for  two  years ;  J.  C.  Sargent,  for  fifteen 
months ;  and  H.  S.  Hoblitzell.  The  latter  had  been  a  teacher  in  the  school, 
and  was  elected  superintendent  in  February,  1865.  He  served  for  a  little 
over  three  years,  until  the  breaking  up  of  the  institution  in  May,  1868.  The 
trustees  during  the  last  years  of  the  existence  of  the  school  were  William 
Hawley,  William  H.  Parks,  and  Charles  M.  Gorham. 

The  only  inmates  were  boys ;  one  girl  was  sent  from  Sacramento,  but 
there  being  no  suitable  accommodations,  a  place  was  found  for  her  with  a 
family  in  Marysville.  The  largest  roll  at  any  one  time  numbered  fifty-four. 
There  were  two  classes  of  inmates,  those  confined  for  criminal  offenses, 
and  those  placed  there  by  parents  or  guardians  for  reformation.  Religious 
services  were  conducted  by  pastors  of  Marysville  and  visiting  clergymen. 

When  great  obstacles'  were  met  in  obtaining  appropriations  from  the 
legislature,  the  beginning  of  the  end  came  to  the  institution.  It  is  claimed 
that  the  breaking  up  of  the  school  was  effected  through  the  influence  of 
the  managers  of  the  San  Francisco  Industrial  Home.  Finally,  the  land  and 
buildings,  by  an  act  of  the  legislature,  were  donated  to  the  city  of  Marys- 
ville, and  subsequently  sold  for  $6000  to  James  Strain,  the  owner  of  the 
adjoining  land.  After  the  removal  of  the  boys,  the  premises  were  abandoned 
and  thieves  entered,  carrying  off  many  valuable  articles.  After  much  delay, 
the  furniture,  library  and  other  property  were  conveyed  to  Marysville  and 
sold  at  auction,  the  nominal  sum  of  $200  being  realized. 

During  the  superintendency  of  H.  S.  Hoblitzell,  Mrs.  Hoblitzell  greatly 
aided  her  husband  by  her  voluntary  assistance  in  giving  moral  and  religious 
training  to  the  youths  consigned  to  his  keeping.  Mrs.  Hoblitzell  is  still 
living,  and  is  now  making  her  home  with  a  son  in  Seattle,  Wash. 

Knoxville  Institute 
At  Brownsville,  on  the  western  slope  of  the  Sierras,  thirty-two  miles 
northeast  from  Marysville,  was  located  an  institution  of  learning  in  the  late 
seventies.  It  was  under  the  proprietorship  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  M.  Knox;  and 
Prof.  E.  K.  Hill,  who  had  served  as  principal  of  the  Marysville  High  School, 
was  given  the  general  management  and  control.  The  design  was  to  make 
it  a  school  complete  in  itself,  from  the  lowest  primary  instruction  to  a  full 
high  school  course,  crowned  with  complete  courses  in  the  sciences  and  arts, 
and  in  literature  and  the  modern  languages ;  from  which  branched  off  short 
courses  in  training  for  business,  and  preparation  for  college  in  Latin  and 
Greek.  The  departments  of  instruction  included  the  preparatory,  high  school 
and  scientific,  business,  languages  and  music.  Besides  these,  a  normal  course 
had   also   been  instituted.     The  Normal   Institute   was   open  for   six   weeks 


during   the   summer   vacation.      Botanical   analysis,   botanical   drawing,    and 
the  collection  of  herbariums  were  included  as  specialties  in  the  curriculum. 
Eugene    P.    McDaniel,    present   judge    of    the    superior    court    of    Yuba 
County,  was  a  student  in  this  institution. 

Other  Private  Schools 

Miss  Jane  Jones  opened  a  school  in  1870  in  the  Flathman  Building, 
southwest  corner  of  D  and  Sixth  Streets,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the 
residence  of  J.  A.  Bilhartz.  In  the  fall  of  1876,  the  school  was  moved  to 
the  building  formerly  occupied  by  Miss  Poston.  Miss  Jones  continued  this 
school  until  chosen  city  librarian,  a  position  she  held  until  her  death. 

Mrs.  S.  M.  Miles,  widow  of  the  first  mayor  of  the  city;  opened  a  school 
on  Eighth  Street  opposite  the  Baptist  Church  in  1874.  This  was  called 
the  Marysville  Select  School. 

Mrs.  L,.  S.  Southworth  was  another  who  conducted  a  private  school  in 
Marysville.     That  was  in  the  eighties  and  nineties.     Her  home  and  study- . 
rooms  were  in  a  building  on  the  east  side  of  C  Street,  between  Sixth  and 
Seventh  Streets. 

Mrs.  Kate  M.  Wilkins  also  conducted  a  private  school  for  a  number  of 
years,  making  a  specialty  of  preparing  prospective  teachers  for  their  tests. 
Encouraged  by  her  success  along  this  line,  Mrs.  Wilkins  later  removed  to 
San  Francisco,  where  she  still  is  engaged  in  teaching. 

The  Chinese  send  their  children  to  the  public  schools,  and  also  support, 
at  intervals,  schools  in  their  own  section,  where  the  reading  and  writing  of 
the  Chinese  language  are  taught. 

Marysville  High  School 

The  Marysville  High  School  was  organized  by  the  board  of  education 
on  September  25,  1871.  The  first  Monday  in  October  was  set  for  the  open- 
ing of  the  first  term,  in  the  building  then  located  on  the  southeast  corner  of 
E  and  Seventh  Streets.  This  building  was  razed  in  recent  years  to  make  way 
for  the  structure  now  known  as  the  Herzog  Apartments.  Professor  Drake 
was  chosen  as  the  instructor.  The  plan  of  the  school  was  to  furnish  a  pre- 
paratory course  for  the  University  of  California,  and  to  complete  the  studies 
commenced  in  the  grammar  department.  Twelve  pupils  entered  for  the 
course.     Of  these,  five  graduated  at  the  end  of  three  years. 

In  this  graduating  class  of  1874,  the  first  to  take  part  in  high  school  com- 
mencement exercises  in  Yuba  County,  were  Corrinne  Kimball,  who  became 
the  wife  of  Norman  A.  Rideout;  Hattie  Pratt,  who  became  Mrs.  A.  J.  Bin- 
ney ;  Albert  Sheehan,  who  was  editor  of  a  Sacramento  newspaper  at  his  death 
several  years  ago ;  Charles  J.  Covillaud,  son  of  one  of  the  founders  of  Marys- 
ville ;  and  Fred  H.  Greely,  who  has  served  as  State  Senator  from  this  dis- 
trict, and  as  district  attorney  of  Yuba  County.  Greely,  the  only  surviving 
member  of  the  class  of  1874,  is  the  present  county  auditor  and  recorder  of 
Yuba  County.  He  has  also  served  a  term  as  Grand  President  of  the  Native 
Sons  of  the  Golden  West. 

During  the  fourth  year,  the  number  enrolled  in  the  high  school  had  in- 
creased to  twenty-seven.  Only  two  pupils,  young  ladies,  graduated  that 
year.  The  year  1875-1876  closed  with  the  graduation  of  four  pupils.  On 
the  8th  of  November,  1876,  the  school,  and  the  community  as  well,  met  with  a 
severe  loss  in  the  death  of  Professor  Drake.  In  the  latter  part  of  that  month 
Rev.  E.  H.  AVard  was  appointed  principal.  He  taught  about  two  months,  and 
was  then  succeeded  by  Prof.  E.  K.  Hill,  a  teacher  of  long  experience  and 


much  ability.     At  the  end  of  the  year  1877-1878,  the  school  graduated  three 
young  ladies. 

During  the  fall  term  of  1878-1879,  the  school  was,  to  a  certain  extent, 
broken  up  by  mixing  its  pupils  with  the  senior  classes  of  both  grammar 
schools.  The  teachers  were  Professor  Hill  and  Miss  R.  A.  Parshall.  This 
plan  soon  proved  impracticable ;  and  at  the  beginning  of  the  school  term  in 
1880,  the  schools  were  again  segregated  and  the  high  school  classes  were 
placed  under  the  charge  of  Prof.  B.  E.  Hunt. 

Growth  of  the  City  Schools 

The  schools  of  Marysville  have  since  grown  by  leaps  and  bounds,  due 
to  the  influx  of  new  people.  In  1908  it  became  apparent  that  new  buildings 
were  needed  for  the  departments  of  both  the  grammar  school  and  the  high 
school.  A1  bond  issue  of  $80,000  was  voted,  and  the  present  high  school  and 
grammar  school  buildings  were  erected  in  the  block  bounded  by  F,  G,  Sixth 
and  Seventh  Streets.  The  city  owned  the  lots  where  the  grammar-  school 
was  built.  Purchase  was  made  of  the  site  for  the  present  high  school.  To 
this  plant  there  was  added  in  1922  a  splendid  gymnasium,  which  is  daily 
growing  in  popularity.  On  certain  days  the  gymnasium  is  open  to  business 
and  professional  men  for  exercise  at  basketball,  indoor  baseball,  etc. 

The  faculty  of  the  Marysville  Union  High  School,  which  was  established 
as  such  in  1922,  now  consists  of  twenty-one  teachers,  with  Prof.  Curtis  E. 
Warren  as  the  principal  and  as  secretary  of  the  board.  Miss  Louise  M.  AY. 
Mayne  is  the  vice-principal  and  head  of  the  English  department. 

The  present  trustees  of  the  high  school  are  Dunning  Rideout,  A.  W. 
Lewis,  Peter  Engel,  J.  E.  Strain,  and  J.  J.  Yore. 

The  grammar  school  has  at  present  a  force  of  twenty-two  teachers. 

Present   Rural   Schools 

Outside  of  Marysville  and  Wheatland.  Yuba  County  now  supports 
thirty-two  rural  schools  in  valley  and  on  mountain,  as  follows :  Bald  Moun- 
tain, Brophy's,  Buckeye,  Brown's  Valley,  Challenge,  Clark,  Cordua,  Dob- 
bins, Elizabeth,  Frenchtown,  Feather  River  Union,  Goldfields,  Greenville, 
Hansonville,  Indiana  Ranch,  Linda,  Lone  Tree,  Long  Bar,  Marigold,  New 
England  Union,  Oregon  House,  Prairie,  Peoria,  Plumas,  Rose  Bar,  Sharon 
Valley,  Camptonville,  Spring  Valley,  Strawberry  Valley,  Sugar  Loaf,  Vir- 
ginia, and  Waldo.  Of  these,  the  schools  at  Dobbins,  Rose  Bar  (Smartsville), 
New  England  (Arboga),  and  Camptonville  are  branches  of  the  Marysville 
Union  High  School. 

Miss  Jennie  Malaley  is  the  present  county  superintendent  of  schools, 
and  is  now  serving  her  third  term  in  office. 




The  excitement  in  the  East,  on  the  receipt  of  the  mining  news  from 
California,  affected  the  clergy  as  well  as  other  people.  Many  resigned  their 
pastorates,  joined  in  the  throng,  and  were  as  eager  as  the  others  to  gather  a 
goodly  amount  of  the  golden  sands.  There  were  those  in  the  ministry,  how- 
ever, whose  aim  in  seeking  the  Western  land  was  to  lend  their  talents  to 
the  service  of  their  Master.  These  threw  aside  all  opportunities  for  speedily 
gathering  a  rich  competence,  to  labor  in  the  best  missionary  field  in  the 
world.  The  stories  of  their  trials  and  tribulations  are  exceedingly  interest- 
ing, giving  an  idea  of  the  condition  of  affairs  during  that  pioneer  period, 
and  also  showing  the  lasting  effect  of  early  Christian  culture. 

The  first  religious  exercises  in  Marysville,  with  the  exception  of  those 
conducted  by  the  Padres,  were  held  in  the  spring  of  1850  by  Rev.  Washburne. 
in  a  flatboat  moored  opposite  the  Plaza.  He  wras  followed  by  Rev.  Joshua 
Wilson,  a  Methodist  clergyman,  who  succeeded  in  building  a  Methodist 
Episcopal  church.  In  the  month  of  May,  1851,  Rev.  Wilson  died,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Rev.  M.  Burrell. 

The  bell  in  the  Presbyterian  church  was  rung-  for  the  first  time  on  Sun- 
day, February  8,  1852.  Its  tones  brought  back  memories  of  homes  and  fam- 
ilies in  the  distant  Eastern  land,  and  caused  many  a  tear  to  fall. 

One  of  the  pioneer  ministers  of  Yuba  County  was  Rev.  S.  V.  Blakeslee, 
mention  of  whom  has  already  been  made  in  an  account  of  the  early  schools 
of  Marysville.  He  was  ordained  a  minister  of  the  Congregational  denomina- 
tion in  Iowa,  and  left  immediately  for  California  pn  his  own  responsibility 
and  expense.  He  arrived  at  Marysville  on  April  13,  1850,  and  the  following 
Sabbath  commenced  regular  services  in  the  unfinished  upper  part  of  a  two- 
story  frame  building  owned  by  George  Beach.  The  attendance  on  the  first 
morning  was  about  thirty-five ;  some  were  professors  of  religion,  while  the 
rest  were  drawn  there  by  mere  curiosity.  In  the  afternoon  he  held  services 
on  the  Plaza,  where  a  large  crowd  assembled.  All  were  exceedingly  attentive 
and  respectful.  During  the  second  week,  arrangements  were  made  to  preach 
weekly  in  Marysville  at  eleven  o'clock  a.  m. ;  in  the  anticipative  town  of 
Eliza,  at  two  p.  m. ;  and  in  Yuba  City  at  seven  p.  m.  Services  in  accordance 
with  this  program  wrere  continued  until  the  failure  of  the  Eliza  project,  in  the 
month  of  May,  after  which  services  were  held  by  Rev.  Blakeslee  at  the  Plaza 
regularly  every  Sunday  afternoon  until  the  middle  of  June,  when  a  local 
Methodist  minister  took  his  place. 

Several  trips  were  made  into  the  mountains  and  mining  districts  in  the 
summer  of  1850;  and  a  number  of  services  were  held  by  invitation  in  saloons 
and  gambling  rooms.  When  the  preacher  was  ready  to  commence,  the  money 
and  stakes  lying  on  the  tables  were  covered  with  the  cloths,  and  all  listened 
attentively  and  with  great  respect.  The  Christian  hymns  familiar  to  most  in 
their  Eastern  homes  were  sung.  Many  times  a  generous  contribution  was 
presented  to  the  worthy  preacher.  After  the  benediction  the  tables  were  up- 
covered  and  the  play  was  resumed  as  lively  as  ever. 

Another  minister  visited  the  field  during  the  early  part  of  Rev.  Blakes- 
lee's  stay — Rev.  F.  Hunt,  of  San  Francisco,  who  preached  one  Sabbath. 


In  September,  1850,  Rev.  W.  W.  Brier  arrived,  and  subsequently  or- 
ganized a  Presbyterian  church.  He  was  favorably  received  and  efforts  were 
put  forth  to  erect  a  building;  but  these  proved  unsuccessful  for  some  time, 
owing  to  the  great  expense  and  difficulty  met  in  obtaining  the  lumber  and 
material  necessary  for  its  construction. 

The  attendance  at  the  services  increased  with  the  growth  of  the  popu- 
lation. The  Sabbath  school  organized  in  connection  with  Rev.  Blakeslee's 
labors  was  small,  the  attendance  being  perhaps  eight  or  ten.  There  were  but 
few  children,  and  elderly  persons  were  too  busy  to  attend.  The  minister 
was  the  only  teacher.  Later,  Rev.  Blakeslee  became  editor-at-large  of  the 
Pacific,  a  weekly  religious  paper  published  in  San  Francisco  under  the  aus- 
pices of  the  Congregational  Church. 

First  Presbyterian   Church 

The  following  items  in  the  early  history  of  this  church  are  taken  from 
the  journal  of  Rev.  W.  W.  Brier,  who  was  the  first  Presbyterian  minister  of 
the  place,  and  who  resided  here  with  his  young  wife  from  September,  1850, 
to  March,  1851. 

"September  7,  1850. — Traveled  on  the  steamer  Governor  Dana  from  Sac- 
ramento to  Vernon,  thirty-five  miles,  and  twenty-eight  miles  in  the  stage 
to  Marysville.  Stayed  with  Mr.  Tay  in  a  wholesale  store,  a  tent  on  the 
lower  side  of  the  Plaza.  Tay  is  a  partner  of  Deacon  Leonard,  of  San  Fran- 
cisco ;  had  a  letter  to  him,  and  he  received  me  kindly ;  is  a  pleasant  young 
fellow.    He  put  up  notices  of  preaching  with  all  the  zeal  of  an  old  elder. 

"Sunday,  September  8. — Preached  under  the  shade  of  a  large  white  oak 
tree  in  the  morning.  All  stores  open,  all  the  gambling  houses  in  full  blast, 
teams  of  oxen  and  a  train  of  mules  loading  goods.  Went  to  the  place  ad- 
vertised, and  found  about  twenty  men  sitting  on  old  wagons,  ox-yokes  and 
logs.  One  said,  as  I  looked  about,  'Sit  down;  here's  the  place  to  hear  preach- 
ing.' I  stood  on  a  little  eminence  and  commenced  to  sing  a  hymn.  From 
every  direction  men  gathered  with  sad  and  worn  faces,  which  told  of 
thoughts  of  loved  ones  far  away,  and  remembrances  of  Sabbaths  of  rest. 
All  listened  respectfully.  At  night  I  preached  in  the  courthouse.  This  court- 
house was  away  out  of  town  on  the  plains,  at  the  corner  of  E  and  Third 
Streets.  [Now  the  very  center  of  Marysville. — Editor.]  The  only  house 
near  it  was  a  square,  blue  tent,  six  by  ten  feet,  the  headquarters  of  Rev.  S.  V. 
Blakeslee,  who  traveled  through  the  mines  and  preached.  It  had  a  bunk  in 
one  end  and  some  blue  blankets.  With  great  dignity  and  geniality,  he 
offered  the  use  of  his  house  free  of  charge  until  I  could  build.  I  declined, 
as  there  was  no  shade." 

The  courthouse  was  a  room,  20  by  30  feet,  with  the  Masonic  Hall  above. 
It  had  a  good  frame  covered  with  rough  boards  a  foot  wide,  no  lining,  rough 
floor,  and  a  full  supply  of  backless  benches.  This  was  the  place  for  all  pub- 
lic meetings  and  courts.  Here,  on  November  24,  1850,  was  organized  the 
Presbyterian  Church,  consisting  of  nine  members.  Adam  Farish  and  C.  W. 
McClanahan  were  chosen  elders.  Dr.  A.  H.  Wilder  was  the  most  active  man 
in  the  church  work.  George  C.  Gorham,  of  political  notoriety,  took  an  inter- 
est in  the  outside  matters  of  the  congregation.  He  was  a  young  man  of 
steady  habits.  Judge  Stephen  J.  Field,  first  alcalde  of  the  city,  was  also  a 
frequent  attendant.  Judge  E.  D.  Wheeler,  a  young  lawyer,  and  his  partner, 
Jesse  O.  Goodwin,  later  author  of  the  Goodwin  Act  prescribing  prison  merits 
for  felons,  took  an  active  part  in  the  business  matters  of  the  church.  John 
Parks,  the  proprietor  of  the  United  States  Hotel  and  a  chief  owner  of  the 
town,  also  aided  materially  in  getting  up  the  church  building,  which  was 
erected  on  the  corner  of  D  and  Third  Streets  in  the  spring  of  1851.  The  sub- 
scription was  started  on  February  12.    J.  M.  Ramirez,  who  lived  in  the  orig- 


inal  adobe  ranch  house  on  the  banks  of  the  Yuba,  made  the  first  donation. 
He  was  looked  upon  as  a  capitalist,  and  headed  the  list  with  $100.  Dr.  Rice 
and  Dr.  Winters  rendered  good  service  in  getting  up  the  subscription.  Louis 
Cunningham,  who  later  became  a  capitalist  in  San  Francisco,  had  a  bank 
in  a  little  zinc  house  on  B  Street ;  he  was  a  quiet  but  true  friend  of  the 
church  and  of  the  young  minister.  E.  E.  Hamilton,  who  was  engaged  in 
the  undertaking  business  later,  rendered  good  service  in  singing.  The  citi- 
zens, with  few  exceptions,  donated  to  the  building. 

This  house  of  worship  was  finished  and  dedicated  on  August  3,  1851, 
Rev.  T.  Dwight  Hunt  of  San  Francisco  preaching  the  sermon.  It  was  a 
wooden  building,  lined  with  cotton  cloth  and  seated  with  pews,  and  would 
accommodate  300  people.  The  cost  was  nearly  $5000,  with  a  debt  of  $700, 
secured  by  subscriptions.  These  subscriptions  were  mostly  lost  as  a  result 
of  the  first  church  fire,  which  occurred  a  month  after  the  church  was  dedi- 
cated. The  fine  bell  now  on  the  church,  costing  $650,  was  soon  secured  by 
a  special  subscription.  It  was  the  first  church  bell  ever  heard  in  the  upper 
Sacramento  Valley,  and  no  event  in  the  early  history  of  that  region  occa- 
sioned more  good  feeling  than  was  evidenced  on  its  arrival.  This  bell  was 
placed  in  a  frame  outside  the  church,  and  was  thus  saved  when  the  building 
was  destroyed  by  fire. 

The  Sabbath  school  was  organized  on  the  6th  of  April,  1851,  with 
twenty-seven  children.  The  church  attendance  and  membership  increased 
constantly  by  the  influx  of  new  families  from  the  East.  On  February  1, 
1851,  Dr.  Wilder  and  Thomas  Ireland  were  ordained  elders.  In  April,  bv 
the  advice  of  his  physicians,  the  pastor,  Rev.  AY.  W.  Brier,  removed  to  the 
coast  near  Centerville,  Alameda  County.  Rev.  I.  H.  Brayton  succeeded  him. 
His  health  broke  down  in  nine  months,  and  he  retired  from  the  field.  On 
April  1,  1853,  Rev.  E.  B.  Walsworth  took  charge  of  the  church. 

On  May  25,  1854,  the  church  was  burned.  The  trustees  then  sold  the 
lot  at  the  corner  of  D  and  Third  Streets,  it  having  become  valuable  for 
business  purposes,  purchased  a  lot  on  the  corner  of  D  and  Fifth  Streets,  and 
built  a  chapel  thereon,  at  a  cost  of  $6500. 

In  1859  the  size  of  the  congregation  demanded  a  more  commodious  audi- 
torium, and  the  present  imposing  edifice  was  erected  on  the  corner  of  D 
and  Fifth  Streets.  This  structure  cost  $33,000.  It  was  dedicated  on  October 
14,  1860,  the  sermon  being  preached  by  Rev.  E.  S.   Lacey. 

The  first  trustees,  appointed  by  Rev.  W.  W.  Brier,  were  Dr.  A.  H. 
Wilder,  Dr.  D.  W.  C.  Rice,  A.  T.  Farish,  Thomas  Ireland,  and  E.  Hamilton. 
The  trustees  under  whose  management  the  recent  church  edifice  was  erected 
were :  John  A.  Paxton,  president ;  S.  W.  Selby,  vice-president ;  H.  S.  Hob- 
litzell,  secretary-treasurer ;  and  Tohn  H.  Jewett,  F.  F.  Lowe,  Peter  Decker, 
W.  K.  Hudson,  A.  W.  Cutts,  and  Dr.  D.  W.  C.  Rice. 

The  pastors  who  have  successively  presided  over  this  charge  are :  Revs. 
W.  W.  Brier,  I.  H.  Brayton,  E.  B.  Walsworth,  J.  H.  Brodt,  W.  W.  Mac- 
Comber,  W.  McKaig,  James  Matthews,  P.  Lynett  Carden,  Lamont,  Ander- 
son, Lundy,  Garver,  Wilson,  R.  C.  McAdie,  and  B.  F.  Butts. 

The  congregation  of  the  church,  at  the  last  annual  session,  elected  heads 
as  follows :  Elders,  three-year  term,  James  Morrison  and  F.  L.  DeArmond ; 
trustees,  H.  M.  Smythe,  Willard  Roberts,  George  Graves,  L.  L.  Freeman, 
W.  Morrison,  James  Thomson,  H.  Harter,  H.  Humphreys,  and  D.   Mahan. 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church 

The  first  Methodist  quarterly  conference  in  this  section  of  the  State 
was  held  in  Yuba  City,  June  15,  1850,  by  Rev.  Isaac  Owen,  presiding  elder 
of  the  Feather  River  district.     He  was  superintendent  of  missions,  this  dis- 


trict  being  then  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Oregon  mission  conference. 
In  the  summer  of  1850.  the  people  of  this  denomination  then  living  in  Marys- 
ville  united  and  built  a  small  church  on  the  west  side  of  D  Street,  between 
Third  and  Fourth  Streets.  In  this  meeting  house  was  held  the  first  quarterly 
conference  in  Marysville,  the  third  Saturday  in  September,  1850,  at  which 
time  the  Rev.  Joshua  Wilson  was  assigned  to  the  pastorate. 

Rev.  Wilson  died  in  the  spring  of  1851,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
M.  Burrell.  The  successive  pastors  from,  that  date  are :  Revs.  J.  W. 
Brier,  M.  C.  Briggs,  H.  C.  Benson,  D.  A.  Dryden,  M.  C.  Briggs,  J.  A. 
Bruner,  J.  D.  Blaine,  William  J.  McClay,  David  Deal,  William  Grove  Deal, 
J.  B.  Hill,  C.  V.  Anthony,  J:  N.  Martin,  E.  Bannister,  J.  L.  Burchard,  C.  E. 
Rich,  William  McPhetters,  T.  L.  Treffern,  Martin  Miller,  S.  H.  Todd,  J.  A. 
Vananda,  W.  M.  Woodward,  E.  R.  Willis,  J.  P.  Macauley,  C.  H.  Beechgood, 
Thomas  Filben,  C.  J.  Chase,  W.  M.  Woodward,  Fred  Sheldon,  W.  C.  Rob- 
bins,  Thomas  H.  Nichols,  Sylvester  J.  Buck,  R.  L.  Rowe,  and  E.  H.  Mackay. 
The  last-named,  at  the  time  this  volume  was  being  compiled,  was  in  the  third 
year  of  his  pastorate. 

The  first  officers  of  the  church  were  George  M.  Hanson,  Joel  Burlin- 
game,  and  Benjamin  Eandis.  The  trustees  were  Hiram  Palmer  and  George 
M.  Hanson ;  stewards,  Arthur  C.  Barber,  Hiram  Palmer,  Joel  Burlingame, 
and  Benjamin  Landis.  In  the  late  seventies  the  following  were  trustees  and 
stewards :  Justus  Greely,  William  Gummow,  J.  F.  Eastman,  George  Crowell, 
E.  E.  Meek,  Newton  Seawell,  and  S.  L.  Frost. 

The  present  church  edifice,  at  the  corner  of  E  and  Fourth  Streets,  which 
was  badly  wrecked  in  a  fire  during  the  summer  of  1922,  was,  when  first 
built,  a  commodious  frame  structure,  with  a  basement  for  use  by  the  Sunday 
school.  It  was  erected  in  1852-1853,  at  a  cost  of  about  $26,000,  the  amount 
having  been  raised  by  subscriptions  among  the  citizens.  The  basement  of 
this  church  was  one  of  Marysville's  first  schoolrooms.  Here  was  held  the 
first  public  school  in  the  city;  and  here  also  the  Marysville  Eclectic  Institute 
was  conducted  by  Rev.  James  H.  Bristow  and  lady,  as  principals.  At  the 
present  time  the  trustees  are  planning  to  sell  the  property,  which  is  in 
the  line  of  business  progression,  the  "proceeds,  and  more,  to  be  used  in  the 
construction  of  a  modern  building  on  a  lot  which  has  been  procured  at  the 
southwest  corner,  of  D  and  Eighth  Streets.  Work  is  expected  to  commence 
in  the  spring  of  1924. 

St.  Joseph's  Catholic  Church 

"The  first  missionaries  of  the  Roman  Catholic  denomination  in  Marys- 
ville were  Fathers  Acker,  Anderson,  and  Ingraham,  who  labored  here  in 
1851  and  1852.  In  September,  1852,  Father  Peter  Magganotta,  a  member 
of  the  religious,  order  of  Passionists,  commenced  his  labor  in  the  formation 
of  a  church.  Chiefly  from  his  own  purse,  he  erected  a  frame  church,  32  by 
43  feet  in  size,  and  of  one  story.  It  stood  on  the  north  side  of  Seventh  Street, 
between  C  and  D  Streets,  near  the  present  parochial  residence.  For  his 
piety  and  genuine  goodness,  "Father  Peter,"  as  he  was  always  called,  was 
endeared  not  only  to  his  own  flock,  but  to  all  who  knew  him. 

The  church  was  dedicated  on  March  20,  1853,  and  served  as  a  place  of 
worship  two  years,  during  which  time  Father  Peter  was  busy  in  the  erection 
of  the  beautiful  cathedral  which  now  stands  as  a  monument  to  his  energy 
and  zeal.  The  corner-stone  of  the  cathedral  was  laid  September  16,  1855, 
by  Archbishop  J.  S.  Alemany,  assisted  by  Fathers  Magganotta,  Dominica 
Blava,  and  Blasius  Raho.  Toward  the  construction  of  the  church  many 
young  men,  recent  arrivals  from  the  old  countries,  such  as  Ireland  and  Ger- 
many, contributed  free  labor,  where  they  had  not  the  funds  to  give. 


In  1861,  the  diocese  of  Grass  Valley  was  formed,  with  the  cathedral  at 
Marysville,  and  Rt.  Rev.  Eugene  O'Connell  became  bishop. 

In  1865,  an  addition  of  forty  feet  was  made  to  the  west  end  of  the 
cathedral,  and  the  tower  and  interior  were  finished.  The  structure  covers 
an  area  nearly  a  half  block  in  depth,  and  has  a  frontage  of  sixty  feet.  The 
tower  is  100  feet  in  height. 

Among  the  pastors  who  have  since  served  are  Revs.  Father  Thomas 
Grace,  who  later  became  bishop  of  the  Sacramento  Diocese ;  Rev.  J.  J.  Callan, 
who  died  in  December,  1887 ;  the  late  Rev.  Matthew  Coleman ;  and  Rev. 
Patrick  Guerin,  who  is  the  present  head.  Rev.  Matthew  Coleman,  who  was 
pastor  for  about  thirty  years,  is  deserving  of  special  mention  for  the  zeal 
with  which  he  worked,  and  the  popularity  which  he  gained.  He  took  spe- 
cial delight  in  the  upkeep  of  the  property,  and  had  always  uppermost  in  his 
mind  the  welfare  of  the  College  of  Notre  Dame,  at  which  institution  of 
learning  many  who  now  are  grandfathers  and  grandmothers  were  pupils 
when  Father  Coleman  took  charge  of  the  parish. 

One  of  the  first  moves  by  Rev.  Father  Guerin,  on  taking-  up  the  Marys- 
ville mission  in  1917,  was  to  raze  the  parochial  residence  that  had  served 
from  pioneer  days  and  erect  in  its  stead  a  modern  home  for  the  priests,  at 
a  cost  of  $30,000.  This  property  is  a  credit  to  the  Catholics  of  the  community 
and  a  monument  to  its  promoter.    The  new  home  was  completed  in  1921. 

In  the  center  plot  of  the  Marysville  Catholic  Cemetery  consecrated  as 
the  burying  ground  of  the  priests  who  served  this  mission  in  their  lifetime, 
either  as  pastor  or  as  assistant  pastor,  now  rest  the  remains  of  the  following 
"soggarth  aroons" :  Rev.  J.  J.  Callan,  pastor,  who  died  December  5,  1887; 
Rev.  Matthew  Coleman,  pastor,  who  died  April  11,  1917;  and  the  following 
assistants :  Rev.  Hugh  E.  McCabe,  Rev.  F.  Florian,  Rev.  J.  O'Sullivan, 
Rev.  T.  Crinion,  Rev.  P.  Farrelly,  Rev.  T.  Petit,  and  Rev.  F.  Schweninger. 

The  basement  of  the  Catholic  Church  was  in  early  days,  before  the 
erection  of  the  Boys'  School  at  Seventh  and  C  Streets,  used  as  classrooms 
for  the  boy  students  of  the  parish.  A  number  of  the  present-day  prominent 
citizens  of  Marysville  and  Sutter  County  received  the  first  rudiments  of 
their  education  in  the  church  basement. 

The  Baptist  Church 

In  1854  the  Baptists  organized  a  church  in  Marysville.  Rev.  O.  B. 
Stone  preached  in  the  City  Hall  in  January  of  that  year,  thus  sowing  the  first 
seed  for  the  later  work  of  the  denomination.  An  edifice  was  built  in  1864 
on  a  lot  located  at  the  corner  of  High  and  Eighth  Streets.  This  church  is 
no  longer  in  existence. 

Rev.  Charles  Satchell  took  up  the  work  of  this  denomination  in  Marys- 
ville in  1856,  and  the  society  of  the  Mt.  Olivet  Baptist  Church  was  formed 
the  same  year  with  Rev.  Satchell  as  pastor.  AVilliam  Bland,  Cupid  Blue, 
and  Samuel  T.  Brewster  were  the  trustees  and  deacons.  In  1857  a  sub- 
stantial brick  church  was  erected  on  the  corner  of  Sixth  and  High  Streets, 
which  still  stands.  It  cost  about  $5000.  Previous  to  the  occupancy  of  the 
church,  services  were  held  at  a  house  in  Maiden  Lane,  now  Oak  Street. 

African  M.  E.  Church 

This  society  was  organized  in  1854  on  California  Alley,  now  Chestnut 
Street,  at  Fifth.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  D.  P.  Stokes.  G.  A.  Cantine, 
D.  W.  Sands,  and  Samuel  Ringol  were  the  first  trustees. 

The  church  was  built  in  1864,  and  was  destroyed  by  fire  on  July  2,  1921. 
It  is  now  being  rebuilt. 


St.  John's  Episcopal  Church 

Religious  services  were  held  in  Marysville  in  November,  1854,  by  Rt. 
Rev.  W.  I.  Kip,  bishop  of  the  diocese  of  California.  Steps  were  soon  taken 
to  form  a  society,  which  was  accomplished  on  April  30,  1855.  The  following 
were  the  first  wardens  and  vestrymen :  Stephen  J.  Field  and  William  P. 
Thompson,  wardens;  William  Hawley,  John  T.  Reins,  Charles  S.  Fairfax, 
Ira  A.  Eaton,  S.  W.  Van  Wyck,  W.  W.  Smith,  J.  A.  Monsell,  and  Charles 
H.  Hedges,  vestrymen.  The  first  rector  was  Rev.  E.  W.  Hager.  Services 
were  held  in  the  City  Hall  until  the  church  was  ready  for  occupation. 

The  church  edifice,  built  at  the  corner  of  Fifth  and  E  Streets,  is  a  brick 
building.  It  was  completed  in  December,  1855,  costing  about  $7000.  The 
successive  rectors  of  the  parish  were  Rev.  E.  W.  Hager,  until  1856:  Rev. 
F.  W.  Hatch,  to  1857;  Rev.  E.  D.  Cooper,  to  1858;  Rev.  George  B.  Taylor, 
to  1860;  Rev.  Henry  O.  G.  Smeathman,  to  1861;  Rev.  Hannibal  Goodwin,  to 
1863;  Rev.  AVilliam  H.  Stoy,  to  1865;  and  Rev.  A.  A.  McAllister,  to  1872. 
Then  for  a  year  the  parish  was  without  a  rector,  the  pulpit  being  supplied 
by  Bishops  Scott  and  Kip,  and  Revs.  Dr.  Hatch  and  Dr.  Hill.  In  1873, 
Rev.  E.  H.  Ward  was  in  charge.  Rev.  Stoy  returned  in  1877.  Succeeding 
him,  have  been  Rev.  Mark  Rifenbark  and  Rev.  A.  E.  Butcher.  Since  the 
succession  of  Rev.  Butcher  to  the  pastorate,  a  movement  has  been  started 
to  erect  a  new  church  edifice  at  the  corner  of  Eighth  and  D  Streets,  the 
residence  property  of  the  late  A<V.  T.  Ellis  having  been  secured  as  a  site. 
The  church  already  has  secured  the  building  known  as  Guild  Hall,  at  the 
rear  of  this  property. 

German  Methodist  Church 

For  a  time  there  was  a  German  Methodist  Church  on  the  lot  at  the 
corner  of  E  and  Seventh  Streets,  in  the  building  later  occupied  as  Mary- 
ville's  first  high  school.  The  congregation  was  founded  in  1864,  and  the 
church  was  built  at  a  cost  of  $2000.  The  first  pastor  of  the  church  was 
Rev.  G.  H.  Bolinger,  who  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Martin  Guhl.  Upon  his 
departure,  in  1870,  the  church  was  left  without  a  regular  pastor  until  1874, 
when  the  conference  sent  Rev.  H.  Brueck  to  the  charge.  This  church  has 
since  disbanded. 

Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception 

The  Catholics  of  Marysville  of  German  origin  maintained  a  church 
edifice  of  their  own  building,  for  a  period  of  about  twenty  years,  at  the 
northwest  corner  of  F  and  Eighth  Streets.  They .  organized  in  1871,  and 
dedicated  the  building,  a  frame  structure,  in  May,  1874.     Its  cost  was  $4000. 

The  first  priest  in  charge  was  Rev.  Father  Herde.  The  next  was  Rev. 
Father  John  Meilor,  whose  residence  was  situated  near  the  church.  Father 
Bucholzer  served  as  the  last  pastor  of  the  church,  the  Germans  deciding  to 
change  their  place  of  worship  to  St.  Joseph's  Church,  where  they  still  attend 
devotions  and  take  an  active  part  in  church  affairs. 

First  Christian  Church 

The  First  Christian  Church  of  Marysville  was  organized  in  1879.  The 
first  meetings  were  held  in  the  courthouse.  The  late  W.  G.  Murphy  was  a 
prime  mover  in  the  establishment  of  this  congregation,  having  been  a  mem- 
ber in  Columbia,  Mo.,  before  his  trip  across  the  plains  to  California. 

The  congregation  has  now  so  far  gained  in  numbers  as  to  tax  the 
capacity  of  the  church  edifice,  which  is  located  at  the  corner  of  Fifth  and 
Orange  Streets. 


First  Church  of  Christ,  Scientist 

In  recent  years,  Marysville  has  seen  the  organization  of  the  First 
Church  of  Christ,  Scientist.  Meetings  at  present  are  held  in  the  Odd 
Fellows  Hall  each  Wednesday  evening  and  Sunday  forenoon. 

A  lot  has  been  purchased  by  the  congregation  at  the  southwest  corner 
of  F  and  Seventh  Streets,  with  the  intention  of  building  a  meeting  place 
there  when  sufficient  funds  are  secured. 


In  the  palmy  and  prosperous  days  of  Marysville,  the  secret  and  benevo- 
lent orders  flourished,  and  their  influence  was  felt  among  all  classes  of 
citizens.  The  stranger  arriving  sick,  moneyless,  and  friendless,  found  among 
the  members  of  his  old  order  hands  and  hearts  ready  to  alleviate  his  suffer- 
ings and  to  relieve  his  destitution.  Multitudes  of  instances  of  this  kind 
occurred  in  the  early  days,  and  it  is  no  wonder  that  now,  in  more  quiet 
times,  the  old  pioneer  regards  his  order  with  almost  the  reverence  and 
devotion  due  to  a  parent.  In  later  years  new  organizations  have  sprung 
up,  and  with  wonderful  rapidity  are  gaining  in  membership  and  importance. 

The  Masons 

A  Masonic  lodge  was  established  in  Marysville  several  months  prior 
to  the  formation  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  California,  under  the  following 
circumstances :  Dr.  J.  R.  Crandall  of  Peoria,  111.,  upon  deciding  to  come 
to  California  in  1849,  applied  to  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master  Lavalle 
of  Springfield,  111.,  for  a  dispensation  by  which,  as  Deputy  Grand  Master, 
he  could  work  in  his  journeyings  as  a  traveling  ■  lodge,  wherever  Masons 
enough  could  be  gathered  together ;  he  was  finally  to  locate  a  lodge  at 
some  locality  that,  in  his  judgment,  was  able  to  support  it.  The  dispensa- 
tion was  granted  in  March,  1849,  and  Crandall  proceeded  on  his  journey 
to  the  far  West.  In  the  spring  of  1850,  being  then  in  Marysville,  Crandall 
was  desirous  of  locating  a  lodge  here  under  the  Illinois  dispensation,  and 
issued  a  general  notice  to  all  Master  Masons  who  were  in  town,  stating  his 
intentions.  Pursuant  to  this  notice,  about  thirty  Master  Masons  assembled 
and  organized  a  lodge,  constituting  J.  R.  Crandall  Worshipful  Master; 
A.  O.  Garrett,  Senior  Warden,  and  W.  Moffett,  Junior  Warden. 

Marysville  Lodge,  No.  9,  F.  &  A.  M. 

On  May  1,  a  short  time  after  the  formation  of  the  lodge,  Crandall 
removed  to  Trinity  River,  leaving  the  lodge  in  the  care  of  the  Senior 
Warden.  When  the  Grand  Lodge  of  California  was  organized,  the  lodge 
in  Marysville  reported  its  proceedings  under  the  Illinois  dispensation,  and 
petitioned  for  a  charter,  which  was  granted  them  on  November  27,  1850, 
under  the  title  of  Marysville  Lodge,  No.  9,  F.  &  A.  M.  Subsequently  to  this, 
the  lodge  reported  its  work  under  the  dispensation  to  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  Illinois,  and  transmitted  the  proper  dues.  The  lodge  was  held  for  some 
time  in  a  tent,  near  the  corner  of  Fourth  and  E  Streets. 

Dr.  J.  R.  Crandall,  the  father  of  Masonry  in  Yuba  County,  received  the 
degrees  in  1836  in  Pekin  Lodge,  No.  27,  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  of  Illinois.  In  1842  he 
was  a  charter  member  of  Temple  Lodge,   No.  47,   Peoria,   111.     In    1850  he 


established  Marysville  Lodge,  No.  9;  and  in  1851  he  was  a  member  of  Lafay- 
ette Lodge,  No.  13,  of  Nevada  City,  Cal. 

On  December  13,  1864,  the  following  were  installed  as  officers  of  Marys- 
ville Lodge,  No.  9,  F.  &  A.  M..  E.  T.  Wilkins,  W.  M. ;  George  I.  Bourne, 
S.  W. ;  P.  W.  Winkley,  J.  W, ;  George  A.  Foulk,  treasurer ;  M.  W.  Peyser, 
secretary ;  H.  H.  Rhees,  S.  D. ;  W.  L.  Williams,  J.  D. ;  and  Charles  Raish,  tyler. 

Marysville  Masonic  Hall 

The  Masonic  Hall  Association  of  Marysville  was  organized  on  September 
18,  1863,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $25,000,  divided  into  500  shares  of  $50  each. 
The  affairs  of  the  association  were  managed  by  a  board  of  trustees  elected  by 
the  stockholders.  The  first  board  of  trustees  was  composed  of  the  following: 
H.  H.  Rhees,  T.  W.  McCreadv,  Peter  Decker,  C.  G.  Bockius,  D.  E.  Knight, 
W.  H.  Hartwell,  and  W.  L.  Williams. 

The  contract  for  the  present  Masonic  Building  was  let  October  30,  1863, 
to  W.  C.  Swain,  $21,500  being  the  contract  price;  and  on  December  26,  1864, 
the  trustees  took  possession  of  the  structure.  The  hall  ever  since  has  been 
on  the  third  floor,  and  is  used  by  the  Masonic  societies  as  a  lodge  room.  The 
second  floor  is  now  used  for  offices  and  living  apartments,  and  the  ground  floor 
is  rented  for  stores. 

It  was  on  New  Year's  Day,  1864,  that  the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  took 
place.  The  ceremony  was  of  a  most  imposing  and  interesting  character  and 
drew  a  large  audience  of  interested  parties  outside  of  the  fraternity  member- 
ship. The  program  announced  by  the  committee  as  the  order  of  the  day  was 
executed  to  the  letter,  and  everything  passed  off  smoothly.  The  parade  was 
in  charge  of  Grand  Marshal' E.  Hamilton,  assisted  by  Aids  L.  B.  Ayer  and 
James  Moore.  Marysville  Commandery,  No.  7,  Knights  Templar,  marshaled 
by  Charles  Raish,  formed  the  escort,  followed  by  the  Marysville  Brass  Band. 
The  Blue  Lodge  was  next  in  line,  followed  by  the  Chapter,  and  finally  by 
members  of  the  Grand  Lodge. 

At  the  site,  Charles  G.  Bockius,  president  of  the  Marysville  Masonic  Hall 
Association,  invited  the  Grand  Master,  Judge  William  C.  Belcher,  to  proceed 
with  the  ceremony.  The  Grand  Master  then  delivered  an  address  on  behalf 
of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  following  which  the  stone 
was  laid :  Assistants  in  the  ceremony  were :  Charles  E.  Filkins,  Deputy 
Grand  Master;  Ebenezer  Lane,  Senior  Grand  Warden;  Dr.  S.  J.  S.  Rogers, 
Junior  Grand  Warden ;  E.  Hamilton,  Grand  Marshal ;  and  Ben  E.  I.  Ely, 
orator  of  the  d.ay.  In  the  evening,  beginning  at  9:30  o'clock,  a  grand  ball 
was  held  in  the  Marysville  theater,  which  was  attended  by  the  best  people  in 
the  community.    The  dedication  of  the  building  took  place  December  27,  1864. 

The  DeLong  Collection 

A  relic  of  which  the  Masons  of  Marysville  are  proud  is  an  American  flag 
brought  to  this  country  from  Japan  by  Charles  Egbert  DeLong,  who  in  1869 
was  appointed  minister  to  Japan  by  President  U.  S.  Grant.  The  flag  is  the 
banner  which  was  carried  by  DeLong's  enibassy  during  his  travels  into  the 
interior  of  Japan,  and  is  the  first  foreign  flag  ever  carried  in  that  country. 

-  A  full  coat  of  mail,  used  in  the  wars  of  Japan  over  700  years  before,  is 
also  in  the  collection  which  DeLong  presented  to  the  Marysville  Masonic 
fraternity,  together  with  several  bronze  candlesticks. 

DeLong  was  born  in  Beekmanville,  Dutchess  County,  N.  Y.,  on  August 
13,  1826.  He  served  in  the  California  legislature  in  1857  and  1858,  and  again 
in  1860  and  1862. 

Corinthian  Lodge,  No.  9,  F.  &  A.  M. 

In  addition  to  Marysville  Lodge,  No.  9,  two  other  subordinate  lodges 
were  formed — Yuba  Lodge,  No.  39,  and  Corinthian  Lodge,  No.  69.     All  are 


now  merged  in  Corinthian  Lodge,  which  has  preserved  the  first  number  given 
a  Marysville  lodge — No.  9. 

The  present  officers  of  Corinthian  Lodge,  No.  9,  are :  D.  D.  Johnston, 
W.  M. ;  H.  T.  Hosford.  S.  W. ;  H.  R.  Hastings,  J.  AY. ;  P.  T.  Smith,  treasurer; 
L.  B.  Wilcoxon.  secretary;  E.  J.  McCready,  chaplain;  AY.  F.  Roberts,  S.  D. ; 
Chester  O.  Gates,  J.  D. ;  J.  R.  Murray,  marshal ;  M.  N.  Jacobson.  S.  S. ;  Wil- 
liam Simmons,  J.  S. ;  and  J.  R.  Oates,  tyler. 

The  lodge  recently  proposed  a  new  asylum  on  the  site  of  the  old  one,  but 
the  movement  has  not  as  yet  taken  definite  shape. 

Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows 

The  first  lodge  in  Marysville  to  inculcate  among  her  citizens  the  princi- 
ples of  Odd  Fellowship  was  established  in  the  early  fifties.  A  meeting  of  Odd 
Fellows  was  called  on  Saturday  evening,  January  24,  1852,  at  the  recorder's 
office,  corner  of  Second  and  D  Streets,  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  lodge. 

The  order  grew  apace,  and  the  Odd  Fellows  Hall  Association  was  organ- 
ized on  March  24,  1860,  by  Levi  Hite,  Charles  L.  Thomas,  A.  J.  Mason, 
Charles  Bockius,  William  K.  Hudson,  E.  Hamilton,  J.  AY  Winter,  George 
Blust.  J.  M.  Matthews,  and  George  Merritt.  The  first  board  of  directors 
consisted  of  four  members:  Levi  Hite,  president;  J.  M.  Matthews,  vice- 
president  ;  A.  J.  Mason,  treasurer ;  and  Charles  L.  Thomas,  secretary.  The 
building  at  present  standing  at  Third  and  D  Streets  was  erected  in  1860  at 
an  expense  of  $32,000. 

The  lodge  library  was  inaugurated  on  a  small  scale  about  1858,  by  con- 
tributions of  books  from  members  of  two  lodges,  the  first  donation  being 
made  by  George  Merritt.  In  1864  the  lodge  determined  to  make  it  a  valuable 
library,  and  to  that  end  purchased  500  volumes  of  standard  works  of  history, 
science  and  fiction.    The  books  were  selected  with  great  care. 

In  recent  years  the  Odd  Fellows  Building  has  undergone  various  altera- 
tions, among  the  most  important  of  which  are  an  enlarged  banquet-room  and 
an  addition  on  the  east  side. 

Independent  Order  of  B'nai  B'rith 

Mirriam  Lodge,  No.  56,  Independent  Order  of  B'nai  B'rith,  was  organ- 
ized on  the  5th  of  May,  1864,  with  the  following  charter  members :  S. 
Rosenthal,  M.  Marcuse,  H.  Brown,  A.  Shreyer,  S.  Lev}-,  J.  S.  Borman,  A.  Suss, 
B.  Rosenberg.  L.  Meininger,  Louis  Goldman,  A.  Englander,  G.  Cohn,  H. 
AYagner,  M.  AY.  Peyser,  A.  Joseph,  R.  Katz,  M.  Shreyer,  H.  Shreyer,  S.  Hoch- 
stadter,  and  A.  Hochstadter.  The  highest  number  of  members  at  any  time 
was  sixty-two.  The  lodge  met  at  the  corner  of  Third  and  High  Streets  twice 
every  month. 

Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians 

The  objects  of  this  order  are  fraternity  and  benevolence.  The  order  has 
been  very  strong  in  the  United  States,  and  its  membership  has  been  confined 
largely  to  citizens  of  Hibernian  descent.  The  lodge  in  Marysville  was 
organized  in  May,  1869,  with  the  following  members :  Dan  Donohoe,  Patrick 
Corr,  Miles  Flynn,  Daniel  Farrell,  Thomas  Farrell,  Michael  Fitzgerald,  James 
Clark,  John  AA'alsh,  Thomas  C.  Martin,  Peter  Muldoon,  J.  Coen,  John  Burns,. 
M.  Lavelle,  Owen  Loftus,  Michael  O'Connor,  John  T.  Lydon,  John  Donovan, 
John  McGuire.  and  John  Colford.  The  first  officers  were:  M.  Fitzgerald, 
president;  John-  Colford,  vice-president;  John  AValsh.  corresponding  sec- 
retary ;  Dan  Donohoe,  financial  secretary ;  and  Patrick  Corr,  treasurer. 

The  local  society  at  one  time  had  125  members.  Marysville  no  longer 
maintains  a  branch  of  this  order. 


Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks 

Marysville  Lodge,  No.  783,  B.  -P.  O.  E.,  is  another  fraternal  organization 
of  Marysville  owning  its  own  home.  The  lodge  was  instituted  on  June  21, 
1902,  with  a  charter  roll  of  thirty-six  members,  and  for  nine  years  held  its 
meetings  in  Jeffersonian  Hall,  corner  High  and  Third  Streets,  on  the  third 
floor  of  the  J.  R.  Garrett  Company  building. 

The  organization  ceremonies  were  conducted  by  Grass  Valley  Lodge, 
No.  583,  and  Nevada  City  Lodge,  No.  518,  a  few  residents  of  Marysville  then 
being  members  of  these  lodges.  The  first  officers  were :  Exalted  Ruler. 
Dr.  J.  H.  Barr ;  Esteemed  Leading  Knight,  R.  E.  Whitney ;  Esteemed  Loyal 
Knight,  Robert  F.  Watson ;  Lecturing  Knight,  M.  T.  Brittan ;  secretary, 
W.  M.  Strief;  treasurer,  Dr.  J.  L.  Sullivan;  tyler,  Herman  E.  Berg;  Esquire, 
J.  H.  Marcuse;  Inner  Guard,  Espie  A.  AVhite ;  chaplain,  Wallace  Dinsmore ; 
organist,  D.  L.  Sharp ;  trustees,  Chris  C.  Rubel ;  A.  C.  Irwin,  and  G.  W. 
Harney.  The  jurisdiction  of  this  lodge  covers  Colusa,  Arbuckle,  Williams, 
Hammonton,  Lincoln,  Gricllev,  and  part  of  Biggs.  Its  membership  now 
(1923)  numbers  650. 

The  Elks'  Home 

It  was  on  Saturday  evening,  March  4,  1911,  that  the  Elks'  Home  of 
Marysville  was  dedicated.  In  the  neighborhood  of  1000  visitors  flocked  to 
the  city  to  attend  the  ceremonies,  which  were  conducted  by  Dr.  J.  S.  J.  Conlin 
of  San  Francisco  Lodge,  assisted  by  the  officers  of  Chico  Lodge. 

Four  years  before,  the  home  was  conceived  by  the  lodge.  The  first 
step  taken  toward  its  realization  was  the  purchase  of  the  lot,  40  by  160  feet, 
from  Frank  Atkins,  for  $10,000.  In  a  little  over  a  year  the  lodge  had  paid 
the  debt;  and  at  a  meeting  held  March  26,  1910,  in  less  than  an  hour  the 
money  was  subscribed  by  the  members  to  insure  the  building.  The  Marys- 
ville Elks'  Home,  a  corporation,  was  formed,  with  the  following  directors : 
J.  K.  Kelly,  W.  T.  Ellis,  Jr.,  Richard  Belcher,  G.  AY.  Hall,  C.  C.  Hampton, 
M.  N.  Sheldon,  Herman  E.  Berg,  R.  E.  Bevan,  Thomas  F.  Giblin,  Henry 
Berg,  Charles  Mathews,  Frank  Atkins,  George  E.  Wapple,  A.  W.  Lewis, 
Matt  Arnoldy,  and  Floyd  Seawell.  Richard  Belcher  was  made  president  of 
the  board,  and  W.  E.  Langdon  was  made  secretary. 

The  plans  submitted  by  Parker  &  Kenyon  were  adopted,  and  the  con- 
tract was  awarded  to  C.  F.  Palm,  a  Marysville  contractor  of  those  days. 
The  building  has  practically  four  stories,  with  a  roof  garden.  The  lower 
floor  is  leased  for  stores,  and  the  remainder  of  the  building  is  retained  for 
the  exclusive  use  of  the  Elks.  The  second  floor  is  fitted  up  in  an  elaborate 
manner,  containing  a  lounging  room,  a  reading  room,  a  lodge  room  and  a 
banquet  room.  The  third  floor  is  devoted  entirely  to  club  features,  there 
being  a  splendidly  equipped  billiard  room  and  cafe,  with  a  dainty  grill  room, 
all  furnished  with  the  same  degree  of  elegance  displayed  in  the  rooms  of  the 
second  floor.  The  roof  garden  is  very  popular  with  the  members  during  the 
summer  months.  Each  floor  is  served  with  an  electric  elevator,  while  the 
entire  building  is  heated  by  steam.  A  modern  kitchen,  with  all  the  necessary 
equipment,  is  installed  for  use  of  the  grill  room  and  banquet  quarters.  On 
Saturday  evening,  February  28,  1911,  the  building' was  formally  turned  over 
to  the  lodge  by  the  contractor. 

Foresters  of  America 
On  AVednesday,  May  7,  1913,  during  a  session  of  the  Grand  Court  of 
California,  Court  Pride  of  Yuba,  No.  34,  Foresters  of  America,  became  the 
fourth  lodge  organization  in  Marysville  to  own  its  own  building,  which 
stands  on  E  Street,  east  side,  between  Third  and  Fourth  Streets,  adjacent 
to  the  rear  of  the  Masonic  Asylum.    Theretofore  the  lodge  held  its  meetings 


in  the  hall  in  the  Empire  Block,  corner  Second  and  Oak  Streets.     Like  the 
E-lks,  the  Foresters  formed  a  corporation  for  hall  purposes. 

The  corner-stone  of  this  building  was  laid  by  the  grand  officers  of 
California,  following  a  parade  and  the  planting  of  a  tree  in  Napoleon  Square, 
a  public  park  of  the  city.  That  night  there  was  a  grand  ball  in  Armory 
Hall,  a  block  away.  Armory  Hall,  which  has  since  been  razed,  stood  on  the 
lots  now  used  by  the  Sacramento  Northern  Railroad  for  a  freight  yard. 

Knights  of  Columbus 

Marysville  Council,  No.  1869,  Knights  of  Columbus,  was  organized  on 
Sunday,  April  22,  1917.  Owing  to  the  death,  a  week  previously,  of  Rev. 
Matthew  Coleman,  the  pastor  of  St.  Joseph's  Church,  who  had  been  active  in 
bringing  about  the  organization  of  the  Council,  there  was  no  outward  show, 
though  many  members  of  the  order  from  a  distance  were  visitors. 

The  first  officers  of  the  Council  were :  Grand  Knight,  Matt  Arnoldy ; 
Deputy  Grand  Knight,  James  Kenney;  Chancellor,  Leo  A.  Smith;  recorder, 
Louis  F.  Albrecht ;  financial  secretary,  Gus  T.  Arnoldy ;  treasurer,  Raymond 
J.  Flannery ;  AVarden,  Leo  Willett ;  Inside  Guard,  Hugh  Grant;  Outside 
Guard,  James  Barrett ;  trustees,  Frank  M.  Booth,  J.  A.  Queenan,  and  Thomas 
Mathews ;  chaplain,  Rev.  William  Coen. 

In  the  first  year  the  Council  had  three  class  initiations.  Each  year  since, 
there  has  been  an  average  of  one  class  initiation.  The  membership  now 
exceeds  200.  notwithstanding  the  organization  of  a  Council  at  Colusa 
reduced  the  roll  by  forty.     The  present  Grand  Knight  is  Dr.  R.  F.  Gilbride. 

Other  Fraternal  Orders 

The  German  residents  of  Marysville  supported  for  many  years  a  Turn- 
verein  Society  and  the  Liederkranz.  The  Turnverein  owned  their  own  hall, 
which  was  situated  on  the  lots  now  occupied  by  the  Foresters'  Hall. 

Other  fraternal  orders  which  have  branches  in  Marysville  at  the  present 
time  are:  The  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West,  the  Native  Daughters  of 
the  Golden  West,  Companions  of  the  Forest,  Red  Men,  Maccabees,  Moose, 
Independent  Order  of  Foresters,  Woodmen  of  the  World,  Rebekahs,  Eastern 
Star,  Catholic  Women  of  America,  and  Sciots. 

Marysville  Pioneer  Society 

Marysville's  Society  of  Pioneers  was  established  in  1869.  Thirty-three 
old  residents  assembled  at  the  City  Hall  on  February  20,  1869,  and  organized 
a  society  by  adopting  a  constitution  and  by-laws,  and  electing  the  following 
officers :  G.  N.  Swezy,  president ;  James  T.  Dickey  and  James  G.  Dowell, 
vice-presidents;  J.  B.  Leaman,  recording  secretary;  William  G.  Murphy, 
corresponding  secretary ;  William  H.  Hartwell,  treasurer ;  Dr.  S.  M.  Miles, 
Dr.  Eli  Teegarden,  James  Williamson,  J.  C.  Smith,  John  Keller,  A.  W.  Cutts, 
and  J.  A.  Murray,  directors.  The  society  was  composed  of  native  Califor- 
nians,  foreigners  and  citizens  of  the  United  States  resident  in  California 
prior  to  the  9th  of  September,  1850.  and  their  male  descendants  eighteen 
years  of  age  or  over,  who  were  entitled  to  all  the  privileges  and  benefits  of 
the  society.  The  society  was  called  the  Marysville  Pioneer  Society;  and  its 
objects  were  to  cultivate  the  social  virtues  of  its  members,  to  collect  and 
preserve  information  connected  with  the  early  settlement  of  the  country, 
and  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  those  early  pioneers  whose  sagacity,  enter- 
prise and  love  of  independence  induced  them  to  settle  in  the  wilderness  and 
become  the  germ  of  a  new  State. 

Preserved  in  the  archives  of  the  Packard  Free  Library  are  the  photo- 
graphs of  many  of  these  brave  Argonauts  who  builded  up   Marysville  and 


the  surrounding'  country.  The  writer  recognizes  in  the  collection  the  faces 
of  the  men  who  trod  Marysville's  streets  when  he  was  a  boy,  and  made  it 
the  busy  mart  it  then  was.  Here  are  the  names :  A.  W.  Oakley,  A.  W. 
Cutts,  James  T.  Dickey,  Henry  F.  Hyde,  Francis  Hamlin,  Thomas  Dean, 
loseph  Lask,  Tartan  Smith,  G.  W.  Nickleson,  J.  E.  Brown,  ].  V.  McMurtry, 
E.  C.  Ross,  W.  A.  McLaughlin,  Jackson  Arndt,  Dr.  C.  C.  Harrington,  W.  H. 
Perdue,  Phil  W.  Keyser,  William  T.  Blivens.  C.  Cockrill,  G.  P.  Russell, 
E.  Hamilton,  A.  J.  Lucas,  Dr.  S.  T-  S.  Rogers,  Joseph  H.  Kern,  C.  T-  Covil- 
laud,  A.  G.  Turner,  William  M.  Bell.  T.  C.  Chase,  Herndon  Barrett,  A.  S. 
Noyes,  Henrv  Heitman.  Lvman  Ackley,  O.  P.  Stidger,  J.  D.  Dow,  A.  P. 
Willey,  L.  T.  Crane,  C.  G.' Clark,  AY.  K.  McClintock,  H.  R.  D.  Townsend, 
Edward  Hooper,  Dr.  C.  E.  Stone,  C.  Darmstadt,  W.  G.  Murphy,  L.  B.  Lea- 
man,  J.  C.  Smith,  A.  J.  Batchelder,  E.  H.  Thurston,  Stephen  Eaton,  G  N. 
Swezy,  John  Keller,  J.  G.  Briggs,  Charles  Covillaud,  Sr.,  E.  W.  Mull,  A.  J. 
Cumberson,  Benjamin  Bigelow,  L.  H.  Babb,  Eli  Teegarden,  George  Merritt, 
L.  R.  Sellon,  S.  S.  Brewster,  J.  W.  Moore,  AY.  H.  Hartwell,  William  Rack- 
erby,  D.  P.  Newbert,  J.  C.  Cornell,  T-  AY.  Hunter,  C.  P.  Hunt,  AY  K.  Hudson, 
Dr.  S.  M.  Miles,  and  G.  Katzenstein. 

The  society  at  one  time  had  a  membership  of  135.  Today  it  is  no 
longer  in  existence,  all  the  members  having  either  passed  on  or  removed 
from  this  community. 

Marysville  Art  Club 

The  Marysville  Art  Club,  a  section  of  the  Bi-County  Federation  of 
AVomen's  Clubs,  is  now  past  ten  years  of  age.  Mrs.  Charles  McConnaughy, 
the  first  president  of  the  organization,  once  wrote  of  the  society  as  follows : 

"It  causes  a  smile  when  one  thinks  of  the  first  meeting  of  the  Marys- 
ville Art  Club  and  its  mushroom  growth,  a  quick  development  from  a  group 
of  women  studying  art,  into  a  federated  club  with  its  various  sections. 

'YVhy  did  we  organize?  Marysville  was  ready  for  just  such  a  club,  but 
it  needed  the  report  of  the  guns  before  it  mobilized.  The  report  came  when 
a  group  of  pictures  by  Rosa  Bonheur  was  being  exhibited  through  the  State. 
If  Marysville  had  such  an  organized  club,  it  would  be  an  easy  matter  to 
bring  the  exhibit,  as  well  as  others,  to  our  town.  AAre  were  most  fortunate 
in  not  having  to  search  for  a  leader.  We  had  with  us  a  most  efficient,  experi- 
enced and  willing  one.    All  we  had  to  do  was  to  get  together.    AVe  did  so. 

"A  committee  called  a  public  meeting  of  all  those  interested  in  the  study 
of  art,  to  be  held  in  the  Packard  Library,  January  4,  1913.  AAre  expected  at 
the  most  about  a  dozen  who  would  be  interested  in  this  work ;  but  to  our 
delight  thirty  members  were  enrolled,  and  within  three  months  our  mem- 
bership increased  to  135.  This  immediately  changed  the  nature  of  the  anti- 
cipated study  club  into  the  formal  club  that  it  now  is. 

"We  were  too  late  to  have  the  Rosa  Bonheur  exhibit ;  but  we  did  get 
something  infinitely  greater  and  better — a  most  enthusiastic,  ambitious  and 
growing  club." 

The  Art  Club  brings  to  Marysville  some  of  the  best  talent  attainable  in 
the  dramatic  line,  as  also  speakers  of  note  and  musicians  of  wide  repute. 

The  Shakespeare  Club 

The  oldest  literary  organization  in  Yuba  County  is  now  the  Shakespeare 
Club  of  Marysville.  This  honor  at  one  time  belonged  to  the  Jeffersonian 
Lyceum,  which  disbanded  several  years  ago.  The  club  is  now  nearing  its 
thirtieth  anniversary. 

The  forming  of  the  Shakespeare  Club  originated  with  Mrs.  Martin 
Sullivan,  who  now  has  a  country  home  near  Yuba  City,  Sutter  County. 
During  the  first  year  of  its  existence,  the  club  was  under  the  direction  of 


Prof.  Herbert  Miller,  then  principal  of  the  Marysville  High  School.  Under 
his  direction  a  foundation  was  laid  and  further  work  was  carefully  planned. 
At  first  the  club  accepted  the  hospitality  of  each  member  in  turn,  as 
many  of  the  local  clubs  continue  to  do :  but  later  Mrs.  David  Powell  graci- 
ously invited  the  membership  to  meet  with  her.  Thereafter,  until  Mrs. 
Powell  discontinued  her  residence  in  Marysville,  her  heart  and  home  were 
open  to  the  members  for  the  regular  Tuesday  evening  meetings.  Friendship 
and  loyalty  are  the  only  dues  in  this  organization.  The  club  is  made  up  of 
congenial  friends  whose  literary  talents  are  devoted  to  the  earnest  study  of 
the  plays  and  poems  of  the  peerless  Bard  of  Avon,  from  whom  the  club 
takes  its  name. 



At  the  present  time  Yuba  County  has  nothing  in  the  way  of  militia  organ- 
izations save  those  maintained  by  the  ex-service  men  of  the  AA'orld  War.  In 
the  early  part  of  the  year  1923.  there  was  a  movement  instituted  by  Capt. 
Seth  Millington.  Jr.,  captain  of  the  National  Guard  company  in  Colusa,  and 
head  of  the  American  Legion  in  California,  to  establish  a  company  of  the 
National  Guard  in  Marysville.  There  were  high  prospects  for  the  creation  of 
the  command,  when  word  came  one  day  that  the  matter  must  be  indefinitely 
deferred  because  of  a  lack  of  State  funds  caused  by  a  policy  of  retrenchment 
adopted  by  Gov.  Friend  W.  Richardson,  who  was  endeavoring  to  make  good 
on  his  campaign  promises  to  reduce  the  cost  of  State  government.  In  the 
spring  of  1924  a  commission  was  given  for  the  formation  of  a  National  Guird 
company  in  Yuba  City. 

From  their  earliest  days,  however,  Marysville  and  Yuba  County  have 
possessed  the  military  spirit.  For  twenty  years  prior  to  1880,  there  were 
only  two  brief  intervals  during  which  there  was  not  a  martial  organization 
of  some  kind.  During  the  Civil  War.  two  large  and  well-drilled  companies 
were  maintained  in  the  city.  These  not  only  were  of  value  at  home  as  a 
safeguard  against  disorder,  but  also  furnished  from  their  ranks  a  great  many 
disciplined  soldiers  to  fight  for  the  old  flag  in  the  field.  A  pioneer  recalls  that 
during  the  Civil  AA'ar  the  mountains  of  Yuba  County  provided  a  military 
company.  It  was  at  the  Oregon  House  that  this  command  always  rallied. 
They  were  called  the  Yuba  Mountaineers.  Browns  Valley,  Camptonville 
and  Bullard"s  Bar  also  had  military  organizations  about  this  time.  These 
were  known  as  the  Hooker  Guards,  the  Bullard's  Guards,  and  the  Yuba  Light 
Infantry.  These  four  companies  are  more  fully  described  in  the  following 
chapter,  in  connection  with  the  discussion  of  the  towns  named. 

In  1851.  Brig.-Gen.  S.  M.  Miles  was  in  command  of  the  1st  Brigade,  1st 
Division,  California  Militia,  with  his  headquarters  at  Marysville  ;  C.  S.  Kasson 
was  his  assistant  adjutant-general.  On  September  9,  1851.  by  General  Order 
Nil  2.  Samuel  B.  Mulford  was  appointed  judge  advocate  on  the  staff  of  the 
brigadier-general,  with  rank  of  major  of  infantry.  E.  AY.  Roberts  was,  by  the 
same  order,  appointed  assistant  surgeon,  with  the  rank  of  captain  of  infantry. 

Below  is  given  a  brief  account  of  the  various  military  organizations  that 
have  existed  in  the  county. 


The  Yuba  Guards 

This  company  was  organized  on  June  9,  1855,  with  a  membership  of  sixty- 
five  young  men,  the  elite  of  the  city  of  Marysville.  The  officers  were:  M.  D. 
Dobbins,  captain;  John  F.  Snow,  first  lieutenant;  F.  W.  Taylor  and  W.  H. 
Wickersham,  second  lieutenants ;  J.  H.  Cowan,  brevet  lieutenant ;  W.  C. 
Burnett,  first  sergeant;  Thomas  Seaward,  second  sergeant;  F.  W.  Shelden, 
third  sergeant;  D.  B.  Wolf,  fourth  sergeant;  D.  J.  AVilkins,  fifth  sergeant; 
William  B.  Fatham,  Jr.,  secretary;  and  J.  W.  Moore,  treasurer. 

During  its  existence  of  several  years,  this  company  received  $520  appro- 
priation from  the  board  of  supervisors  for  armory  rent,  etc. 

Marysville  Rifles 
This  company  was  organized  with  about  forty  men,  on  October  31,  1859, 
and  continued  in  a  flourishing  condition  until  the  close  of  the  Civil  War. 
The  company  at  times  numbered  as  high  as  eighty  men,  but  was  constantly 
being  reduced  by  members  going  to  the  front.  The  first  officers  were:  M.  D. 
Dobbins,  captain ;  Theodore  D.  Coult,  first  lieutenant ;  and  Emil  Sutter, 
second  lieutenant.  The  captains  who  succeeded  Dobbins  were  Hiram  W. 
Theal,  Henry  DeMott,  and  B.  Eilerman. 

Marysville  Union  Guards 

This  was  another  prosperous  company,  organized  on  August  15,  1861. 
The  strength  of  the  command  was  about  sixty  men,  but  this  quota  was  hard 
to  maintain  on  account  of  the  great  number  who  enlisted  and  went  to  the 
front.  The  first  officers  were :  F.  Hubbard,  captain  ;  A.  Woods,  first  lieu- 
tenant; Henry  Parsons,  second  lieutenant;  F.  B.  Ayer,  first  sergeant;  and 
John  Bacon,  second  sergeant.  The  captains  who  succeeded  F.  Hubbard  were 
C.  G.  Hubbard,  W.  P.  Winkley,  and  Charles  Bacon. 

The  company  was  mustered  out  on  January  16,  1867.  In  1863  it  had 
been  organized  as  an  artillery  company. 

Marysville  Zouaves 
This  was  a  French  Zouave  company,  organized  in  1863.     It  had  a  strength 
of  fifty  or  sixty  men,  and  was  commanded  by  Dr.  Fasvigne.     It  was  in  exist- 
ence about  one  year. 

Marysville  Light  Artillery 
When  the  Union  Guards  disbanded,  some  of  the  members  went  to  work 
on  the  formation  of  a  new  company.  This  resulted  in  the  organization  of  an 
artillery  company  on  August  4,  1867.  The  company  had  a  strength  of  116 
men,  and  had  two  six-pound  and  two  twelve-pound  guns.  The  officers 
were:  A.  W.  Torrey,  captain;  Jim  B.  Leman,  first  lieutenant;  George  Ayers, 
second  lieutenant;  M.  Dixhammer,  third  lieutenant.  No  change  was  made 
in  its  officers  during  the  two  years  it  was  in  existence.  The  company  was 
mustered  out  in  December,  1869. 

Sherman  Guards 
Then  followed  the  Sherman  Guards,  Company  H,  4th  Regiment,  4th 
Brigade,  N.  G.  C,  organized  January  23,  1872.  The  first  officers  were :  J. 
M.  Newhard,  captain ;  J.  A.  Hall,  first  lieutenant ;  T.  C.  Morris,  second  lieu- 
tenant;  J.  M.  Taylor,  first  sergeant;  E.  W.  Sawtelle,  second  sergeant;  H.  F. 
Beckman,  third  sergeant,  and  R.  Sweeney,  fourth  sergeant.  The  company 
had  a  strength  of  about  sixty  men.  The  same  captain  was  retained  until 
they  disbanded,  on  February  20,  1875. 

Marysville  Guards 
Between  that  time  and  the  late  eighties,  military  fervor  was  at  low  ebb 
in   Marysville,    the   only   martial   organizations   being   those   formed    among 


young  men  of  school  age,  who  had  a  Zouave  company,  and  later  a  command 
they  called  the  Marysville  Guards.  At  the  head  of  the  latter  was  Godfrey 
L.  Carden,  son  of  the  pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  Church.  Carden  is  now 
holding  a  high  position  in  the  ordnance  department  of  the  United  States 
Navy,  and  is  one  of  Uncle  Sam's  ordnance  experts.  He  has  written  a  work 
bearing  on  matters  connected  with  his  department. 

The  writer  of  this  history,  who  was  a  member  of  Captain  Carden's  com- 
pany in  Marysville.  recalls  the  manner  in  which  the  whole  command  was 
routed  one  evening  while  a  mutiny  was  on.  The  first  sergeant  of  the  com- 
pany conceived  the  idea  that  he  wanted  the  captaincy,  which  Captain  Carden 
was  loath  to  give  up.  A  meeting  was  called  to  settle  definitely  which  of  the 
two  the  majority  preferred.  The  first  sergeant  had  done  some  preliminary  elec- 
tioneering and  thought  he  had  the  place  cinched.  When  the  company  "fell  in" 
and  was  regularly  turned  over.  Captain  Carden  explained  that  he  wished  all 
who  desired  to  retain  him  to  step  one  pace  forward.  About  one-half  of  those 
present  obeyed.  Then  came  a  dispute  as  to  who  was  the  winner.  From 
words,  the  two  contingents  went  to  blows.  AY.  T.  Ellis,  Sr.,  from  whom  the 
•armor}"  at  the  southeast  corner  of  D  and  First  Streets  was  rented  at  a  pit- 
tance by  the  soldier  lads,  was  told  of  the  ruction.  He  was  then  quite  active ; 
and  before  the  bus)"  combatants  were  aware  of  the  sturdy  pioneer's  presence, 
he  was  at  the  top  of  the  stairway,  shouting  out  his  amazement  at  the  actions 
of  his  youthful  tenants.  At  sight  of  him,  there  was  a  general  scampering 
for  the  stairway.  Ellis,  for  the  nonce,  was  brigadier-general,  major,  captain, 
everything.  In  their  rush  to  leave  the  building,  the  young  men  nearly  car- 
ried their  landlord  with  them.  They  went  down  the  stairs  quite  without 
ceremony.     It  was  the  beginning  of  the  end  for  that  particular  command. 

Company  C,  Champions  of  the  World 

It  is  not  generally  known  that  the  militia  of  the  city  of  Marysville  hold 
the  enviable  title  of  Champions  of  the  World  for  rifle  shooting,  at  200  yards, 
off-hand,  fifty  men  competing  on  a  side.  This  honor  was  won  by  the  mem- 
bers of  Company  C,  8th  Infantry  Regiment,  National  Guard  of  the  State  of 
California,  on  May  19,  1895,  and  has  never  been  equaled.  The  Marysville 
militiamen  won  over  the  members  of  Company  B  of  the  National  Guard  of 
San  Francisco,  on  that  date,  by  seventy-five  points,  the  score  being:  Marys- 
ville, 1982;  San  Francisco,  1907.  This  was  thirty-one  points  better  than  any 
showing  made  before  or  since  in  a  National  Guard  match  between  100  men. 

The  following  took  part  in  the  contest  in  behalf  of  this  city :  Captain, 
E.  A.  Forbes ;  lieutenant,  George  H.  Yoss ;  sergeants,  Phil  J.  Divver,  Henry 
Schuler,  David  Canning  and  Peter  J.  Delay ;  corporals,  Chris  Mayer,  Chris 
Hovis,  Matt  Nelson,  Joseph  Arnoldy,  John  Giblin,  and  Warnick  Waldron ; 
musicians,  Oscar  F.  Stoodley  and  Jesse  Boulton ;  privates,  William  O'Brien, 
W.  F.  Lewis,  Tom  E.  Bevan.  Peter  J.  Arnoldy,  George  Devoe,  Mark  Eckart, 
John  Selinger,  Henry  Scheussler,  Herbert  AY.  Wills,  Richard  H.  Klempp. 
George  Ohleyer.  Cornelius  Slattery,  AA'ill  S.  Rogers,  Dr.  A.  H.  Suggett,  Al  P. 
Lipp,  Byron  Divver.  Carl  Neubold.  M.  Gomes,  Henry  Burner.  AVilliam  A. 
Sutfin,  Wyllie  Steward,  George  Burnight,  Arthur  Brannan,  J.  AY.  Hutchins, 
George  Yale.  AY.  W.  Shaffer,  Thomas  Giblin,  George  McCov.  Steve  How- 
ser,  Fred  H.  Greely.  C.  H.  AYoolery.  Thomas  C.  Johnson,  Dr.  J.  H.  Barr,  J.  L. 
Howard,  John  S.  Hutchins,  and  Thomas  Bennett. 

Perusal  of  the  old  records  of  the  now  extinct  Company  C  shows  that  no 
less  than  fifteen  of  the  marksmen  who  took  part  in  this  memorable  and 
exciting  match  have  answered  "taps."  These  include  Capt.  E.  A.  Forbes; 
Lieut.  George  H.  A'oss,  who  afterward  became  sheriff  of  Yuba  County ;  and 
Sergeant  Phil  J.  Divver,  who  later  became  supervisor  and  county  clerk. 



All  arrangements  for  the  match  were  made  by  Captain  Forbes  of  the 
locals  and  Captain  Cook  of  San  Francisco.  Representatives  from  the  fol- 
lowing National  Guard  contingents  of  this  section  of  the  State  witnessed  the 
contest :  Company  A  of  Chico,  Company  B  of  Colusa,  Company  F  of  Oro- 
ville,  and  Company  G  of  Willows.  The  city  presented  a  gay  appearance  that 
night,  as  the  visitors  drowned  their  defeat  in  wheelbarrow  races,  foot  races, 
and  other  improvised  athletic  contests. 

By  the  year  1898,  when  volunteers  were  called  for  the  Spanish-American 
War,  Company  C  had  become  known  as  Company  D.  As  such  it  proved  the 
machine  through  which  a  volunteer  company  of  105  men,  including  the  offi- 
cers, entered  that  war.  The  brave  lads  did  not  see  service,  however,  the  war 
being  too  short-lived.  They  were  first  ordered  into  training  at  Camp  Bar- 
rett, at  Fruitvale,  Alameda  County,  under  Capt.  George  H.  Voss,  where  they 
remained  three  weeks  before  being  mustered  into  the  regulars.  A  few  weeks 
later  a  portion  of  the  company  was  sent  into  barracks  at  Mare  Island,  the 
other  detachment  going  to  Vancouver,  B.  C. 

World's  Championship  Record 
200  Yards.     Fifty  men  to  side.     May  19,  1895.     Marysville,  California 

Company  B.   1st  Infantry  Regiment.   San   Francisco,   Captain   Cook's  "City 

Guards":     1907  points;  average  per  man,  38.14. 
Company  C,  8th  Infantry  Regiment,  Marysville,  "Hayseed  Eighth" :      1982 

points ;  average  per  man,  39.64. 

Key  to  Plate 

First  Row  (Read  down) 

Private  George  Yale. 

Private  Carl  Neubold. 

Private  Thomas  P.  Bennett. 

Private  A.  P.  Lipp. 

Private  M.  A.  Eckart. 

Sergeant  Peter  J.  Delay. 

Private  Henry  Burner. 
Second  Row  (Read  down) 

Private  H.  Scheussler. 

Private  George  Ohleyer,  Jr. 

Private  John  Selinger. 

Private  M.  F.  Gomes. 

Corporal  Joseph  P.  Arnold}-. 

Musician  O.  F.  Stoodley. 
Third  Row  (Read  down) 

Private  W.  A.  Sutfin.  ' 

Private  Con  Slattery. 

Private  Byron  B.  Divver. 

Private  W.  L.  Steward. 

Private  Tom  E.  Bevan. 

Private  W.  F.  Lewis. 
Fourth  Row  (Read  down) 

Sergeant  Phil  J.  Divver. 

Corporal  W.  C.  Waldron. 

Musician  J.  W.  Boulton. 

Second  Lieutenant  George  H.  A^oss. 

Private  George   Burnight. 

Private  Fred  H.  Greely. 

Fifth  Row  (Read  down) 

Corporal  Chris  Mayer. 

Private  W.  S.  Rogers. 

Private  William  O'Brien. 

Captain  E.  A.  Forbes. 

Private  Richard  Klempp. 

Private  A.  H.  Brannan. 
Sixth  Row  (Read  down) 

Private  A.  H.  Suggett. 

Private  P.  J.  Arnoldy. 

Private  J.  H.  Barr. 

Private  C.  H.  Woolery. 

Private  Thomas  F.  Giblin. 

Private  Steve  Howser.  ■ 
Seventh  Row  (Read  down) 

Private  J.  W.  Hutchins. 

Private  W.  W.  Shaffer. 

Private  George  W.  McCoy. 

Private  J.  S.  Hutchins. 

Private  H.  W.  Wills. 

Private  J.  L.  Howard. 
Eighth  Row  (Read  down) 

Sergeant  D.  Canning. 

Corporal  Matt  Nelson. 

Sergeant  H.  C.  Schuler. 

Private  George  A.  Devoe. 

Corporal  John  W.  Giblin. 

Private  T.  C.  Johnson. 

Corporal  C.  C.  Hovis. 

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Yuba-Sutter  Post,  American  Legion 

On  the  evening  of  August  2,  1919,  fifteen  veterans  of  the  World  War 
met  in  the  Yuba  County  Courthouse  in  Marysville  to  consider  the  organiza- 
tion of  a  post  of  the  American  Legion.  It  being  the  unanimous  wish  of 
those  present  that  a  charter  be  applied  for,  the  following  signed  the  petition  : 
Garth  H.  Ottney,  Allen  B.  Cunningham,  Howard  H.  Harter,  Walter  M. 
Langdon,  Abel  McCabe,  Lawrence  H.  Sargent,  Otto  J.  Bassman,  Omar  H. 
Martin,  Raymond  H.  Corona,  Homer  B.  Meek,  Theodore  F.  Engstrom,  A.  M. 
Bundy,  Waldo  S.  Johnson,  A.  H.  Harrison,  and  H.  W.  L.  Niemeyer. 

At  the  next  meeting,  held  on  September  19,  1919,  it  was  announced  by 
the  temporary  chairman  that  the  charter  had  been  granted  by  the  National 
Committee  of  the  American  Legion,  and  that  the  name  conferred  upon  the 
new  post  was  "Yuba-Sutter  Post,  No.  42,  American  Legion." 

Following  the  adoption  of  a  constitution  along  lines  suggested  from 
national  headquarters,  the  election  of  officers  took  place,  resulting  as  follows : 
Commander,  Donnell  Greely ;  vice-commander,  A.  H.  Harrison;  adjutant, 
Henry  Niebling;  treasurer,  Garth  Ottney;  executive  committee,  H.  W.  L. 
Niemeyer,  O.  C.  Harter,  J.  E.  Holbrook,  E.  L.  McCune,  and  John  H.  Sprad- 
ling ;  sergeant-at-arms,  Edward  Wilson. 

The  post  soon  began  to  make  its  influence  felt  in  the  community.  An 
active  interest  was  taken  in  the  claims  of  service  men,  and  many  claims  were 
brought  to  a  successful  termination  through  the  work  of  the  post. 

The  first  real  thrill  came  when  word  was  received  by  the  post,  one  day. 
that  a  certain  salesman  connected  with  a  carpet-bagging  concern  that  had 
opened  a  store  on  D  Street  for  the  purpose  of  selling  left-over  government 
goods  from  the  war,  had  insulted  a  Red  Cross  girl  who  visited  the  place.  A 
squad  was  not  long  in  forming.  Working  with  military  precision,  they  soon 
had  the  stock  of  goods  on  the  sidewalk  and  the  manager  and  clerks  under 
orders  to  shake  the  dust  of,  Marysville  from  their  feet,  and  take  their  stock 
with  them.     They  went,  without  a  protest. 

Later,  the  attention  of  the  post  was'  called  to  certain  billboard  matter  in 
which  the  face  of  the  Kaiser  was  conspicuously  shown  as  an  appeal  from  a 
certain  San  Francisco  newspaper  to  have  the  public  read  a  story  which  the 
war  lord  was  about  to  contribute  to  it  for  publication.  Again  the  boys 
worked  in  keeping  with  their  military  training — this  time  by  night.  When 
the  residents  of  the  city  awoke  next  morning,  they  found  the  Kaiser's  physi- 
ognomy peeking  through  lines  that  represented  prison  bars.  Above  or  below 
the  Kaiser's  head  were  inscriptions  deriding  him  for  his  war  record  and  his 
treatment  of  innocent  women  and  children.  The  posters  were  never  restored, 
nor  were  any  similar  ones  substituted. 

The  post  annually  observes  Armistice  Day  with  a  big  celebration.  At 
the  death  of  a  comrade,  military  honors  are  shown  and  the  grave  of  the 
deceased  properly  marked. 

Bishop-Langenbach  Post,  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars 

Bishop-Langenbach  Post,  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars  of  the  United 
States,  was  organized  in  Marysville  on  June  2,  1922,  at  a  meeting  held  in  the 
City  Hall.  This  meeting  was  arranged  by  Tom  Harney,  an  ex-service  man 
en  route  north,  who  had  mustered  the  members  in  a  tent  placed  by  him  at 
Third  and  D  Streets.  The  post  adopted  its  name  in  honor  of  two  Yuba 
County  young  men  who  made  the  "supreme  sacrifice"  in  the  World  War  of 
1914-1918.   They  were  Private  Lester  Bishop  and  Lieut.  Paul  J.  Langenbach. 

Private  Lester  Bishop,  Company  L,  30th  Infantry,  American  Expedition- 
ary Forces,  was  wounded  August  10,  1918,  at  Chateau  Thierry;  he  died  on 


October  17,  1918,  at  base  hospital  No:  34  at  Nantes,  France,  and  was  buried 
at  Marysville  on  October  3,  1919,  with  high  military  honors. 

Lieut.  Paul  J.  Langenbach  enlisted  as  a  private  with  the  160th  Infantry, 
California  National  Guard.  He  left  for  "over  there"  in  June,  1918.  When 
he  arrived  in  France,  he  was  transferred  to  Company  I,  102nd  Infantry,  26th 
Yankee  Division.  He  was  killed  in  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive,  October 
27 ,  1918.  His  remains  were  later  brought  to  this  country  and  laid  to  their 
final  rest  in  Marysville,  where  his  father  and  other  members  of  his  family 
had  their  place  of  residence. 

Other  after-war  organizations  of  the  county  are  the  Women's  Auxiliary 
to  the  American  Legion,  and  "40  and  8." 



Agriculture  and  mining,  which  always  have  been  dependable  resources 
of  Yuba  County,  are  accountable  for  the  advent  of  many  sister  settlements 
since  the  birth  of  Marysville.  For  the  most  part  these  places  have  looked 
to  Marysville  as  the  marketing  place,  as  all,  save  Wheatland,  are  distant 
from  the  line  of  the  railroad.  Wheatland  ranks  next  in  importance  to 
Marysville.  Smartsville,  Browns  Valley,  Dobbins,  Indiana  Ranch,  Browns- 
ville, Challenge,  Strawberry,  Woodleaf  and  Clipper  all  have  been  in  close 
touch  with  the  county-seat  since  their  birth. 


Wheatland,  located  at  the  four  corners  of  Yuba,  Sutter,  Nevada  and 
Placer  Counties,  was- laid  out  in  lots- in  1866  by  George  Holland,  under  the 
management  of  C.  L.  AYilson.  The  chain  of  title  to  the  town  lots  begins 
with  the  year  1844,  when  Don  Pablo  Gutierrez  received  a  grant  of  five  Span- 
ish leagues  of  land  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Bear  River.  He  was  killed  in 
1845,  and  the  grant  was  sold  at  auction  on  April  28,  1845,  by  John  A.  Sutter, 
as  magistrate,  to  William  Johnson,  from  whom  the  section  gets  the  name 
Johnson  Rancho.  Sebastian  Kyser  owned  a  one-half  interest  in  Johnson's 
purchase.  On  November  10,  1849,  Kyser  sold  to  Eugene  Gillespie  and  Henry 
E.  Robinson.  March  24,  1849,  Johnson  sold  to  James  Kyle,  Jonathan  B. 
Truesdale,  James  Emory,  and  William  Cleveland.  Truesdale  deeded  his 
interest  to  Cleveland,  Kyle,  and  James  Imbrie.  August  13,  1849,  Cleveland, 
Kyle,  and  Imbrie  deeded  to  Gillespie  and  Robinson,  thus  giving  the  title  to 
the  whole  grant  to  these  men.  September  28,  1854,  Robinson  deeded  a  one- 
half  interest  to  Elihu  Woodruff.  By  a  partition  deed,  March  28,  1856,  John 
W.  Bray  was  deeded,  among  other  tracts,  the  east  half  of  Section  12  of 
Johnson's  Ranch.  August  3,  1857,  the  United  States  confirmed  the  Mexican 
grant  in  the  name  of  William  Johnson,  thus  perfecting  the  title.  November 
14,  1857,  Bray  sold  the  southeast  quarter  of  Section  12  to  Eli  A.  Harper. 
November  20,  1863,  Harper  deeded  the  tract  to  A.  W.  Holloman  and  C. 
Cauthron.  On  October  26,  1865,  the  property  was  conveyed  by  Holloman 
and  Cauthron  to  George  S.  Wright. 

The  Central  Pacific  Railroad  was  completed  to  AYheatland  in  1866,  and 
a  post-office  established.     One  of  the  first  buildings  was  erected  by  Ziegeb- 


bien  &  Company  for  a  store ;  this  was  a  wooden  structure  on  the  corner  of 
Main  and  Front  Streets.  The  first  residence  was  built  the  same  year  by 
C.  Holland,  at  the  corner  of  Main  and  D  Streets.  E.  W.  Sheets  built  a 
blacksmith  shop  on  the  corner  of  Main  and  C  Streets ;  and  Asa  Raymond 
built  a  hotel  on  Main  Street,  near  the  east  end  of  the  town.  These  were 
all  the  buildings  erected  during  the  first  year  of  the  town's  existence.  Not 
until  the  year  1871-1872  did  the  sale  of  lots  become  very  brisk. 

On  account  of  the  inability  of  the  town  to  protect  itself  against  fire, 
and  provide  sanitary  regulations,  etc.,  the  citizens  decided  to  have  the  town 
incorporated,  which  was  accordingly  done  by  act  of  the  legislature,  March 
13,  1874.  The  first  board  of  trustees  was  composed  of  D.  P.  Durst,  president; 
H.  C.  Niemeyer,  clerk;  H.  Lohse,  C.  Holland,  and  S.  Wolf;  the  first  treasurer 
was  David  Irwin ;  assessor,  Cyrus  Stoddard ;  marshal,  Joseph  Trimmer ;  city 
justices  of  the  peace,  A.  M.  Bragg  and  W.  L.  Campbell.  Wheatland  has 
twice  been  razed  by  fire,  but  is  now  well  protected  against  that  element. 

The  hop  industry,  followed  in  recent  years  by  Durst  Brothers,  E.  C. 
Horst,  and  others,  has  caused  the  place  to  be  known  as  the  "Hop  Center." 
■  Frequent  slumps  in  this  commodit)'  have  caused  the  landowners  and  growers 
to  turn  in  recent  years  to  fruit  and  vegetables,  with  marked  success.  The 
land  about  AVheatland  is  the  richest  in  the  county,  particularly  the  bottom 
lands  along  the  Bear  River.  At  the  present  time  a  movement  is  on  foot  to 
provide  a  bridge  across  Bear  River  to  connect  this  section  with  the  rich  Rio 
Oso  section  in  Sutter  County.  G.  E.  Nutt  is  the  supervisor  representing  the 
section  on  the  board  at  present. 

The  town  derived  its  name  from  the  vast  amount  of  wheat  grown  in  the 
vicinity  in  its  early  history,  and  shipped  by  rail  from  that  point. 

Farmers  Bank  of  Wheatland 
The  Farmers  Bank  of  AVheatland  was  incorporated  October  22,  1874, 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $125,000,  divided  into  1250  shares  of  $100  each.  The 
officers  of  the  bank  at  that  time  were  Crawford  Holland,  president ;  A.  W. 
Oakley,  secretary;  and  W.  W.  Holland,  cashier.  On  March  16,  1875.  the 
capital  stock  was  increased  to  $250,000,  divided  into  2500  shares. 

Organizations  of  the  Town 

AA'heatland  has  a  prosperous  lodge  of  Odd  Fellows,  which  bod}-  owns  its 
own  hall.  Here  all  lodges  of  the  place  meet,  including  a  Masonic  lodge 
and  a  parlor  of  Native  Sons.  At  one  time  the  town  supported  a  branch  of  the 
Good  Templars  and  a  branch  of  the  Patrons  of  Husbandry. 

The  Wheatland  AA'omen's  Civic  Improvement  Club  is  a  valuable  asset 
to  the  place.  Recently  the  women  aided  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  of 
AA'heatland  in  the  planting  of  trees  along  the  State  Highway  between  AVheat- 
land and  Marysville. 

The  churches  of  AA'heatland  are  a  credit  to  the  community,  being  well 
attended,  and  well  constructed  and  preserved  as  to  architecture.  The  Metho- 
dists, Episcopalians,  Christians  and  Baptists  each  have  large  congregations 
contributing  to  the  support  of  pastors.  Besides  engaging  in  church  work, 
the  women  folks  of  all  denominations  are  organized  into  an  improvement 
club,  which  looks  well  to  the  physical  as  well  as  the  moral  welfare  of  the 

The  Weekly  Newspaper 

From  the  early  seventies  AA'heatland  has  continuously  supported  a  news- 
paper. The  AA'heatland  Enterprise  was  the  name  of  the  first  journal,  started 
by  A.  C.  Pratt,  who  was  editor  and  publisher.  In  1874,  AA".  L.  Campbell 
and  F.  M.  AAralsh  bought  the  plant  and  changed  the  name  to  the  AA'heatland 
Free  Press.     Campbell  soon  sold  his  interest  to  his  partner,  and  in  1875  the 


owners  were  Walsh  &  Larrabee.  When  Frank  F.  Carndufr,  former  Marys- 
ville  attorney,  took  over  the  paper,  he  called  it  the  Recorder.  In  later  years 
the  paper  was  conducted  by  Jonathan  Durst.  He  sold  his  interest  to  John 
Cleek,  who  added  a  linotype  to  the  plant's  equipment.  Cleek  is  the  present 
owner  of  the  paper,  which  is  now  known  as  the  Wheatland  Herald. 

Men  Who  Made  Wheatland 

Names  synonymous  with  Wheatland's  steady  growth,  sturdy  pioneers 
who  knew  no  such  word  as  failure,  are :  W.  O.  Armstead,  D.  W.  Berry, 
William  A.  Creps,  B.  F.  Dam,  C.  K.  Dam,  W.  T.  Foster,  A.  N.  Garrison, 
C.  P.  Gillette,  William  Harding,  T.  B.  Hopkins,  P.  L.  Hutchinson,  J.  M.  C. 
Jasper,  F.  Kirshner,  Samuel  Kuster,  Frank  R.  Lofton,  John  H.  Major,  A.  W. 
Oakley,  Hugh  Roddan.  J.  W.  Sowed,  A.  J.  AVebster,  O.  Whiteside,  and  S.  D. 
Wood,  all  farmers  and  stock-raisers.  Others,  in  various  callings,  are  Charles 
Justis,  merchant  and  butcher;  A.  M.  Neustadt,  hotel-keeper;  J.  F.  Baun, 
blacksmith  and  wagon-maker ;  F.  J.  Calmes,  saddlery  and  harness ;  Frank  F. 
Carnduff,  newspaper  man ;  E.  P.  Duplex,  barber ;  David  Irwin,  superintend- 
ent lumber  company ;  D.  O.  Little,  blacksmith ;  W.  M.  Neustadt,  hotel ;  E.  W. 
Sheets,  blacksmith ;  John  A.  Stewart,  wagon-maker ;  A.  J.  Swift,  blacksmith 
and  wagon-maker;  and  Matthew  A.  Scott,  drugs.  Descendants  of  this  brave 
band  are  now  to  be  found  in  many  sections  of  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties. 


Mines  and  Mining  Claims 

Browns  Valley,  situated  twelve  miles  northeast  of  Marysville,  received 
its  name  from  an  early  settler  named  Brown,  who  in  1850  accidentally  dis- 
covered gold  upon  the  present  site  of  the  place.  Brown  made  his  strike 
near  a  huge  boulder  adjoining  his  temporary  camp.  It  is  said  he  took  out 
$12,000  in  quartz,  and  was  satisfied  to  retire  on  that  amount. 

Joe  Brockman,  brother  of  William  Brockman,  who  now  lives  near  the 
Sutter  Buttes,  tried  mining  with  sluice-boxes  shortly  after.  He  was  working 
near  a  rich  vein,  which  to  him  appeared  to  be  "petered  out."  He  did  not 
know  how  near  he  had  come  to  fabulous  wealth  until  after  he  sold  his  claim 
to  four  Frenchmen,  who  knew  more  about  mining  ground  than  Brockman. 
They  were  not  long  in  locating  the  vein  that  made  the  Jefferson  Mine 
famous.  It  is  said  they  took  out  enough  to  warrant  their  retirement  in  a 
few  years.  One  of  the  number  was  the  founder  of  the  resort  that  thrived  at 
B  and  Third  Streets  in  Marysville  for  many  years,  remembered  by  the  older 
residents  as  "Wideman's  Corner." 

The  Flag  Mine  followed  the  Jefferson,  giving  employment  to  a  large 
number  of  men.  Then  the  Donnebrouge  Mine  was  located ;  and  this  was 
followed  by  the  opening  of  the  Pennsylvania  Mine. 

In  connection  with  the  early  history  of  the  Pennsylvania  Mine,  it  is  told 
that  one  of  the  early-day  superintendents,  conniving  with  the  underground 
boss,  made  it  impossible  for  a  miner  to  obtain  employment  in  the  claim 
unless  a  royalty  of  five  dollars  a  month  was  forthcoming.  This  system  they 
worked  for  years,  giving  them  a  competency  over  their  salary  to  justify 
their  retiring  to  the  East. 

The  Sweet  Vengeance  Mine  was  also  a  big  producer  in  the  palmy  days 
of  Browns  Valley.  This  mine  was  first  owned  by  Spaniards,  who  carried 
the  ore  to  Little  Creek  and  ground  the  gold  from  it  with  arrastres.  A 
French  company  bought  out  the  Spaniards  and  put  in  a  stamp  mill,  one  of 
the  first  to  be  used  in  California. 

Other  claims  that  were  worked  at  Browns  Valley  in  the  early  days  were : 
The  Daniel  Webster,  Pacific,   Burnside,   Paragon,   Ophir,  Rattlesnake,   Bay- 


erque,  and  Anderson.  The  ruins  of  the  old  mills  and  buildings  are  still 
standing  over  several  of  the  once  rich  mines. 

Water  in  the  lower  levels  always  disturbed  operations  in  the  larger 
mines — those  that  were  sunk  deepest.  It  is  this  condition  that  today  dis- 
courages capital  from  reviving  such  mines  as  the  Pennsylvania  and  Jefferson. 

Surface  diggings  paid  in  early  days  in  the  foothills  surrounding  Browns 
Valley.     Traces  of  this  species  of  mining  may  still  be  seen  here. 

Hotels,  Stores  and  Stopping  Places 

Browns  Valley  at  one  time  had  five  hotels  and  twenty-four  saloons. 
This  statement  is  made  on  the  authority  of  Joseph  Bruce,  who  still  lives 
there,  and  who  is  a  member  of  one  of  the  pioneer  families  in  the  lively  burg. 
While  none  of  the  hotels  were  pretentious,  one  sold  in  the  sixties  for  $9000. 

Matt  Woods,  who  later  became  sheriff  of  Yuba  County,  was  the  owner 
of  a  store  in  the  mining  camp,  as  was  also  Charles  E.  Sexey,  who  later 
became  a  prominent  resident  of  Marysville,  and  filled  the  office  of  levee  com- 
missioner there. 

Public  houses  or  stopping  places  along  the  stage  line  in  the  same  region 
'  as  Browns  Valley,  in  early  days,  were  the  Sixteen-mile  House,  Comstock 
Place,  Galena  House,  Peoria  House,  Zinc  House,  Stanfield  House,  and 
Bowers'  Place. 

Prairie  Diggings,  a  little  way  above  Browns  Valley,  was  once  a  great 
surface-mining  locality.  Mining  commenced  there  in  1854,  and  attracted 
many  who  later  became  residents  of  Marysville.  Toward  the  end  of  its 
career  the  Chinese  were  the  only  ones  to  persist  there. 

When  Long  Bar  was  worked  out,  many  of  the  miners  who  worked  there 
moved  to  Browns  Valley. 

The  Hooker  Guards 

The  Hooker  Guards  was  the  name  of  a  military  company  Browns  Valley 
once  boasted.  It  was  organized  in  June,  1863,  during  the  exciting  times  of 
the  Civil  War.  The  officers  were.  h.  D.  Webb,  captain ;  George  H.  Iceland 
(who  owned  a  hotel  boarding  500  men),  first  lieutenant;  R.  P.  Riddle,  second 
lieutenant ;  C.  Sheldon,  third  lieutenant ;  and  Thomas  Cook,  first  sergeant. 


Indiana  Ranch,  still  regarded  as  a  mining  section  of  Yuba  County  with 
prospects,  was  first  settled  in  1851  by  Page  Brothers  and  A.  P.  Labadie, 
who  opened  a  hotel.  John  Tolles  also  kept  a  hotel  about  the  same  time. 
Gold  was  discovered  along  the  ravine  and  creek  in  1851,  and  the  diggings 
were  called  "Indiana  Creek"  or  "Tolles"  New  Diggings."  One  hundred  feet 
square  was  a  mining  claim,  and  an  ounce  per  day  the  average  yield.  In  1851 
and  1852  there  were  between  400  and  500  miners  at  work  along  Indiana  and 
Keystone  Creeks,  making  a  very  lively  camp.  The  place  received  the  name 
from  Page  Brothers,  who  came  from  the  State  of  Indiana.  Among  the  other 
early  settlers  were  M.  G.  Mory,  L,.  S.  Camper,  Reuben  Reed,  A.  J.  Reed, 
Reuben  Reed,  Jr.,  Owens  Owens,  and  Edward  Medlock.  A.  Weaver  was 
the  first  justice  of  the  peace. 

A  private  school  was  kept  in  1855  by  Miss  Phillips,  a  daughter  of  Cap- 
tain Phillips  of  the  Peoria  House.  It  was  held  in  a  private  dwelling  until 
1856,  when  a  subscription  was  raised  for  the  construction  of  a  schoolhouse. 
The  school  district  was  formed  in  1857.  In  that  year,  the  creek  and  ravine 
having  been  worked  out,  there  was  a  great  decrease  in  the  population,  conse- 
quent upon  the  departure  of  the  miners  for  other  localities.  In  recent  years 
some  rich  pockets  have  been  found  here,  but  none  has  proved  lasting. 



William  M.  Dobbins  and  his  brother,  Mark  D.  Dobbins,  settled  on  the 
creek  that  bears  their  name  in  1849.  William  Dobbins,  when  quite  young, 
participated  in  Commodore  Perry's  memorable  engagement  on  Lake  Erie, 
and  at  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1876,  was  the  last  surviving  witness  of  that 
historic  contest.  He  was  elected  justice  of  the  region  in  1849  and  was  later 
county  clerk.  In  1856  he  went  East  as  a  delegate  to  the  national  convention 
that  nominated  Buchanan  for  the  Presidency.     He  never  returned. 

After  passing  through  the  hands  of  several  parties,  the  ranch  came  into 
the  possession  of  Joseph  Merriam  in  1862.  It  was  in  1867  that  Slingsby  & 
Gettins  opened  a  store  in  Dobbins,  supplying  the  surrounding  country,  and 
keeping  a  pack  train  upon  the  road  continually.  William  Slingsby  was  at 
one  time  chairman  of  the  board  of  supervisors.  Daniel  Gettins,  his  partner, 
though  very  popular,  never  dabbled  in  politics,  being  content  to  labor  among 
and  befriend  the  miners.  Both  Slingsby  and  Gettins  died  at  the  scene  of 
their  life  activities,  honored  by  all. 

Religious  services  were  held  by  the  Catholic  clergy  from  Marysville 
every  two  weeks,  at  the  residence  of  James  McMenamin. 


Greenville,  once  a  lively  camp  for  its  size,  is  now  a  quiet  settlement 
of  the  county's  mountain  district.  It  is  situated  in  a  small  basin  on  Oregon 
Creek,  and  was  once  called  Oregon  Hill.  This  place  was  first  worked  in  1850, 
but  did  not  become  well  developed  until  the  construction  of  the  Nine-horse 
Ditch.  The  company  that  constructed  this  ditch  was  composed  of  nine 
members ;  and  in  order  to  let  it  be  known  that  it  was  no  "one-horse  affair" 
they  named  it  the  "Nine-horse  Ditch." 

The  first  school  was  opened  in  1861,  and  was  taught  by  Miss  Henley. 
A  schoolhouse  was  erected  in  1860  at  a  cost  of  $2000,  and  the  Greenville 
district  was  formed.    About  fifty  people  now  receive  their  mail  at  Greenville. 


Many  Marysville  people  now  find  in  Strawberry  Valley,  near  the  line  of 
Butte  County,  an  inviting  resort  to  which  they  can  motor  for  the  week-end 
and  enjoy  fishing,  hunting  and  camping.  Strawberry  Valley,  familiarly 
known  as  Strawberry,  is  situated  in  a  beautiful  valley,  in  a  large  mining 
district,  forty-three  miles  northeast  from  Marysville.  At  one  time  it  was  the 
most  thriving  locality  in  Northeast  Township. 

Name  and  Early  History 
The  old  Indian  name  of  the  place  was  "Pomingo,"  the  Indians'  name 
for  a  plant  that  grew  there."  Why  the  name  of  Strawberry  was  applied  to 
this  locality  has  been  the  subject  of  considerable  inquiry.  One  story,  and 
probably  the  correct  one,  is  to  the  effect  that  when  the  first  settlers  arrived 
there,  in  the  year  1848,  they  found  quantities  of  delicious  wild  strawberries, 
and  from  that  circumstance  gave  it  the  name  which  it  still  retains.  In  keep- 
ing with  this  explanation,  it  is  stated  that  the  place  was  so  named  early  in 
1851  by  Capt.  William  Mock,  the  name  being  suggested  by  the  large  number 
of  wild  strawberry  vines  found  around  the  head  of  the  valley.  Another 
account  states  that  the  first  two  settlers  were  named  respectively  Straw  and 
Berry,  and  each  vied  with  the  other  in  the  attempt  to  have  the  place  honored 
by  being  called  after  him.  Considerable  jealousy  was  occasioned  thereby, 
which  was  happily  alleviated  by  the  suggestion  of  the  other  residents  that, 
as  it  could  not  be  called  Straw  appropriately,  and  as  Berry  was  not  signifi- 
cant, they  should  join  Straw  with  Berry  and  Berry  to  Straw,  thus  forming 


the  word  Strawberry,  which  was  readily  assented  to,  and  all  past  grievances 
by  this  means  settled. 

In  1851  a  few  miners  came  and  commenced  prospecting  in  the  ravines, 
and  some  rich  diggings  were  found  on  Deadwood  Creek.  The  places  were 
called  Kentucky  Gulch,  Rich  Gulch,  and  Whiskey  Gulch. 

In  the  fall  of  1858  the  first  public  school  was  kept,  Miss  Wyman  being 
chosen  as  the  teacher. 

The  Town  at  Present 

The  present  town  of  Strawberry  consists  of  a  hotel,  one  store,  the  post- 
office,  a  school  and  a  number  of  dwelling  houses.  For  many  years  the  late 
Joel  Bean  was  mine  host  at  the  Strawberry  Hotel.  On  account  of  his 
hospitality  and  that  of  the  members  of  his  family,  once  a  guest  meant  a 
longing  to  return.  Joel  Bean  made  welcome  the  birds  of  spring  as  well  as 
members  of  the  human  family.  In  front  of  the  hotel  he  raised  a  staff  fifty 
feet  high,  at  the  top  of  which  he  placed  a  home  for  the  robins.  Almost 
to  the  day  each  spring  these  birds  would  return  to  this  cote,  and  Mr.  Bean 
then  knew  that  spring  had  really  arrived. 

Without  the  members  of  the  Bean  family,  the  voting  strength  of  Straw- 
berry Valley  would  now  be  greatly  reduced.  During  the  lifetime  of  Joel 
Bean  the  family  had  fourteen  of  the  thirty-four  votes  cast  in  the  precinct. 
Those  of  the  family  who  still  use  the  right  of  franchise  there  are :  Mrs. 
Anna  R.  Bean,  Abraham  Lincoln  Bean,  Francis  L.  Bean,  John  A.  Bean,  Miss 
Laura  B.  Bean,  Mrs.  Mabel  C.  Bean,  Mrs.  Mary  Ann  Bean,  Morgan  George 
Bean,  Mrs.  Nellie  Orr  Bean,  Paris  G.  Bean,  Vernon  J.  Bean,  and  Walter 
Paris  Bean. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  place  are  intelligent  and  hospitable,  and  take  a 
live  interest  in  the  advancement  of  the  village.  Strange  as  it  may  appear, 
the  main  and  only  street,  at  one  time,  was  the  dividing  line  between  Yuba 
and  Butte  Counties,  the  business  places  on  opposite  sides  being  in  different 
counties.  An  act  of  the  legislature,  however,  changed  this  state  of  affairs, 
and  the  town  that  was  once  divided  against  itself  is  now  united. 

There  are  various  sawmills  in  the  vicinity,  of  large  capacity,  the  lumber 
from  which  is  shipped  to  Marysville.  A  most  excellent  dirt  road  affords 
ingress  and  egress  to  and  from  the  place. 


This  once  flourishing  town  was  situated  on  the  Hansonville  branch  of 
the  Honcut,  twenty-eight  miles  from  Marysville.  It  was  first  settled  in  1851, 
by  James  H.  Hanson,  after  whom  the  town  was  named.  A  number  of  miners 
commenced  to  work  along  the  creek  in  the  spring  of  1851,  and  more  soon 
followed.  R.  M.  Johnson  settled  with  Hanson,  and  together  they  built  a 
house  in  which  they  kept  the  first  store  and  hotel.  William  Denton,  later 
of  Marysville,  and  Henry  Critcher  both  opened  stores  in  1851.  In  1852 
there  were  seven  stores,  eight  hotels  and  a  population  of  1000  people  in 
the  town  of  Hansonville,  of  which  only  a  trace  now  remains.  Every  store 
had  a  bar.  There  was  also  a  bowling  alley  in  the  town.  Gambling  was 
very  generally  indulged  in. 

In  1852  religious  services  were  held  in  the  barrooms  and  private  houses, 
by  Rev.  Merchant.  One  day  he  was  preaching  back  of  a  saloon,  the  gamblers 
having  ceased  operations  in  order  to  hear  the  sermon.  One  of  them  opened 
a  faro  game  and  won  about  $50,  which  he  presented  to  the  minister  at  the 
conclusion  of  the  services.  The  minister  said  he  would  take  it,  as  it  had 
been  in  bad  use  long  enough.  From  1864  to  1876  the  Methodists  held 
regular  services  in  the  Hansonville  schoolhouse.  The  schoolhouse  was  built 
in  1864  at  an  expense  of  $500. 



Brownsville  is  on  the  Marysville-La  Porte  road  thirty-three  miles  from 
Marysville.  I.  E.  Brown  built  a  sawmill  there  in  August,  1851,  at  a  cost 
of  $8000.  In  November,  1852,  Martin  Knox,  after  whom  the  Knox  turnpike 
was  named,  and  P.  E.  Weeks  bought  the  mill  under  the  firm  name  of  Weeks 
&  Knox.  The  mill  was  abandoned  about  1857.  In  addition  to  the  mili, 
Brown  and  his  partner,  John  Hoyt.  kept  hotel  in  a  log  house.  When  Weeks 
&  Knox  bought  them  out,  they  named  the  place  Brownsville,  in  honor 
of  Brown.  In  1853,  a  store  was  started  in  connection  with  this  hotel.  In 
1855,  Weeks  &  Knox  built  a  large  hotel.  The  first  blacksmith  came  in  1855, 
a  man  named  Sheets.  In  1861,  the  store  was  given  up.  The  hotel  was 
burned  in  1866,  and  another  was  built  the  same  year. 

Quite  early  the  town  supported  a  lodge  of  Odd  Fellows,  and  later  a 
lodge  of  Good  Templars  existed  for  a  time. 

The  first  religious  services  were  held  by  a  minister  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  denomination  at  the  residence  of  Mrs.  Foss.  A  church  was  built 
by  subscription,  at  a  cost  of  $500,  and  was  dedicated  on  October  20,  1866. 
The  pastor  in  charge  was  Rev.  C.  A.  Leaman. 

Later  Growth 

In  1878.  there  was  quite  an  impetus  given  to  the  town.  A  large  addition 
was  made  to  the  hotel,  an  educational  institution  was  opened,  a  hall  asso- 
ciation was  formed,  a  store  was  started,  and  some  $15,000  were  spent  in 
improvements.  From  1861  to  1878,  the  town  had  been  without  a  store,  but 
in  the  latter  year  Hawkins  &  Hawley  opened  one  with  an  excellent  assort- 
ment of  goods.  The  Knoxdale  Institute  was  founded  by  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Martin  Knox,  and  the  school  opened  on  September  9,  1878,  with  Prof.  E.  K. 
Hill  as  principal.  There  were  but  five  scholars  when  the  school  was  opened, 
but  this  number  was  increased  the  second  term  to  seventeen.  This  school, 
which  is  described  more  fully  in  the  chapter  on  schools,  continued  in  exist- 
ence as  an  educational  institution  for  about  seven  years. 


The  present  town  of  Challenge,  the  home  of  Supervisor  AV.  J.  Mellon, 
derived  its  name  from  a  lumber  mill  built  on  the  site  in  1856  by  Cook  and 
Malory.  The  Union  Lumber  Company  bought  the  mill,  and  sold  it  in  1874 
to  A.  M.  Leach.     Lumbering  and  some  mining  supports  the  town. 

Foster's  Bar,  famous  in  its  palmy  days,  was  situated  on  the  bank  of  the 
north  Yuba  River,  between  the  mouths  of  Willow  and  Mill  Creeks.     It  was 
named  after  William  Foster,  one  of  the  original  proprietors,  who  lived  in 
Marysville,  and.  who  mined  at  the  bar  early  in  1849. 

Bullard's  Bar  was  another  large  mining  bar,  three-fourths  of  a  mile 
below  Foster's  Bar.  AYork  was  commenced  here  in  1849,  and  the  bar  soon 
became  a  populous  one.  It  was  named  after  Dr.  Bullard  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y., 
who  was  one  of  the  pioneer  miners.  Dr.  Bullard  was  lost  in  a  shipwreck 
while  on  his  way  to  the  Sandwich  Islands.  Among  the  early  settlers  at 
the  bar  were  Charles  E.  DeLong,  afterwards  minister  to  Japan ;  C.  E.  Lip- 
pincott,  editor  of  the  Sierra  Citizen  in  1855  and  later  auditor  of  the  State 
of  Illinois;  Daniel  Gettins,  later  of  the  firm  of  Slingsby  &  Gettins  of  Dob- 
bins Ranch ;  and  Roger  McMenamin,  whose  daughter  was  married  to  Will- 
iam Slingsby  later  on. 


The  first  lady  to  make  an  appearance  at  the  bar  was  Mrs.  Colonel 
Ewing.  She  came  in  1850  and  assisted  her  husband  in  mining.  He  carried 
the  dirt  in  buckets  to  water,  and  she  rocked  the  cradle,  an  occupation  usually 
considered  the  portion  of  the  better  half,  at  least  in  its  domestic  sense. 

A  company  of  sixteen  shareholders  was  formed  in  January,  1850,  for  the 
purpose  of  turning  the  river,  so  as  to  mine  the  river  bed.  They  worked 
until  September  and  made  a  failure  of  the  project,  after  having  expended 
$47,000.  The  river  was  afterward  turned  by  a  flume,  and  the  bed  was  then 
found  to  be  worthless. 

The  first  bridge  in  the  township  was  erected  in  1850  by  E.  S.  Gifford. 
It  was  the  custom  to  erect  a  light  structure  in  the  summer,  so  that  if  the 
high  water  of  the  winter  season  should  carry  it  away,  the  loss  would  be 
comparatively  light.  After  passing  through  several  hands,  it  came  into  the 
possession  of  George  Mix,  who  in  1858  erected  the  first  permanent  structure, 
at  a  cost  of  $7000.  He  also  constructed  wagon  roads  to  the  bar.  The  great 
flood  of  1862  carried  the  bridge  away,  and  another  was  constructed  further 
up  the  stream,  which  was  afterward  sold  to  John  Ramm  and  made  a  toll 
bridge.  In  the  flood  of  1875  this  bridge  also  was  destroyed.  Ramm  later 
built  a  bridge  at  an  expense  of  $15,000. 

In  1852  a  military  company  called  the  Bullard's  Guards  was  organized. 
The  uniforms  consisted  of  blue  shirts,  with  a  sash  around  the  waist. 

Other  bars  in  the  vicinity  in  early  days  were :  Stony  Bar,  Poverty  Bar, 
Horse  Bar,  Condemned  Bar,  Frenchman's  Bar,  Missouri  Bar,  Negro  Bar, 
Clingman's  Point,  English  Bar,  Winslow  Bar,  Kanaka  Bar,  Long  Bar  No.  2, 
Oregon  Bar,  Pittsburg  Bar,  Rock  Island  Bar,  Elbow  Bar,  Missouri  Bar  No.  2. 

Bullard's  Bar  Dam 

Bullard's  Bar  at  present  is  attracting  the  eyes  of  California,  for  at  that 
point  is  to  be  built  a  dam  at  a  cost  of  $24,000,000  for  the  purpose  of  per- 
mitting the  resumption  of  hydraulic  mining  in  Sierra  and  Yuba  Counties 
under  government  regulations,  which  require  the  restraining  dam.  The 
work  is  the  plan  of  the  Yuba  River  Power  Company,  which  concern  bought 
out  the  Marysville  and  Nevada  Power  and  Water  Company.  Back  of  the 
company  are  a  number  of  wealthy  men.  The  immense  dam  will  hold  back 
water  sufficient  to  supply  irrigation  for  a  vast  acreage  in  the  foothills  below 
it,  and  it  also  will  provide  electrical  energy  for  power  concerns  of  the  State. 
The  project  of  which  this  dam  is  a  part  is  more  fully  discussed  in  the  chapter 
on  Gold  Mining  in  Yuba  County. 


The  traveler  over  the  ridge  between  Dobbins  Ranch  and  Sierra  County 
encounters  the  town  of  Camptonville.  This  thriving  mountain  town  nestles 
in  a  typical  California  glen  and  originally  covered  159  acres  of  ground.  The 
old  trail  to  Downieville  led  through  this  place;  and  as  early  as  1851,  and 
perhaps  1850,  J.  M.  and  J.  Campbell  built  a  small  mountain  hotel  here,  called 
the  Nevada  House.  Early  in  the  spring  of  1852,  a  company  from  Nevada, 
Samuel  Whiteside,  J.  Compton,  William  Cowan,  William  R.  Dixon,  Hiram 
Buster,  Charles  O'Hara,  and  Jeff  Vanmetre,  came  here  prospecting,  and  at 
the  instance  of  AVhiteside  a  shaft  was  sunk  on  the  hill,  where  gold  was  struck 
in  paying  quantities.  This  was  the  opening  of  a  series  of  rich  hill  diggings 
through  this  region.     The  hill  was  named  Gold  Ridge. 

The  Campbell  brothers  built  a  store  in  1852,  which  was  placed  in  charge 
of  a  man  named  Fuller.  In  the  spring  of  1853  the  place  had  grown  to  con- 
siderable size,  and  a  large  number  of  miners  commenced  work  on  Gold 
Ridge,  which  extended  for  several  miles.  That  year  the  Campbells  built  a 
large   three-story   hotel.      It   was   called   the   National    Hotel.      In    1861    the 


ground  on  which  it  was  built  was  sold  for  mining  purposes,  and  the  building 
was  torn  down.  In  1853  Ed  Brooks  built  a  store,  and  in  1856  erected  a 
large  brick  building,  at  a  cost  of  $12,000.  J.  R.  Meek,  father  of  the  present 
county  surveyor  and  of  William  B.  Meek,  who  resides  in  Camptonville, 
later  became  the  owner  of  this  structure.  William  B.  Meek  is  interested  in 
the  leading  store  in  Camptonville.  To  him  is  left  the  handling  of  whatever 
Camptonville  arranges  in  the  line  of  celebrations.  An  expert  driver,  Meek- 
takes  delight  in  giving  the  visitors  thrilling  rides  over  the  mountain  roads 
'as  a  feature  of  such  gatherings. 

Robert  Campton  came  in  1852  and  opened  a  blacksmith  shop.  He  was 
a  general  favorite,  and  in  1854  the  town  was  named  Camptonville,  in  honoi 
of  the  sturdy  artisan. 

The  first  dramatic  entertainment  ever  given  in  the  town  was  presented 
by  Miss  Goodwin  on  the  upper  floor  of  a  saloon  building,  in  1854. 

A  bowling  alley  was  built  in  1853  by  William  Green.  The  alley  was 
made  from  one-half  of  a  tree  trunk,  cut  by  a  whipsaw.  At  a  miners'  meeting 
held  in  the  bowling  alley  in  the  spring  of  1854,  it  was  decided  that  mining 
claims  should  be  75  by  75  feet  and  town  lots  75  by  150  feet. 

In  the  fall  of  1854,  the  wagon  road  was  finished  to  Camptonville,  and 
in  1855  the  California  Stage  Company  began  to  run  stages  to  the  town. 
Previous  to  this,  pack  trains  were  the  only  means  of  transportation.  Isaac 
Green  started  an  opposition  line,  and  finally  compelled  the  other  to  abandon 
the  route.    Warren  Green  succeeded  his  brother  in  the  stage  business. 

The  first  school  in  Camptonville  was  a  private  one  opened  in  1854, 
taught  by  Mrs.  A.  Brooks  at  her  residence.  The  same  year  a  public  school 
was  opened.     Miss  Budden  was  the  teacher. 

Early  Water  Companies 

The  necessity  of  having  good  water  in  Camptonville  was  early  recog- 
nized by  Sanford  Hall,  and  in  1857  he  undertook  the  task  of  supplying  it. 
From  a  large  spring,  two  and  one-half  miles  east  of  the  town,  he  constructed 
a  flume,  through  which  water  was  brought  to  a  reservoir  within  the  town 
limits.  This  reservoir  had  a  capacity  of  12,000  gallons,  and  was  built  of 
planks  at  a  cost  of  $200.  Another  flume  ran  from  the  reservoir  over  the 
tops  of  the  houses,  from  which  water  was  drawn  off  in  supply  pipes  for  use 
by  the  citizens.  In  1858,  he  laid  down  700  feet  of  four-inch  pipe,  at  a  cost  of 
$1500.     In  1859  he  sold  the  property  to  J.  D.  Andrews. 

In  1860,  Everett,  McClellan,  &  Elwell  built  a  flume  from  a  spring  on 
Oregon  Creek,  two  and  three-fourths  miles  distant,  and  brought  water  into 
two  reservoirs,  16  by  24  feet  in  size  and  10  feet  deep.  They  laid  1200  feet 
of  six-inch  main  pipe  in  the  town,  and  800  feet  of  supply  pipe.  They  also 
furnished  four  fire  plugs.  These  improvements  cost  $6500.  In  1861  these 
men  bought  out  Andrews,  and  consolidated  the  water  business.  At  one 
time  the  property  was  all  owned  by  J.  P.  Brown. 

Yuba   Light   Infantry 

Company  E,  1st  Battalion,  4th  Brigade,  N.  G.  C,  was  organized  in 
Camptonville,  November  7,  1863,  with  eighty  members.  The  first  officers 
were  J.  P.  Brown,  captain;  J.  G.  McClellan,  first  lieutenant;  S.  W.  Wardner, 
second  lieutenant;  and  Charles  Gray,  Jr.,  second  lieutenant.  The  company 
was  supplied  with  the  regulation  Springfield  breech-loading  muskets. 

The  armory  was  enlarged  from  time  to  time,  and  was  used  as  a  dance 
hall  and  theater.  Two  balls  were  given  by  the  company  each  year,  in  May 
and  September.  The  company  had  a  military  band  of  nine  pieces  that  was 
organized  in  1878  as  the  Camptonville  Brass  Band.  The  first  troupe  to  play 
on  the  new  armory  stage  was  the  Wilbur  &  Mills  Minstrel  Troupe. 



Smartsville  obtained  its  name  from  a  man  named  Smart,  who  built  the 
first  hotel  there  in  the  spring  of  1856.  This  was  the  first  building,  except 
a  cabin  here  and  there  occupied  by  the  miners.  The  only  large  settlements 
at  that  time  in  the  township  were  Timbuctoo  and  Sucker  Flat.  L.  B.  Clark 
bought  the  hotel  in  1857  and  kept  a  store.  Rich  mines  were  developed,  the 
remains  of  which  are  still  to  be  seen,  as  also  the  traces  of  the  days  of  the 
hydraulic  miner.  Prominently  identified  with  the  history  of  the  place  were 
the  late  James  O'Brien,  Sr.,  Daniel  McGanney,  Thomas  Conlin,  John  H.  Mc- 
Quaid  and  John  Cramsie.  Descendants  of  these  pioneers  are  to  be  found  in 
the  once  thriving  mining  camp,  having  taken  up  the  burdens  of  their  ances- 
tors where  they  laid  them  down. 

Union  Church 

A  union  church  was  built  in  Smartsville  in  1863  by  subscriptions  from 
the  citizens  of  the  town,  costing  about  $1500.  The  Presbyterians,  Methodists 
and  Episcopalians  held  services  here,  though  none  were  then  strong  enough 
to  supply  a  regular  pastor.  The  Presbyterians  had  a  resident  pastor  two  or 
three  years.  The  Methodists  were  supplied  by  the  circuit  minister.  Episco- 
oalian  clergymen  occasionally  came  from  Marysville  and  elsewhere  and  held 
services.  A  union  Sunday  school  and  a  library  of  300  volumes  were  main- 
tained.    The  late  John  T.  Vineyard  was  the  superintendent. 

Church  of  the  Immaculate   Conception 

The  first  services  of  the  Catholic  denomination  in  the  vicinity  were  held 
by  Rev.  Father  Peter  Magganotta  at  Rose  Bar  in  1852,  at  which  time  the 
church  was  organized.  The  first  church  edifice  was  erected  in  1861  and 
was  called  St.  Rose's  Church.  It  was  burned  in  1870,  and  another  was 
built  in  the  following  year.  The  successive  pastors  were  Rev.  Maurice 
Hickey,  Rev.  Daniel  O'Sullivan,  Rev.  Matthew  Coleman,  Rev.  Father  Two- 
mey,  Rev.  J.  J.  Hines,  Father  Dermody,  and  Father  Enright.  At  present 
the  parish  is  visited  by  a  priest  from  Grass  Valley. 

Catharine  Johnson  Berry* 

A  history  of  Yuba  County  would  be  incomplete  without  mention  of 
its  valiant  pioneer  women.  There  comes  before  my  mind  the  picture  of  one 
of  these  noble  women  who  left  a  life  of  ease  and  social  distinction,  to  follow 
the  fortunes  of  her  husband  in  the  far  West. 

Catharine  Johnson  Berry,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  born  of  Irish 
parentage  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  August  25,  1817.  She  received  her  education  at 
the  even  then  famous  convent  of  Emmitsburg,  and  was  graduated  later  from  a 
French  school  in  Philadelphia.  She  mingled  for  years  in  Southern  society, 
and  in  the  early  forties  went  to  Dubuque,  Iowa,  where,  in  1843,  she  married 
John  Van  Antwerp  Berry.  The  latter  was  born  in  Montgomery  County, 
N.  Y.,  in  1810,  and  was  descended  from  the  hardy  Dutch  burgomasters. 
He  studied  law  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1834  by  Chief  Justice  Savage, 
and  moved  to   Iowa  in   1838. 

When  the  news  of  the  discovery  of  gold  reached  Dubuque,  Mr.  Berry 
decided  to  leave  a  promising  future  and  try  his  fortune  in  the  land  of  gold. 

*The  author  wishes  to  acknowledge,  with  thanks,  the  following  sketch  of  Mrs. 
Berry's  life  as  the  contribution  of  Miss  Agnes  M.  O'Brien  of  Smartsville,  daughter  of 
the  late  James  O'Brien,  honored  and  dependable  pioneer  of  Yuba  County,  whose  name 
is  inseparable  from  the  story  of  the  agricultural  and  mining  development  of  this  section. 
The  story  of  Mrs.  Berry's  trials  and  noble  sacrifices  in  the  West  is  that  of  many  another 
noble  woman.  It  is  regrettable  that  space  cannot  be  given  to  all  the  pioneer  women 
who  so  handsomely  assisted  in  the  building  of  the  great  commonwealth  in  which  the 
present  generation  flourishes  as  a  result  of  their  labors. 


With  his  wife  and  two  small  sons,  he  joined  an  emigrant  train  which  left 
Galena,  111.,  on  the  17th  of  March,  1849.  Mr.  Berry's  diary  contains  the  fol- 
lowing list  of  purchases  made  for  that  long  journey.  Two  wagons,  $200 
six  yoke  of  oxen,  $300;  four  barrels  of  flour,  $16;  two  barrels  of  pork,  $15 
two  barrels  of  crackers,  $8;  one  keg  of  lard,  $15;  one  keg  of  butter,  $10 
cheese,  $5;  one  barrel  of  sugar,  $15;  and  numerous  other  articles  of  various 
kinds,  including  tools. 

The  long,  tedious  trip  was  not  marked  by  any  misfortunes ;  but  in  after 
years  Mrs.  Berry  often  spoke  of  the  discomforts  and  anxiety  endured  in 
crossing  the  plains.  During  their  journey  they  joined  a  New  Jersey  train ; 
and  after  the  last  mountain'  had  been  passed,  they  abandoned  one  wagon 
and  used  all  the  oxen  on  the  remaining  one,  thus  reaching  their  destination 
more  quickly.  Part  of  their  itinerary  reads  as  follows :  Fort  Laramie,  June 
12;  City  of  Salt  Lake,  July  14;  Steeple  Rocks,  July  25;  Summit  of  the  Sierra 
Nevadas,  September  2 ;  Valley  of  the  Sacramento,  September  20.  Arriving  at 
Long  Bar  on  the  10th  of  October,  they  established  their  camp  on  the  south 
bank  of  the  Yuba  River  on  Hayes  Flat,  a  little  below  the  Parks  Bar  bridge. 

Mrs.  Berry  was  the  first  white  woman  to  venture  this  far,  and  the  miners 
journeyed  from  long  distances  to  get  a  glimpse  of  her. '  According  to  her 
chronicle  of  those  exciting  times,  the  letter  carrier  charged  the  modest  sum 
of  $1  a  letter  to  and  from  Marysville.  A  letter  written  by  Mrs.  Berry  in  the 
spring  of  1850  describes  the  winter  as  unusual  in  its  severity.  She  speaks 
of  the  inexhaustible  wealth  of  the  mines,  but  deplores  the  hardships  of  pioneer 
life.  "One  thing  alone,  in  this  modern  Eldorado,"  according  to  Mrs.  Berry, 
"has  not  been  exaggerated.  It  is  emphatically  the  land  of  flowers;  the 
whole  surface  of  the  earth  is  a  gay  pasture ;  every  hill,  every  vale  speaks  in 
the  language  of  flowers." 

Here  I  must  digress  from  the  subject  of  this  sketch  and  devote  some 
space  to  Mr.  Berry.  At  this  period  he  joined  a  company  known  as  "The 
Canal  Company,"  organized  for  the  purpose  of  draining  Yuba  River  at  this 
point,  and  mining  the  river  bed.  The  list  of  stockholders  in  the  company 
reads  like  a  roster  of  Yuba's  prominent  pioneer  settlers.  They  were :  A.  F. 
Benedict,  AY.  H.  Peck,  J.  B.  Henderson,  S.  F.  Daggett,  George  Boyd,  C. 
Hampton,  S.  M.  Royen,  C.  E.  Stone  (afterward  a  Marysville  physician), 
D.  H.  Ferguson,  J.   F.    Bigelow,   and   William   Torrance.' 

In  the  fall  of  1850,  Mr.  Berry  moved  to  Marysville  and  resumed  the 
practice  of  law,  and  likewise  revived  his  interest  in  politics.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  first  legislature  that  met  in  San  Jose,  and  was  conceded  to 
be  one  of  the  most  brilliant  lawyers  in  the  new  State.  Among  his  contem- 
poraries of  the  bar  in  Marysville  were :  H.  P.  Haun,  T.  B.  Reardon,  C.  E. 
Filkins,  G.  N.  Swezy,  Charles  H.  Bryan,  and  Stephen  J.  Field.  Following  a 
heated  argument,  which  led  to  personalities,  Mr.  Berry  challenged  Mr. 
Field  to  a  duel,  which  was  the  accepted  mode  of  settling  difficulties  in  those 
days.  Field's  apology  was  one  of  Mrs.  Berry's  cherished  possessions.  It 
reads  as  follows: 

"Mr.  Field's  compliments  to  Col.  Berry,  and  he  regrets  that  he  indulged 
in  the  remarks  which  led  to  the  unpleasant  occurrences  of  this  morning.  Mr. 
Field  desires  that  Col.  Berry  will  likewise  withdraw  the  offensive  words  used 
by  him  on  this  occasion." 

Aided  by  his  scarcely  less  brilliant  wife,  Mr.  Berrv's  future  seemed 
most  promising,  when  he  was  suddenly  stricken,  and  died  in  Marysville  on 
July  2,  1853.  The  resolutions  passed  by  the  County  Bar  Association  be- 
speak the  esteem  m  which  he  was  held.  His  death  left  his  widow  with  in- 
sufficient means  to  raise  her  young  sons  and  maintain  her  position  in  Marys- 
ville's   social   life.     After  visiting  her  husband's   people   in   New.  York,   she 


returned  to  Marysville  in  1856.  At  this  period  Judge  Field  desired  to  marc- 
her, but  she  could  never  consent  to  anyone  filling-  the  place  of  her  cherished 
husband.  In  a  letter  -written  shortly  before  his  death.  Judge  Field  speaks 
of  Mrs.  Berry  as  "a  woman  of  great  beauty,  cultured  mind,  and  varied  ac- 
complishments, and  one  of  the  most  brilliant  and  charming  women  of 
those  earhr  days." 

In  1857,  Mrs.  Berry  was  engaged  to  teach  the  public  schools  in  Smarts- 
ville,  and  took  up  her  residence  in  that  then  thriving  town.  An  ardent 
Southerner,  her  sympathies  were  with  her  beloved  Southland  when  the  Con- 
federate States  seceded.  In  her  capacity  as  teacher,  she  was  obliged  to 
teach  the  iron-clad  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Union.  She  looked  upon  this  as 
the  bitterest  moment  of  her  life.  Prompted  solely  by  the  necessity  of  pro- 
viding for  her  sons,  Mrs.  Berry  proved  a  wonderful  educator ;  and  even  after 
her  retirement  from  the  schools,  in  1874,  she  conducted  a  private  school  until 
age  and  physical  disability  forced  her  to  relinquish  such  arduous  labor.  She 
died  after  a  short  illness.  February  7,  1899;  and  with  her  passing  closed  one 
of  the  most  interesting  and  eventful  lives  this  section  has  ever  known.  A 
charming  personality,  a  mind  which  was  veritably  a  storehouse  of  knowledge, 
she  was  even  in  her  less  prosperous  days  ever  the  type  of  the  "grand  dame." 
Sorrows  and  trials  were  often  her  portion;  but  she  bore  them  with  truly- 
Spartan  fortitude,  as  did  all  that  noble  band  of  pioneer  mothers.  How  little 
we  of  this  later  day  realize  what  a  debt  we  owe  to  our  heroic  parents  who 
braved  such  dangers  and  surmounted  such  difficulties,  that  we,  their  chil- 
dren, might  bask  in  the  sunshine  of  this  promised  land  ! 


Timbuctoo,  related  to  the  same  town  in  Africa,  is  a  suburb  of  Smarts- 
ville.  Due  to  the  fact  that  a  negro  wras  one  of  the  first  to  work  one  of  the 
ravines  near  the  camp,  the  ravine  was  named  Timbuctoo,  and  soon  the  name 
attached  itself  to  the  settlement.  The  first  mining  was  done  in  the  ravines 
near  the  town,  in  1850.  William  Monigan,  who  later  had  a  store  in  the 
place,  was  one  of  the  first  to  try  his  luck  in  the  ravines.  It  was  Monigan 
and  another  man  named  L.  B.  Clark  who  were  responsible  for  the  christen- 
ing of  the  place. 

A  number  of  cabins  were  early  built  in  the  vicinity,  but  the  first  dwell- 
ing house  was  erected  by  AVilliam  Gregory,  early  in  1855.  A  hotel  was  built 
in  1855  by  Jacob  Duffird.  It  stood  across  the  road  from  the  post-office,  and 
was  burned  by  the  fire  of  1878.  Timbuctoo  was  the  largest  and  most  thriv- 
ing locality  in  Rose  Bar  Towmship  in  1859.  At  that  time  there  were  two 
hotels,  six  boarding  houses,  eight  saloons  in  addition  to  the  bars  in  the  hotels 
and  boarding  houses,  one  bank,  one  drug  store,  two  general  stores,  three 
clothing  and  dry-goods  stores,  three  shoe  shops,  one  blacksmith  shop,  two 
carpenter  shops,  one  lumber  yard,  three  bakeries,  one  livery  stable,  one  bar- 
ber shop,  two  cigar  and  tobacco  stores,  one  theater,  and  a  church. 

Of  this  colony  there  now  remain  a  few  dwellings  and  the  old  building 
in  which  AYells,  Fargo  &  Company  did  business  for  years.  The  latter  struc- 
ture, up  to  a  few  years  ago,  was  occupied  by  Chinese  as  a  store  and  lodgings. 
This  brick  structure,  in  the  days  of  the  express  company,  housed  millions  in 
gold  dust  shipped  from  the  mines  in  the  vicinity.  It  is  now  in  a  stage  of 
dilapidation ;  but  the  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West  have  plans  to  restore 
it.  as  being  among  the  landmarks  of  the  State  deserving  of  preservation. 
More  extended  description  of  this  building  is  given  in  another  chapter. 

The  vote  of  the  Timbuctoo  precinct  was  at  one  time  as  high  as  800, 
and  the  total  population  about  1200.  In  1859  a  fine  wooden  theater  with  a 
basement  was  erected.     It  had  a  seating  capacity  of  800  and  was  frequently 


occupied  by  traveling  companies,  which  theretofore  used  an  old  church 
The  first  school  at  Timbuctoo  was  conducted  by  a  Mr.  Potter  in  1856.  The 
first  public  schoolhouse  was  built  in  1862.  In  1873  it  was  moved  to  Smarts- 
ville  and  made  an  annex  to  the  one  at  that  place.  1  he  cemetery  lying  just 
west  of  the  place  was  started  in  1855. 


This  place  got  its  name,  which  at  first  was  Gatesville,  through  the  fact 
that  one  of  the  early  settlers,  hailing  from  Illinois,  was  named  Gates.  A 
store  was  started  here  in  the  winter  of  1850  by  a  man  named  McCall.  Rose 
Bar  was  on  the  river  and  Sucker  Flat  was  just  back  of  it,  the  two  places 
beino-  practically  one.  In  1851,  the  joint  population  was  300  men  and  five 
women.  The  nearest  post-office  was  at  Parks  Bar,  a  few  miles  below,  and 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Yuba  River. 

When  Rose  Bar  and  Parks  Bar  began  to  be  worked  out,  and  the  hydrau- 
lic mines  were  developed,  Sucker  Flat  became  quite  a  town  and  the  other 
bars  were  abandoned. 


This  bar  had  the  honor  of  being  the  first  where  gold  was  discovered  on 
Yuba  River.  It  received  its  name  from  John  Rose,  who  came  there  in  1848, 
from  the  American  River.  Accompanying  the  party  was  John  Ray  with  his 
wife  and  several  children.  This  was  the  first  family  at  the  bar.  It  was 
Jonas  Spect,  from  Colusa,  who  found  gold  at  this  point,  on  June  2,  1848. 

In  the  fall  of  1848,  John  Rose  and  his  partner,  William  J.  Reynolds, 
started  a  store  at  the  bar.  Rose  did  the  buying  at  Sacramento,  and  in  that 
way  the  place  came  to  be  known  as  Rose  Bar.  When  the  miners  began 
to  arrive  from  the  East,  it  became  a  little  crowded,  and  in  the  spring  of  1849 
a  meeting  was  held  at  which  it  was  decided  that  a  claim  should  be  100  feet 
square,  and  that  the  miner  should  be  confined  to  his  claim.  Rose,  Reynolds 
and  Kinloch,  a  young  man  they  had  taken  into  partnership,  furnished  beef 
from   their  ranch  in   Linda  Township. 

In  1849  a  company  of  fifty  men, -among  whom  was  William  H.  Parks, 
who  later  represented  this  district  in  the  legislature,  and  was  a  prominent 
resident  of  Marysville,  commenced  to  dam  the  river,  so  as  to  mine  the  bed. 
They  completed  the  dam  and  commenced  work  early  in  October.  The  rain 
set  in  on  the  8th,  and  in  two  days  the  water  overflowed  the  dam  and  washed 
it  away.  In  the  few  days'  work  they  had  taken  out  $1000  each.  A  few  days 
before  the  destruction  of  the  dam.  Parks  sold  out  and,  with  an  experienced 
baker,-  started   a   store,   bakery  and   boarding  house. 

During  the  year  the  bar  became  very  populous,  and  in  1850  there  were 
2000  men  working  there.  At  that  time  there  were  three  stores  (one  of  which 
was  kept  by  Baxter  &  States),  three  boarding  houses,  two  saloons,  bakeries, 
blacksmith  shops,  etc.  The  course  of  the  river  was  turned  seven  consecu- 
tive years,  cleaning  it  up  as  a  rich  place  to  mine.  It  was  later  covered  by 
tailings.  When  the  high  water  came  in  1849,  the  miners  moved  back  into 
the  ravines,  where  they  found  very  rich  surface  diggings.  Squaw  Creek 
was  a  very  rich  locality.  One  of  these  ravines  was  worked  by  the  man 
Gates,  after  whom  Sucker  Flat  was  at  first  named. 


Sicard  Flat,  still  existing  as  a  settlement,  is  a  flat  just  back  of  Parks  Bar 
and  the  early-day  Sicard  Bar.  It  derived  its  name  from  Theodore  Sicard, 
who  opened  the  mines.  Work  was  commenced  here  in  1860,  in  the  ravine, 
where  rich  surface  diggings  were  found.  When  the  gravel  mines  were  dis- 
covered, Sicard  Flat  became  a  great  hydraulic-mining  point. 



This  bar  derived  its  name  from  the  fact  that  it  was  the  longest  bar  on 
the  river.  It  was  developed  about  the  first  of  October,  1849,  by  a  company 
of  gold-seekers  who  were  directed  to  the  place  by  Major  Cooper,  of  Benicia, 
who  was  the  pioneer  of  Parks  Bar,  in  1848.  There  were  three  girls  in  the 
party,  members  of  a  family  named  Nash.  They  were  the  first  females  to 
appear  at  the  bar,  and  were  recipients  of  the  attentions  of  many  young 
miners,  who  oftentimes  came  miles  to  see  them. 

An  amusing  story  is  told  of  one  young  man  who  sought  to  make  an 
impression  on  the  girls  in  the  Nash  family.  At  Sawmill  Bar  this  young  man, 
a  lawyer  from  Tennessee,  named  Wiley  H.  Peck — a  handsome  man,  six  feet 
five  inches  tall — decided  to  make  a  call  at  the  Nash  home.  In  the  rough 
camp  life  of  the  mines,  fine  clothes  were  scarce,  and  facilities  for  making  an 
elegant  toilet  were  few  indeed.  One  Sunday  morning  Peck  asked  a  lady 
acquaintance  to  lend  him  a  white  towel  that  was  hanging  on  the  line  at  her 
camp  at  Sawmill  Bar.  She  readily  assented,  thinking  he  desired  it  to  use 
in  making  his  toilet.  After  a  little  while  he  presented  himself  before  the 
astonished  lady  for  her  approval  of  his  tout  ensemble,  as  he  was  about  to 
pay  a  state  visit  to  the  Nash  girls.  He  was  faultlessly  arrayed  in  a  suit  of 
broadcloth  that  he  had  brought  across  the  plains.  The  lady,  commencing  at 
his  carefully  combed  locks,  could  detect  not  a  flaw  in  his  "get-up"  until  she 
came  to  his  feet,  when — lo !  what  a  sight!  Having  nothing  with  which  to 
encase  his  pedal  extremities  except  heavy  miner's  boots,  and  being  ashamed 
to  make  a  call  with  those  unsightly  things  on  his  feet,  he  decorated  his  bare 
feet  with  blacking  to  represent  boots !  Also,  the  towel,  instead  of  being 
used  in  making  his  toilet,  had  been  placed  in  his  pocket,  with  the  end  pro- 
truding to  represent  a  white  handkerchief.  Thus  arrayed,  he  had  sallied 
forth  to  "conquer  or  die." 

Claims  on  Long  Bar  were  taken  tip  so  rapidly  that  by  the  spring  of 
1850  there  were  1000  people  there.  Work  here  continued  later  than  at  many 
other  of  the  mining  camps,  although  the  place  was  not  so  rich  as  its  two 
great  rivals,  Parks  and  Rose  Bars. 


Oregon  House,  situated  twenty-four  miles  from  Marysville,  on  the 
Camptonville  road,  is  one  of  the  landmarks  of  Yuba  County.  It  was  first 
settled  in  1850  by  Larry  Young,  who  built  a  log  cabin  in  the  valley  at  the 
head  of  which  the  present  house  stands.  The  Oregon  House  was  built  in 
1852.  In  January,  1853,  on  the  anniversary  of  the  battle  of  New  Orleans,  a 
grand  party  was  given  at  the  Oregon  House.  This  was  the  first  party  in 
the  hills.  Two  hundred  fifty  tickets  were  sold.  There  were  eighteen  ladies 
present,  which  was  a  good  showing  for  those  days. 

The  Yuba  Mountaineers 

There  was  a  military  company  organized  in  this  locality  during  the 
Civil  War,  and  the  Oregon  House  was  the  rallying  point.  They  were  called 
the  Yuba  Mountaineers.  The  officers  of  this  company  in  1863  were:  John 
Brown,  captain ;  H.  Camper,  first  lieutenant ;  J.  A.  Clay,  second  lieutenant ; 
J.  A.  Barnhart,  third  lieutenant;  and  W.  Moon,  first  sergeant. 


This  point  on  the  northeast  side  of  Yuba  River,  fifteen  miles  above 
Marysville,  was  one  of  the  first  spots  where  gold  was  found  on  that  stream, 
and  was  probably  the  richest  of  all  the  many  bars  so  thickly  spread  along 
its  banks.  David  Parks,  from  whom  the  bar  derived  its  name,  came  here  on 
September  8,  1848.     He,  with  his  family,  consisting  of  his  wife  and  several 


children,  was  on  his  way  overland  when  he  was  met  by  a  train  of  Mormons 
who  informed  him  of  the  discovery  of  gold  here.  He  at  once  altered  his 
course,  and  came  to  this  place.  Mrs.  Parks  was  the  first  white  woman  to 
arrive  in  the  township. 

Parks  mined  and  kept  a  trading  post  and  store,  his  customers  being  the 
Indians  and  the  many  miners  that  now  began  to  cluster  about  this  spot. 
Goods  brought  enormously  high  prices,  especially  among  the  Indians,  who 
knew  little  of  the  worth  of  gold  dust  and  set  great  value  upon  beads  and  sugar, 
which  they  used  to  buy  from  Mrs.  Parks.  They  would  give  a  tin  cup  even 
full  of  gold  dust  for  the  same  quantity  of  beads,  and  would  buy  sugar, 
weight  for  weight. 

The  Parks  family,  with  the  exception  of  the  sons  David  and  John,  re- 
mained only  about  six  months,  and  then  returned  to  the  States  by  way  of 
the  Isthmus  of  Panama.  They  landed  in  New  Orleans  in  the  summer  of 
1849,  being  among  the  first,  if  not  the  first,  to  return  to  the  East  from  the 
gold  region.  The  excitement  was  great  at  that  time,  and  hundreds  were 
leaving  on  every  steamer.  When  Parks  went  to  the  bank  and  exchanged 
$85,000  in  dust  for  coin,  the  excitement  knew  no  bounds,  and  he  was  looked 
upon  as  a  living  evidence  of  the  reality  of  the  gold  discovery.  So  little  was 
known  of  the  value  of  this  dust,  that  he  could  obtain  but  $12  an  ounce.  His 
sons,  David  and  John  Parks,  remained  in  California  and  for  some  time  were 
prominent  men  of  Marysville. 

Early  in  1849,  the  miners  began  to  gather  rapidly  at  this  point,  and  the 
bar  soon  became  a  populous  and  thriving  town.  It  was  very  rich,  and  many 
a  hard-working  miner  returned  from  the  bar  to  his  Eastern  home  with  a 
golden  belt.  Dr.  C.  E.  Stone,  prominent  physician  in  later  days  in  Marys- 
ville, was  among  the  early  settlers  at  Parks  Bar.  The  place  began  to  decline 
in  1854,  and  each  successive  year  thereafter  saw  it  becoming  more  and  more 
deserted.     Nothing  now  remains  on  the  site  of  the  once  flourishing  place. 


Early-day  settlements  of  comparatively  short  existence,  some  of  which 
have  been  mentioned  in  the  foregoing,  but  are  repeated  here  for  convenience 
of  reference,  were  as  follows : 

In  East  and  West  Bear  River  Townships :  Barham's  Crossing,  Trimble's 
Crossing,  Kempton's  Crossing,  Johnson's  Crossing,  Kearney,  Camp  Far 
West,  Wire  Bridge  (also  known  as  McDonald's  Mills),  McCourtney's,  Gra- 
ham's, Melon's  Hotel,  Round  Tent,  Plumas  Landing,  Eldorado  City  (some- 
times known  as  Messick  Ranch),  Reed's  Station,  McDonald's  Distillery,  and 
Von  Schmidt's  Mill. 

In  Rose  Bar  Township:  Spect's  Camp,  Cape  Horn,  Cordua  Bar,  Saw- 
mill Bar,  Lander's  Bar,  Kennebec  Bar,  and  Sand  Hill. 

In  Long  Bar  Township :  Long  Bar,  Swiss  Bar,  Prairie  Diggings,  Six- 
teen-mile House,  Comstock  Place,  Galena  House,  Peoria  House,  Zinc  House, 
and  Bowers'  House. 

In  Parks  Bar  Township  :  Parks  Bar,  Sicard  Bar,  Sicard  Flat,  Barton's  Bar, 
Malay  Camp,  Union  Bar,  Clark  Valley  Ranch,  Frenchtown,  McQueen's  Saw- 
mill, Garden  Ranch,  Dry  Creek  Mill,  Virginia  Ranch,  Bell  Vallev,  Enterprise 
Mill,  Martin  Ranch,  Golden  Ball,  Willow  Glen  House,  and  California  House. 

In  New  York  Township :  Natchez,  New  York  House,  New  York  Ranch 
(or  Flat),  Ohio  and  Garden  Ranch  Flats,  Mount  Hope,  Sharon  Valley  Mill, 
Washington  Mill,  American  Mill,  Columbia  Mill,  Gnaggy  Mill,  Beaver 
Ranch,  Sawmill  Cottage,  Ross  Ranch,  Hansonville,  Paige's  Mill,  Union  Mill, 
Jefferson  House,  White  Sulphur  Spring  House  (called  sometimes  Stewart), 
New  York  Point,  Clayton's  Ranch,  Washington   Mill   Huse,  Jack's   Ranch, 


Union  Hotel,  Paulineville,  Pike  County  House,  Ohio  Mill,  Switzer's  (or 
Monitor  Mill),  Willow  Glen,  Pennsylvania  House,  Hedge's  House,  Plaskett's 
Mill,  and  Woodville  Mill. 

In  Foster's  Bar  Township :  Foster's  Bar,  Bullard's  Bar,  Stony  Bar, 
Poverty  Bar,  Horse  Bar,  Rice's  Crossing,  Condemned  Bar,  Frenchman's 
Bar,  Missouri  Bar,  Negro  Bar,  Clingman's  Point,  English  Bar,  Vance  Wing- 
dam,  Winslow  Bar,  Kanaka  Bar,  Long  Bar  No.  2,  Oregon  Bar,  Pittsburg 
Bar,  Rock  Island  Bar,  Elbow  Bar,  Missouri  Bar  No.  2,  Mountain  Cottage, 
Keystone  Hotel,  Maple  Springs  House,  Eagle  Bird  Hotel,  Fountain  House, 
Riverside  Hotel,  McCrutch  Place,  Binninger's  Ranch,  and  Labadie's. 

In  Northeast  Township:  Woodville  House,  Missouri  Bar  No.  1,  Buck- 
eye House,  Eagleville,  Willow  Bar,  New  York  Bar,  Alabama  Bar,  Hamp- 
shire Mill,  Eagle  Mill,  Deadwood  Mill,  and  Independence  Mill. 

In  Slate  Range  Township :  Garden  Valley  Ranch,  Ferry  Bar,  Wisconsin 
House,  Junction  House,  Dad's  Gulch,  Young's  Hill,  Railroad  Hill,  Freeman's 
Crossing,  Galena  Hill,  Moonshine  Creek,  Oak  Valley,  Celestial  Valley,  Pitts- 
burg Hill,  Slate  Range,  and  AVeed's  Point. 


When  Marysville's  jail  was  a  small  one-story  adobe  structure  at  the 
loot  of  D  Street? 

When  there  was  no  street-railway  connection  between  Marysville  and 
Yuba  City,  and  the  mode  of  conveyance  was  horse-drawn  busses,  the  drivers 
of  which  announced  the  time  of  departure  by  blowing  a  fish-horn,  and  were 
so  accommodating  that  they  would,  by  appointment,  stop  for  you  in  front 
of  your  home,  or  at  some  designated  shopping  place,  and  toot  the  horn  to 
summon  you  to  get  aboard? 

When  "the  Slough"  required  foot-bridges  on  Fifth  Street,  F  to  G;  E 
Street,  Eighth  to  Tenth ;  and  Eighth  Street,  E  to  F ;  and  how  those  bridges 
were  trysting  places  for  you  and  your  girl  on  fair  evenings? 

When  the  faithful  old  colored  man,  named  Watkins,  announced  auction 
sales  from  the  principal  corners  in  the  business  and  residence  sections  by 
loudly  and  solemnly  ringing  a  huge  hand-bell,  following  with  "Hear  ye ! 
hear  ye !"  and  then  as  solemnly  chanting  the  time  and  location  of  the  auction, 
the  auctioneer's  name,  and  the  nature  of  the  goods  to  go  "under  the  hammer," 
with  an  emphatic  assurance  that  the  time  of  opportunity  had  arrived  for 
those  who  sought  bargains? 

When  Marysville  had  her  "Father  Wie  Gehts"  (William  Landis),  so 
named  for  his  persistency  in  greeting  his  friends  in  German?  He  invariably 
appeared  in  a  soft  shirt,  collar  cut  low,  and  roomy  pantaloons  tucked  away  in 
great,  heavy  boots.  Solidly  built,  he  carried  a  cane  which  was  allowed  to 
strike  the  sidewalk  with  a  rhythm  as  he  jogged  along.  When  he  did  not 
carry  a  cane  it  was  his  trusty  shotgun  that  occupied  his  hands.  For  his  exer- 
cise, the  procuring  of  which  seemed  to  be  his  principal  occupation,  he  walked 
the  levees  about  the  city,  or  went  far  into  the  country  to  hunt  wild  game. 
He  knew  where  the  birds  abounded,  and  always  came  back  with  a  well- 
filled  bag.     When  the  vote  on  the  first  set  of  levee  commissioners  was  can- 


vassed,  it  was  found  that  "Father  Wie  Gehts"  had  been  chosen  as  one  of  three 
to  serve  the  city.  He  declined  the  office  and  refused  to  qualify.  He  didn't 
have  the  time.     The  "call  of  the  wild"  for  him. 

When  the  city  had  another  character — -"Blind  Chandon,"  who,  though 
totally  deprived  of  sight,  made  his  way  about  the  streets  aided  by  his  cane? 
He  knew  every  nook  and  cranny  of  the  town,  and  never  failed  to  recognize 
the  voice  of  a  greeting  friend,  or  acquaintance.  In  a  horse  trade  (he  followed 
farming  north  of  the  city  on  the  "Chandon  Ranch")  he  was  not  to  be  de- 
frauded. If  any  one  lost  out  on  the  deal,  it  was  the  other  fellow.  Among 
Chandon's  friends  and  admirers  was  J.  "Riley"  Garrett,  founder  of  the  J.  R. 
Garrett  Company  of  the  present  day.  Garrett  would  drop  a  business  deal 
any  time  to  perpetrate  a  joke.  Noting  that  Jacob  Tomb,  a  friend  of  both 
Chandon  and  Garrett,  was  minus  a  button  from  his  pantaloons  front,  Garrett 
called  Chandon  and  told  him  of  Tomb's  whereabouts  and  of  the  missing  but- 
ton. Chandon  made  his  way  at  once  to  Tomb's  position  on  the  main  corner 
of  the  city  and,  before  a  crowd  of  Tomb's  friends,  derided  him  for  his  negli- 
gence in  dress.  Fver  after  that  it  was  difficult  to  convince  Tomb  that  Chan- 
don did  not  have  at  least  a  partial  use  of  his  eyes. 

When,  for  many  years,  a  wooden  Indian  was  the  sign  for  a  Marysville 
cigar  store?  This  wooden  Indian  is  now  to  be  seen  on  Powell  Street  in 
San  Francisco,  engaged  in  the  same  pursuit.  During  his  stay  in  Marysville 
he  was  the  property  of  M.  and  M.  A.  Marcuse,  who  conducted  a  cigar  store 
on  the  "Western  House  corner." 

When  Cortez  Square  was  surrounded  with  a  low  brick  wall,  surmounted 
by  a  picket  fence,  and  had  turnstiles  at  its  corners  as  entrances  and  exits? 

When  this  same  square  was  used  as  the  show  grounds  for  circuses,  and 
for  amateur  baseball  and  old-style  football  games? 

When  this  same  square,  now  a  beautiful  park,  contained,  in  its  center, 
a  building  where  State  fairs  were  held? 

When,  sometimes,  the  vacant  lot  upon  which  now  stands  the  Peffer 
planing  mill  and  the  two  dwellings  to  the  north,  now  owned  by  the  Peffer 
heirs,  was  used  for  smaller  circuses  and  small  medicine  shows? 

When  St.  Joseph's  Boys'  School,  at  Seventh  and  C  Streets,  was  a  one- 
story  frame  structure  and  had  on  both  sides  sidewalks  desirable  for  games 
of  marbles,  purg  and  mumbly-peg? 

When  the  present  site  of  the  Peri  Building  on  D  Street  was  occupied 
by  the  leading  livery  stable,  with  a  board  walk  in  front,  over  which  the 
clatter  of  the  horses'  hoofs,  leaving  and  entering,  could  be  heard  for  blocks? 

When  the  present  sites  of  the  C.  C.  Hampton  and  Samuel  Ewell  resi- 
dences on  Sixth  Street,  D  and  Oak,  were  occupied  as  a  Christian  Brothers' 
school,  and  when  the.  lot  upon  which  now  stands  the  Dr.  J.  L.  Sullivan  home, 
and  lots  to  the  north  thereof,  were  occupied  by  Miss  Poston's  private  school? 

When  the  Southern  Pacific  passenger  depot  was  located  in  a  one-story 
brick  building  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Sixth  and  A  Streets,  wdrere  the 
Southern  Pacific  Park  now  is,  and  how  "Billy"  Ward  was  "mine  host"  to 
the  hungry  passengers  on  a  "hurry  up"  schedule,  said  passengers  being 
summoned  to  the  table  by  a  bell  rung  by  "Chub"  Casey,  as  soon  as  the 
trains  came  to  a  stop  ? 

When  there  were  but  two  passenger  trains  into  Marysville  each  day — 
one  from  the  north  and  one  from  the  south — and  the  hotel  busses  met  each 
with  drivers  who  so  strenuously  fought  for  the  alighting  passengers  that 
the  police  frequently  had  to  take  a  hand? 

When  Owen  Cunningham,  who  signed  "R.  O.  C,"  was  both  freight 
platform  boss  and  baggage  master   for  the   Southern   Pacific,  and  how  we 


kids  had  to  "look  out"  that  he  didn't  catch  us  digging  into  the  sacks  of  nuts 
and  dried  fruits  left  with  him  for  consignment? 

"When  the  ice  for  city  consumption  arrived  each  Friday  evening  from 
Boca  or  Truckee  in  a  box  car  dripping  wet :  how  that  dripping  car  was  a 
signal  for  the  kids  to  assemble  underneath  it  while  it  was  being  unloaded, 
and  there  fight  for  the  pieces  that  broke  from  the  blocks ;  and  how  the  huski- 
est lad  always  got  enough  of  the  broken  pieces  to  turn  into  pocket  money 
at  the  nearest  saloon  ? 

"When  the  ponds  outside  the  Browns  Valley  grade  were  the  favorite 
swimming  pools,  where  many  a  kid  learned  the  art,  and  in  the  vicinity  of 
which  were  vineyards  and  orchards  where  the  boys  always  could  get  their 
fill  of  the  fruit  any  day  in  fruit  season? 

When  "Cass'  Point,"  a  projection  into  Ellis  Lake  about  at  Ninth  and 
D  Streets,  was  "a  good  place  to  swim"  ;  and  when  the  "Chinese  Rafts"  on 
Feather  River,  west  of  the  county  hospital,  proved  a  magnet  for  the  boys 
bent  on  swimming  on  a  warm  day? 

"When  the  lot  upon  which  the  police  station  and  city  prison  now  stand 
was  occupied  by  a  residence  owned  by  a  man  named  Carr,  in  front  of  which 
images  of  two  large  dogs  were  kept ;  and  how  Carr,  when  he  removed  to  San 
Francisco,  took  the  dogs  with  him  and  planted  them  in  front  of  a  home 
which  he  built  in  the  metropolis? 

When  "old  man  Hatch"  was  janitor  of  the  B  Street  grammar  school, 
and  how,  for  years,  he  had  as  a  faithful  companion  a  brown  dog  which  splen- 
didly matched  his  complexion,  and  for  which  all  the  pupils  always  evinced 
'.he  greatest  respect? 

T.  J.  (Tom)  Powers,  who  kept  a  saloon  and  billiard  parlor  on  Second 
Street,  opposite  the  WTestern  Hotel,  and  who  daily  displayed  the  flag  of  the 
United  States,  or  of  some  other  country,  as  a  reminder  of  some  nation's 
holiday,  or  the  anniversary  of  some  great  battle,  or  other  event  of  the  past? 

Harry  Adkins,  for  years  and  years  pressman  in  the  office  of  the  Marys- 
ville  Appeal,  and  Frank  and  Ed  Cunningham,  who  were  hand-set  printers  on 
that  paper  for  forty  years? 

George  Harris  ("Six-shooter  George"),  watchman  and  stage  hand  at  the 
old  Marysville  Theater  for  most  of  his  life? 

John  Flattery,  who  kept  a  candy  and  notion  stand  in  the  Odd  Fellows 
Building,  and  who,  seated  in  his  one-hoss  shay,  attended  every  funeral, 
always  bringing  up  the  rear? 

When  Walter  E.  Langdon,  present  police  judge  of  Marysville,  was 
delivery  clerk  for  "Jim"  Rich,  grocer  of  Wheatland ;  and  how  he  sought  to 
reform  by  becoming  a  news-gatherer  for  a  Marysville  paper,  and  then  ad- 
vanced along  the  line  of  reformation  by  becoming  secretary  for  Marysville 
Lodge  of  Elks  and  finally  a  police  court  magistrate? 

Maurice  J.  Collis,  son  of  Erin,  who  became  the  star  reporter  on  the 
Marysville  Appeal,  holding  the  position  many  years,  until  his  death? 

When  the  outlet  for  teams  and  wagons  from  Marysville  to  the  east  was 
Simpson's  Lane,  an  extension  of  Seventh  Street  at  Yuba,  and  the  bridge  that 
crossed  the  river  in  that  lane,  before  the  crossing  was  moved  to  its  location 
at  the  foot  of  E  Street? 

"Tennessee  Bill"  (AYilliam  Goforth),  who  made  frequent  visits  to  both 
Yuba  City  and  Marysville,  and  raised  his  monstrous  fog-horn  voice  to  the 
four  points  of  the  compass  in  support  of  his  favored  political  candidate,  and 
generally  landed  in  jail  for  disturbing  the  peace? 

The  annual  picnic  of  St  Joseph's  Society  and  the  trip  by  river  steamer 
down  Feather  River  to  Hock  Farm,  where  the  lads  and  lassies  danced  their 
fill  and   the   families   of   the   two   counties   renewed   friendships   around   the 


lunches  spread  upon  the  grass,  and  where  there  were  always  several  couples 
to  dance  Irish  jigs  and  Scotch  hornpipes? 

When  Fifth  Street,  in  the  grain  season,  presented  a  long  line  of  wagons 
carrying  Sutter  County  wheat  and  barley  to  the  warehouses  of  the  Buckeye 
Mills  Company  for  storage? 

When  A.  Peri,  founder  of  the  Peri  Dancing  Academy  in  the  Peri  Build- 
■  ing  on  D  Street,  Third  and  Fourth,  thought  three  or  "four  months  in  the 
summer  season  was  the  limit  for  selling' ice  cream  and  ice  cream  sodas,  and 
closed  that  branch  of  his  business  for  the  remaining  months  of  the  year? 

When  "Uncle  Obe"  Sawtelle  was  collector  of  tolls  on  the  D  Street 
bridge,  and  how  deftly  he  manipulated  the  swinging  gates  on  the  Marysville 
end  of  the  bridge  at  the  approach  of  a  runaway  team,  thus  avoiding  damage 
to  the  bridge  and,  at  the  same  time,  protecting  rigs  and  drivers  who  were 
already  on  the  structure  ? 

When  "Uncle  Obe"  Sawteile  issued  a  pronunciamento  that  white  cows 
need  not  pay  toll  to  cross  the  bridge,  and  then  explained  that  the  owners 
of  course  would  pay,  and  not  the  cows? 

The  old  town  pump  and  the  watering-trough  that  stood  so  many  years 
at  the  corner  of  Bridge  and  Second  Streets  in  Yuba  City ;  and  "Uncle  Cale" 
Wilcoxon,  who,  with  others,  conducted  the  store  on  this  corner,  where  old 
cronies  gathered  to  enjoy  "Uncle  Cale's"  jokes  and  sallies? 

When  the  boys  switched  the  needle  on  "Uncle  Cale"  in  the  box  that 
looked  so  tempting  as  a  seat  to  the  weary? 

When  Yuba  City's  water-works  comprised  a  5000-gallon  tank  supported 
by  rough  beams,  and  located  on  a  lot  on  Second  Street  next  to  Jim  Orr's 
blacksmith  shop  ? 

The  history  of  that  early  landmark  of  Marysville,  the  huge  iron  ball 
standing  at  the  curb,  at  the  intersection  of  Sixth  and  Elm  Streets?  This 
ball  was  shipped  from  San  Francisco  in  the  early  fifties  by  way  of  Marysville, 
consigned  to  the  mines.  It  was  part  of  an  arrastre  to  be  used  in  crushing 
gold  ore.  By  the  time  it  reached  Marysville  it  was  found  to  be  damaged 
and  useless  for  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  intended.  The  teamsters  de- 
cided not  to  haul  it  further,  and  left  if  near  its  present  location,  in  the  stable 
from  which  they  started.  The  ball  was  shifted  about,  and  finally  was  taken 
charge  of  by  the  city  authorities,  who  later  substituted  it  for  a  corner  post. 

The  year  Jacob  Guenther  had  the  mail  route  between  the  railroad  depot 
and  the  Marysville  post-office,  and  the  spirited  pony  he  drove  attached  to 
his  spring  wagon,  and  how  every  other  vehicle  had  to  make  way  for  "Jake" 
when,  in  his  haste,  he  turned  the  corner  on  two  wheels? 

Harry  Keetly,  express  driver  for  Wells,  Fargo  &  Company  in  Marys- 
ville. who  died  after  years  spent  in  the  company's  service  in  the  business 
and  residence  districts? 

Photo    by    courtesy    of    Thomas    A.    McKenna,    of    San    Francisco,    formerly    a 

Y"uba   County 

ddent    of    Marysville 



No  more  striking  relic  of  the  times  when  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties  were 
in  the  swaddling-clothes  age  is  to  be  found  anywhere  than  a  gun  owned  by 
Dr.  J.  H.  Barr,  of  Yuba  City,  physician  of  Marysville  and  Yuba  City  and 
collector  of  ancient  and  modern  firearms.  At  first  sight,  this  immense  firearm 
appears  more  a  cannon  than  a  gun.  Six  feet  three  inches  in  length  and  weigh- 
ing thirty-five  pounds,  the  weapon  was  used  as  a  cannon  by  Gen.  John  A.  Sut- 
ter, after  whom  Sutter  County  was  named.  Mounted  on  a  swivel,  it  many 
times  served  to  repel  attacks  made  by  the  Indians  in  the  very  early  days  of 
Sutter  County,  when  General  Sutter  maintained  his  fort  at  Hock  Farm, 
nine  miles  south  of  Yuba  City  on  the  west  bank  of  Feather  River. 

The  immense  gun  was  added  to  Dr.  Barr's  collection  of  firearms  and 
curios  in  September,  1895.  The  doctor  has  ever  since  steadfastly  refused  to 
part  with  it.  At  one  time  the  officers  of  the  Grand  Parlor  of  Native  Sons  of 
the  Golden  West  offered  him  $1000  for  the  relic,  realizing  its  worth  as  a 
souvenir  of  the  days  the  memory  of  which  the  order  seeks  to  perpetuate  in 
California's  history. 

Better  than  any  story  that  can  be  written  of  the  gun  as  to  its  authentic- 
ity and  record,  is  an  affidavit  which  Dr.  Barr  always  keeps  attached  to  the 
relic.   This  affidavit  reads  as  follows : 

"This  gun  being  a  most  valued  historical  relic,,  its  authenticity  is  hereby 
preserved  by  the  following  affidavit : 

"  'David  J.  Kertchem  being  duly  sworn  says  that  the  large  gun  with 
swivel  attachment  and  the  words  and  figures  "Moore,  1770"  on  barrel  and  lock 
was  originally  the  property  of  General  John  A.  Sutter,  and  that  it  was  one  of 
the  guns  that  were  mounted  for  defense  and  used  for  several  years  prior  to 
1868  in  the  fort  at  General  Sutter's  ranch  on  the  Feather  River,  nine  miles 
south  of  Marysville,  known  as  Hock  Farm ;  that  the  said  gun  became,  in  the 
year  1870,  the  property  of  deponent's  father,  D.  J.  Kertchem,  Sr.,  who  in  that 
year,  being  the  lessee  of  Hock  Farm,  received  said  gun  as  a  present  from  the 
son  of  General  Sutter ;  that  the  said  gun  remained  in  the  possession  of  depon- 
ent's family  until  the  year  1895,  when  deponent  presented  it  to  Dr.  J.  H. 
Barr.     Signed,  D.  J.  Kertchem,  Jr.' 

"Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  me  this  30th  day  of  September,  A.  D. 
1898.    G.  W.  Harney,  Notary  Public,  Marysville,  Yuba  County,  California." 

Dr.  Barr  has  another  gun,  a  relic  of  General  Sutter's  days.  It  is  an  odd- 
looking  air  rifle  made  in  Vienna,  Austria,  and  brought  to  this  country  by  Gen- 
eral Sutter  from  Switzerland.  The  barrel  of  this  weapon,  which  carries  a 
small-caliber  bullet,  is  of  brass,  and  is  covered  with  reed.  The  stock  is  taper- 
ing, with  a  chamber  of  similar  shape,  into  which  air  was  pumped  at  a  pressure 
of  200  pounds  to  the  square  inch.  It  is  of  the  type  of  gun  that  since  has  been 
held  to  be  unlawful  to  possess,  on  account  of  the  absence  of  a  report. 

As  the  large  gun  represents  the  activities  of  early  days  in  Sutter  County, 
the  diminutive  form  alongside  of  it  represents  pioneer  days  in  Yuba  County. 
The  Lilliputian  is  Benny  Lynch,  Yuba's  shortest  male  resident,  who,  when 


asked  his  height,  invariably  replies:  "The  length  of  a  cord  stick  and  two 
inches  added,"  indicating  that  he  is  four  feet  two  inches  tall.  Lynch,  who 
long  has  been  a  character  on  Marysville's  streets,  was  born  in  Kentucky  in 
1848,  and  never  grew  much.  He  came  to  California  in  1852,  arriving  in 
Marysville  with  his  parents  on  the  same  boat  that  brought  to  this  city  Col. 
John  O.  Packard,  who  gave  to  Marysville  the  site  and  building  known  as  the 
Packard  Free  Library,  situate  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Fourth  and  C 
Streets.  As  a  young  man,  he  engaged  with  his  brother,  Hugh  Lynch,  in  the 
live-stock  business.  In  his  prime,  which  included  many  palmy  days,  he 
could  ride  broncos  "with  any  of  'em"  ;  and  though  not  much  for  height,  he 
always  held  his  own  with  the  rough  characters  with  which  his  business 
brought  him  in  contact. 



Sutter  County  was  one  of  the  original  counties  into  which  the  State  was 
divided  in  1850.  At  that  time  it  included  the  southwestern  portion  of  the 
later  created  Placer  County  and  a  piece  of  territory  along  the  west  that  now 
belongs  to  Colusa  County.  Territorial  changes — subtractions  or  additions — 
were  made  in  1851,  1852,  1854,  1856  and  1866,  before  the  boundaries  were 
finally  fixed  in  their  present  location. 


The  law  creating  the  county  located  the  county  seat  at  Oro,  but  that 
place  had  no  suitable  building,  so  the  Court  of  Sessions  at  its  first  meeting 
decreed  that  the  seat  of  government  should  be  at  Nicolaus  until  proper  build- 
ings were  available  at  Oro.  Early  in  1851  the  county  seat  was  moved  to  Au- 
burn, but  in  that  year  Auburn  became  the  county  seat  of  the  newly  created 
county  of  Placer.  Vernon  then  became  the  seat  of  government  for  Sutter 
County,  and  so  continued  for  about  a  year,  when  Nicolaus  again  attained  the 
coveted  prize  and  retained  it  for  two  years.  In  the  fall  of  1854  a  contested 
election  seems — the  records  are  very  obscure — to  have  given  the  county  seat 
to  Yuba  City  for  a  few  months,  but  later,  on  a  final  decision,  to  have  returned 
it  to  Nicolaus.  In  1856,  however,  an  election  was  held,  under  authorization  of 
the  legislature,  in  which  Yuba  City  was  selected  by  a  large  majority  as  the 
seat  of  government  for  the  county;  and  it  has  so  continued  to  the  present  clay. 

Judge  Keyser's  Review 

Perhaps  in  no  way  can  a  better  description  of  the  difficulties  attending  the 
selection  of  the  first  county  seat  of  Sutter  County  be  given  than  by  quoting 
from  a  sketch  written  and  delivered  by  Judge  Phil  W.  Keyser,  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  centennial  celebration  of  the  country's  independence  in  1876: 

"The  first  county  seat  was  Oro,  which  was  a  noble  city  of  broad  streets, 
imposing  buildings,  and  splendid  public  squares — on  paper — but  in  fact  a 
tract  of  land  fronting  on  the  south  bank  of  Bear  Creek,  and  distant  about  two 
miles  from  the  then  and  present  site  of  the  good  old  town  of  Nicolaus.  The 
tract  had  been  purchased  from  General  Sutter  by  Thomas  Jefferson  Green, 
who,  with  others  who  had  become  interested  with  him  in  the  enterprise,  had 
had  the  land  surveyed  and  laid  off  into  streets,  and  squares,  and  lots  ;  and  who, 


as  State  Senator  from  the  Senatorial  district  of  which  Sutter  County  formed 
a  part,  caused  this  paper  city  to  be  declared  by  the  legislature  the  county 
seat  of  Sutter  County.  Green  was  a  shrewd,  energetic  man,  of  a  fine,  impos- 
ing presence,  jolly,  good-natured,  frank,  bluff-mannered,  with  pleasant  coun- 
tenance and  persuasive  tongue.  It  was  necessary  for  him  to  bring  all  these 
advantages  into  play,  in  order  to  carry  his  point.  Auburn,  Nicolaus,  Vernon 
and  Yuba  City  were  all  aspirants  for  the  honor,  and  expected  benefits  of  the 
county-seatship,  while  each  was  not  only  better  fitted  for  it  than  Oro — which 
was  utterly  unfitted — but  was  well  entitled,  by  situation,  improvements,  and 
its  apparent  future,  to  claim  the  distinction.  Each,  therefore,  made  the  best 
fight  it  could  in  the  legislature  against  Oro  and  for  itself ;  but  the  active, 
talkative,  and  merry-mannered  Senator  for  the  district  won  the  day,  and  Oro 
became  the  first  county  seat. 

"A  pleasant  story,  illustrative  of  the  Senator's  modus  operandi,  is  told 
in  connection  with  the  history  of  that  contest.  Bear  Creek — or  River,  as  it 
was  sometimes  called — was  in  those  days  a  small  but  pretty  stream,  quietly 
and  lazily  wandering  through  the  foothills  down  to  the  plains,  where  it  me- 
andered between  well-defined  and  well-wooded  banks,  its  calm  flow  disturbed 
and  impeded  by  trees  and  underbrush  growing  thickly  in  the  midst  of  its 
clear  waters,  to  Feather  River,  with  which  it  formed  a  junction  at  a  point 
a  mile  or  two  above  Nicolaus.  Of  course  it  was  unnavigable  to  all  but  small 
oar-boats,  while  the  large  river  steamers,  of  which  the  largest  and  finest  at 
that  time  was  named  the  'Senator,'  could  even  at  the  highest  waters  scarcely 
enter  its  mouth.  Green,  however,  in  describing,  during  the  discussion  of 
the  county-seat  question,  the  advantages  of  his  town  of  Oro,  spoke  of  the 
splendid  river  on  which  it  was  situated,  the  waters  of  which  (he  asserted), 
when  at  the  lowest  stage  of  a  long  and  dry  summer,  could  be  easily  navigated. 
A  brother  Senator,  who  knew  Green's  weakness  for  hyperbole,  interrupted  by 
asking  him  if  he  meant  to  say  that  the  river  steamers  could  navigate  Bear 
River  at  its  lowest  stage  of  water.  'I  mean  to  say,'  replied  Green,  'that  the 
Senator  can  navigate  it  at  any  time  of  the  year.'  After  adjournment  one  ac- 
cused him  of  having — to  put  it  mildly — stretched  the  truth  in  saying  that  a 
steamer  like  the  'Senator'  could  navigate  Bear  River.  T  never  said,'  answered 
Green,  'that  the  steamer  "Senator"  could;  I  said  the  Senator  could,  but  I 
meant  the  Senator  who  had  asked  the  impertinent  question.' 

"Oro,  however,  enjoyed  the  honor — if  it  enjoyed  it  at  all — but  a  short 
time.  There  was  not  a  house  or  a  building  in  the  town  for  any  purpose,  much 
less  for  holding  court,  the  transaction  of  county  business,  and  the  preserva- 
tion of  public  records.  Some  preparation  must  be  made  by  the  owners  of  the 
town  to  enable  the  first  term,  at  least,  of  court  to  be  held  at  the  county  seat ; 
and  to  this  end  they  erected,  or  rather  placed  upon  the  ground,  a  zinc  build- 
ing, about  twenty  by  twenty  feet  in  size,  with  a  floor  of  rough  boards,  a  roof 
of  zinc — if  I  remember  correctly — and  holes  cut  for  the  Court,  the  litigants, 
the  witnesses,  the  jurors,  and  the  air,  but  without  glass  or  shutters  for  the 
windows,  or  doors  for  the  entrances.  Not  a  tree,  or  bush,  or  shrub,  grew  near 
enough  to  give  its  shade  to  the  building.  A  May  sun  poured  its  rays  upon 
that  zinc  building,  until  outside  and  inside  it  became  almost  as  hot  as  the 
furnace  of  Shadrach,  Meshech,  and  Abednego.  Law  and  equity,  lawyers  and 
litigants,  jurors  and  witnesses,  with  a  spontaneity  of  action  that  would 
astonish  nothing  but  a  salamander,  rushed  out  of  and  fled  that  building, 
never  again  to  return." 

County  Courthouse 

The  first  permanent  courthouse  in  Yuba  City  was  erected  in  1858  and 
continued  in  use  until  1871,  when  it  was  destroyed  by  fire.  A  new  and  better 
building  was  completed  in  1872.   This  also  was  almost  completely  destroyed 


by  fire  in.  1899.  It  was  rebuilt,  however,  and  is  still  in  use,  with  alterations 
made  to  it  in  1922-1923,  when  a  room  was  added  for  jurors  on  the  upper  floor 
at  the  rear  of  the  court  room,  the  county  treasurer's  quarters  were  enlarged, 
and  the  jail  made  more  secure. 

The  building  has  brick  walls,  but  the  floors  and  much  of  the  interior 
finish  are  of  wood,  and  it  cannot  be  considered  fireproof.  All  of  the  county 
offices,  except  those  of  the  clerk,  auditor-recorder,  and  district  attorney,  are 
in  this  building.  The  offices  of  the  first-named  two  are  in  the  Hall  of  Records, 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Courthouse,  while  the  district  attorney,  in  April,  1923, 
was  given  more  spacious  quarters  in  the  then  newly  constructed  Von  Geldern 
Building  on  Second  Street,  south  of  the  Courthouse. 

Hall  of  Records 

The  Hall  of  Records,  completed  in  1892,  is  constructed  of  brick  and  stone, 
with  a  concrete  floor  and  iron  doors.  It  consists  of  a  main  office,  where  the 
records  are  kept,  and  two  smaller  offices  on  either  side  of  the  entrance.  The 
fixtures  are  of  metal,  and  of  the  type  usually  found  in  such  buildings. 

The  Courthouse  and  Hall  of  Records  are  well  isolated  from  other  build- 
ings, occupying  half  of  a  large  block,  and  being  surrounded  upon  all  sides 
by  extensive  lawns. 

Nicolaus,  Auburn  and  Vernon  as  County  Seat 

Reverting  to  the  days  when  Nicolaus,  Auburn  and  Vernon  were  playing 
the  "on  again,  off  again"  game  on  the  county-seat  question,  it  should  be  ex- 
plained that  when  court  was  first  held  in  Nicolaus  a  private  residence  was 
used.  At  Auburn  a  place  was  provided  by  citizens. 

June  2,  1851,  when  the  county  seat  was  settled  at  Vernon,  the  following 
appears  on  the  record  of  the  Court  of  Sessions:  "William  B.  Olds  appeared 
in  behalf  of  E.  O.  Crosby,  and  made  a  tender  of  two  buildings  in  the  town 
of  Vernon  for  the  use  of  the  county,  free  of  charge."  Court  was,  however, 
held  in  the  hotel  owned  by  Captain  Savage.  Only  one  prisoner  was  confined 
there,  and  he  was  made  secure  by  putting  him  in  one  of  the  rooms  with  a 
chain  around  his  leg,  the  other  end  of  the  chain  being  passed  through  a  hole  in 
the  wall  and  made  fast  by  a  clog. 

After  the  return  of  the  county  seat  to  Nicolaus,  the  American  Hotel 
served  as  a  place  for  holding  court,  and  for  the  offices  of  the  county  officers, 
until  1855.  From  that  time  until  the  county  seat. was  removed  to  Yuba  City, 
Frederick  Vahle's  house  was  used  for  these  county  purposes.  Sutter  County 
had  as  yet  no  jail,  and  prisoners  had  to  be  conveyed  to  Marysville,  and  con- 
fined in  the  Yuba  County  jail,  entailing  considerable  additional  expense. 

The  Courthouse  Fire  of  1871 

We  have  referred  to  the  destruction  of  the  Courthouse  at  Yuba  City  by 
fire  in  1871.  An  account  of  this  fire  is  given  in  the  Sutter  County  Banner, 
under  the  date  of  December  23,  1871,  as  follows : 

"Between  three  and  four  o'clock,  Wednesday  morning,  December  20,  the 
Courthouse  was  discovered  to  be  on  fire,  and  was  soon  entirely  consumed. 
Some  of  the  officers  succeeded  in  saving  the  valuable  contents  of  their  offices. 
The  safes  in  the  various  offices  and  the  vault  preserved  their  contents,  though 
in  some  cases  somewhat  injured.  The  treasurer's  safe  contained  $38,000, 
which  was  recovered.  All  the  documents  that  had  been  filed  for  record  since 
October  were  burned,  and  many  old  books  of  the  county  and  some  court  rec- 
ords were  destroyed.  The  district  attorney  lost  nearly  everything  in  his  office 
while  the  contents  of  the  sheriff's  office  were  saved.  The  building  was  insured 
for  $5000.  By  some;  the  fire  was  supposed  to  have  been  an  incendiary  one, 
while  others  believed  it  to  be  accidental.    It  originated  in  the  county  clerk's 


office,  where  work  had  been  suspended  at  eight  o'clock  the  evening  before, 
and  the  generally  accepted  version  is  that  the  fire  was  caused  by  mice  gnaw- 
ing the  heads  of  matches  that  had  been  left  in  the  office." 

Details  of  the  Fire  of  1899 

An  insane  prisoner  detained  for  commitment  in  a  padded  cell  on  the 
lower  floor  of  the  Courthouse  started  the  fire  that  destroyed  that  building  in 
April,  1899.  The  Sutter  County  Farmer  of  April  28,  1899,  records  the  fol- 
lowing details  of  the  conflagration : 

"By  the  acts  of  an  insane  man  the  Sutter  County  Courthouse  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire  last  Friday  night,  leaving  nothing  but  brick  walls  and  black- 
ened ruins  representing  the  $25,000  building  which  has  been  the  headquarters 
for  county  business  for  the  past  twenty-seven  years.  About  two  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  Deputy  Sheriff  C.  B.  Fields,  who  slept  in  the  room  adjoining 
the  sheriff's  office,  was  awakened  by  stifling  smoke.  Running  into  the  main 
corridor,  Fields  saw  flames  shooting  out  of  a  small  grated  window  of  the  in- 
sane ward,  in  which  was  confined  Richard  Wills,  a  Cornishman,  who  was  in 
custody  awaiting  commitment  to  the  Stockton  asylum.  Fields  gave  the  alarm 
and  dashed  a  number  of  buckets  of  water  through  the  window.  The  night 
watchman  'and  J.  L.  Wilcoxon  soon  arrived  on  the  scene,  also  W.  H.  Camp- 
bell, H.  P.  Fulton,  Thomas  Giblin  and  others.  An  effort  was  made  to  get  the 
Cornishman  out.  The  outer  door  of  his  cell  was  unlocked  and  the  door  to 
the  padded  cell  broken  down.  For  a  moment  nothing,  but  flames  and  stifling 
smoke  could  be  seen ;  but  by  throwing  a  lot  of  water  into  the  interior,  the  un- 
fortunate man's  body  was  found  lying  in  the  corner  of  the  cell  on  its  back, 
burned  and  charred  in  a  horrible  manner.  It  was  impossible  at  that  stage  to 
recover  the  remains. 

"The  fire  by  this  time  was  creeping  to  the  second  story.  Hose  from  the 
water  works  was  secured,  and  the  pumps  started ;  but  the  fire  could  not  be 
reached  by  the  inadequate  stream.  All  the  county  officers  were  soon  on  the 
scene.  All  bent  their  efforts  to  get  out  the  records  from  their  offices,  assisted 
by  citizens  in  large  number.  The  offices  of  the  district  attorney,  sheriff,  as- 
sessor, treasurer,  and  surveyor,  being  on  the  first  floor,  were  easy  of  access, 
and  with  few  exceptions  the  books,  papers,  records,  etc.,  were  carried  out. 
On  the  second  floor,  it  was  not  so  easy.  A  ladder  was  raised  to  a  window  of 
the  school  superintendent's  office,  and  Superintendent  Kline  succeeded  in  sav- 
ing his  ledger,  account  books,  minute  book  and  other  papers.  He,  however, 
lost  his  maps  and  a  number  of  reports.  From  the  Superior  Court  room  noth- 
ing was  saved.  The  furnishings  of  the  supervisors'  room  and  the  desk  and 
papers  of  the  board  of  directors  of  Eevee  District  No.  1,  including  old  vouch- 
ers and  record  books,  were  also  burned.  During  the  fire  the  big  safe  in  the 
office  of  Assessor  McRae  went  through  the  floor  into  the  basement.  Not, 
however,  before  McRae  had  emptied  it  of  its  contents.  A  stream  of  water 
poured  on  the  safe  in  the  treasurer's  office  saved  the  papers  and  records  that 
were  not  taken  out  of  it  earlier.  The  sheriff  also  recovered  his  papers  intact. 
The  jail  on  the  west  side  of  the  building  was  not  destroyed,-  but  the  bedding 
was  partially  burned.  Coroner  P.  W.  Rowe,  assisted  by  Coroner  Hopkins 
of  Yuba  County,  recovered  the  remains  of  Wills  when  the  ruins  of  the  build- 
ing had  cooled  off.  Acting  on  the  coroner's  jury  were  W.  E.  Tucker,  foreman, 
H.  C.  Clark,  C.  J.  White,  S.  D.  Jones,  Edwin  White,  and  R.  C.  Kells." 

The  county  officers  were  forced  to  take  temporary  quarters  in  the  Hall 
of  Records.  The  necessity  of  fire-plugs  for  Yuba  City,  and  reels  of  hose  on 
both  floors  of  the  Courthouse,  from  then  on  became  apparent. 



The  Buttes  that  form  such  a  prominent  feature  in  the  landscape  of 
Sutter  have  been  known  by  various  names  since  they  came  to  the 
knowledge  of  white  men.  They  were  spoken  of  by  Fremont  in  1843  as  "The 
Three  Buttes."  In  the  grants  made  to  Captain  Sutter,  they  are  called 
"los  tres  picos."  Later  they  were  called  "Sutter's  Buttes"  and  "Marysville 
Buttes,"  but  are  now  generally  spoken  of  as  the  "Sutter  County   Buttes." 

The  County  of  Butte,  which  adjoins  Sutter  County  on  the  north,  re- 
ceived its  name  from  these  noted  peaks,  although  at  that  time  they  were  in 
Sutter  County.  In  1852,  the  boundary  between  these  two  counties  was 
changed  so  as  to  include  the  Buttes  in  Butte  County ;  but  twro  years  later 
they  were  restored,  and  have  ever  since  been  a  part  of  Sutter  County. 

They  are  undoubtedly  of  volcanic  origin,  and  form  but  one  link  in  a 
chain  of  volcanic  peaks,  being  distinguished,  however,  from  the  others  by 
rising  abruptly  from  the  plain,  apparently  disconnected  from  the  others,  and 
standing  like  ever  wakeful  sentinels  to  guard  the  slumbering  valley.  That 
they  are  of  no  recent  formation  is  evident ;  they  bear  the  same  marks,  fossils, 
etc.,  as  are  found  on  Mt.  Diablo  and  the  Coast  Range.  A  scientist  who 
recently  surveyed  them,  in  connection  with  borings  being  made  for  oil, 
declared  that  the  Buttes  are  older  by  a  million  years  than  the  Coast  Range. 
In  his  opinion  they  at  one  time  were  part  of  an  island  projecting  from 
the  surface  of  the  ocean. 

The  Buttes  consist  of  three  principal  peaks,  called  North  Butte,  South 
Butte,  and  East  Butte — the  highest  with  an  altitude  of  about  1800  feet — 
and  a  great  number  of  lesser  peaks  lying  between  and  around  them.  From 
different  points  of  observation  they  present  various  forms — three  peaks, 
however,  always  appearing  as  the  characteristic  feature — the  alteration  in 
their  aspect  being  caused  by  the  difference  in  the  contour  of  their  several 
sides,  and  the  appearance  of  the  smaller  hills. 

A  narrow  valley  running  through  the  Buttes  from  east  to  west  is  known 
as  the  South  Pass.  This  is  a  portion  of  the  old  stage  road  running  from 
Marysville  to  Colusa.  In  another  chapter  is  described  a  monument  dedi- 
cated on  April  15,  1923,  to  the  memory  of  John  C.  Fremont,  the  "Pathfinder," 
and  placed  in  the  pass  on  the  spot  where  Fremont  camped  in  1846. 

We  find  the  following  remarks  in  Volume  3,  page  486,  of  Hutchings' 
California  Magazine :  "This  mountain  towers  boldly  out  like  a  large  island 
above  the  plain  upon  which  it  stands,  to  the  height  of  1800  feet,  and  is 
almost  as  grand  a  landmark  to  the  residents  of  this  latitude  as  Mt.  Diablo 
is   to  those  of  San  Francisco." 

Mineral  Deposits 

The  Marysville  Herald,  in  its  issue  of  July  24,  1851,  said  that  "Butte 
Hill,"  near  the  big  butte,  was  yielding  to  miners  from  $6  to  $20  per  day, 
that  the  number  of  miners  was  increasing  daily,  and  that  a  company  of  three 
took  out  a  pound  and  a  quarter  of  gold  in  one  day. 

In  1867  three  small  veins  of  coal  were  found  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Buttes,  and  later  more  was  discovered  on  the  east  side  on  the  farm  of  S. 
Moody.  Only  small  quantities  were  taken  out,  and  the  idea  of  finding  coal 
there  in  commercial  quantities  has  long  ago  been  abandoned. 


While  the  high  yield  of  every  crop  grown  in  Sutter  County  can  be 
very  largely  attributed  to  the  superior  soil  and  abundant  water  supply  that 
are  among  the  county's  prominent  advantages,  the  superior  quality  of  its 
present-day  agricultural  products  is  in  large  measure  due  to  still  another 
factor,   California's   sun-kissed   climate,   the   magical   wonder-worker   that  is 


responsible  for  'the  marvelous  advancement  in  the  State's  agricultural  and 
horticultural  interests.  To  the  dry,  warm,  rainless  and  fogless  days,  are  due 
the  flavor,  and  the  blush  upon  the  cheek,  of  Sutter  County's  deciduous  and 
citrus  fruits.  During  the  winter  the  thermometer  seldom  goes  below  thirty 
degrees  above  zero,  and  a  trace  of  snow  once  in  twelve  or  fifteen  years  is 
about  the  average.  The  rainy  season  is  expected  to  last  from  October  to 
April,  with  an  average  rainfall  of  about  twenty-three  inches.  A  storm  with 
a  precipitation  of  from  one  to  three  inches  is  usually  followed  by  a  few  days 
of  warm,  sunshiny  weather,  even  in  midwinter. 


While  practically  every  crop  can  be  grown  without  irrigation  in  Sutter 
County,  experience  of  years  has  demonstrated  beyond  all  question  that  irri- 
gation pays  handsomely.  The  tendency  is  constantly  in  the  direction  of 
more  irrigation ;  and  the  artificial  application  of  water  to  field  crops,  as 
well  as  to  orchards  and  vineyards,  is  increasing  rapidly,  because  there  is  no 
doubt  that  yields  have  been  considerably  increased  and  the  quality  of  prod- 
ucts materially  improved  through  irrigation. 

In  speaking  of  this  section  of  California  in  1922,  Prof.  Elwood  Meade, 
recognized  as  the  foremost  authority  on  irrigation  in  this  State,  said :  "The 
available  water  supply  of  this  valley  ought  to  make  it  the  Egypt  of  the 
Western   Hemisphere." 

At  comparatively  small  expense,  an  abundance  of  water  for  irrigation 
purposes  seems  ahead  for  Sutter  County.  Both  the  Sacramento  and  Feather 
Rivers  furnish  an  inexhaustible  supply  to  those  living  along  their  banks ; 
and  a  pumping  plant  easily  and  cheaply  lifts  the  water  into  the  distributing 
ditches.  Hundreds  of  landowners  already  have  sunk  wells  and  are  irrigating 
with  pumps  driven  by  electricity,  as  power  lines  reach  to  about  every  nook 
and  corner  of  Sutter  County. 


Reclamation  projects,  past  and  present,  have  worked  wonders  for  Sutter 
County.  Of  reclamation  districts  the  county,  at  the  present  time,  has  nine, 
besides  being  subject  to  assessments  under  the  great  flood-control  plan  of 
the  State  known  as  the  Sacramento  and  San  Joaquin  Assessment  No.  1, 
and  Sutter-Butte  By-pass  Assessment  No.  6. 

Names  and  Locations  of  Districts 

The  names  and  locations  of  the  reclamation  districts  are  as  follows : 
District  No.  70,  near  Meridian ;  District  No.  777 ,  in  the  Live  Oak  section ; 
District  No.  803,  on  the  old  Rideout  ranch  and  between  Marcuse  and  the 
tules;  District  No.  1000,  partly  in  Sutter  County  and  partly  in  Sacramento 
County;  District  No.  1001,  located  partly  in  Placer  County,  and  along  Bear 
River  south  to  Vernon;  District  No.  1500,  being  the  Sutter  Basin  Project; 
District  No.  1660,  located  north  of  District  No.  1500;  District  No.  2054,  located 
in  the  northern  portion  of  the  county  in  the  old  Snake  River  and  Morrison 
Slough  section,  being  partly  in  Butte  County ;  and  District  No.  2056,  which 
adjoins  District  No.  2054. 

Besides  the  reclamation  districts,  there  are  two  levee  districts,  No.  1 
and  No.  9.  District  No.  1  extends  from  Yuba  City  south  to  the  Marcuse 
levee,  and  westward.  District  No.  9  lies  to  the  north  of  Yuba  City  and 
extends  westerly.  Its  levee  joins  that  of  District  No.  1  near  Franklin  Corners. 

The  Sutter  Basin  Project 

Of  the  reclamation  districts  in  Sutter  County,  District  No.  1500  is  the 
largest,   covering  66,200  acres,   of  which   the   Sutter   Basin   Company   owns 


approximately  45,000  acres,  giving  it  the  generally  accepted  name  of  "Sutter 
Basin  Project." 

Prior  to  its  purchase  by  the  present  owners,  Sutter  Basin  was  an  over- 
flow basin  of  the  Sacramento  and  Feather  Rivers,  covered  by  a  sea  of  tules. 
It  was  like  several  other  large  areas  of  bottom  land  of  the  Sacramento  Valley, 
which  have  since  been  reclaimed  and  are  now  reckoned  among  the  richest 
soils  in   the   State. 

The  Sutter  Basin  Company  had  a  careful  survey  of  this  area  made  by 
experts,  and  decided  that  the  natural  richness  of  the  soil  would  well  repay 
for  its  reclamation.  Accordingly,  development  work  was  started.  Today  the 
district  (created  by  the  California  legislature  of  1913)  is  entirely  surrounded 
by  substantial  levees,  averaging  250  feet  at  the  base.  Provision  for  the 
carrying  away  of  flood  water  that  formerly  filled  the  Basin  was  made  by 
the  construction  of  the  Sutter  By-pass  in  conformity  to  the  general  flood  con- 
trol plan  adopted  by  the  Federal  government  and  the  State  of  California. 
All  reclamation  works  were  carried  out  on  plans  approved  by  the  California 
State  Reclamation  Board. 

To  carry  off  water  that  fell  within  the  district,  and  seepage  water,  a 
complete  drainage  system  was  built.  It  includes  a  main  canal  of  18  miles, 
54T/2  miles  of  lateral  canals,  and  190  miles  of  sub-lateral  canals,  with  a  gigan- 
tic pumping  plant  consisting  of  six  50-inch  pumps,  each  operated  by  a 
800-horse-power  motor,  at  the  lower  end  of  the  district,  with  a  capacity  of 
480,000  gallons  per  minute,  so  that  every  acre  of  land  within  the  district  is 
amply  drained  at  all  seasons  of  the  year. 

It  was  the  policy  of  the  company  to  crop  the  land  from  the  beginning 
for  the  twofold  purpose  of  helping  to  pay  development  expenses  and  to 
prove  the  soil.  In  fact,  the  first  year  the  pumping  plant  was  completed,  even 
before  the  levees  had  been  finished,  the  company's  lands  were  cropped.  That 
year  the  Basin  filled  up  as  usual,  but  the  pumping  plant  was  able  to  empty 
it  in  twenty-one  days.  Pumps  were  started  on  the  25th  day  of  May,  and. 
by  the  15th  of  June  planting  of  beans  was  begun.  That  year  the  Basin  pro- 
duced a  large  crop  of  beans,  and  each  year  thereafter. 

In  addition  to  carrying  through  a  safe  reclamation  plan,  the  Sutter  Basin 
Company  pioneered  in  providing  a  thorough  system  of  irrigation  for  its  river- 
bottom  lands.  The  owners  became  convinced  from  investigation  and  obser- 
vation, that  while  river-bottom  lands  will  give  good  returns  without  surface 
irrigation,  the  application  of  water  would  pay.  Accordingly,  an  irrigation 
as  complete  as  the  drainage  system  was  built.  It  was  used  for  the  first  time 
in  the  season  of  1919.  This  system  includes  a  pumping  plant  at  the  upper 
end  of  the  district,  consisting  of  three  42-inch  pumps,  each  operated  by  a 
250-horse-power  motor,  capable  of  delivering  48,000  gallons  of  water  per 
minute,  and  three  42-inch  pumps,  each  operated  by  a  300-horse-power  motor, 
capable  of  delivering  56,000  gallons  of  water  per  minute,  the  total  capacity 
of  the  plant  being  312,000  gallons  per  minute. 

In  addition  to  the  main  pumping  plant,  there  is  an  auxiliary  plant  at 
State  Ranch  Bend  with  one  24-inch  pump  operated  by  a  200-horse-power 
motor,  with  a  capacity  of  20,000  gallons  per  minute ;  also  a  pumping  plant 
at  Portuguese  Bend  with  two  24-inch  pumps,  each  operated  by  a  200-horse- 
power  motor  and  having  a  total  capacity  of  40,000  gallons  per  minute. 

All  irrigation  water  is  pumped  from  the  Sacramento  River.  The  main 
irrigation  canal  is  sufficiently  large,  and  carries  enough  water,  to  float  a 
river  steamer.  Laterals  and  sub-laterals  carry  gravity  water  to  every  acre 
•of  land  owned  by  the  company.  The  entire  west  edge  of  the  district  lies 
along  the  Sacramento  River,  which  provides  transportation  by  boat  and 
barge.     In  addition,  however,  the  Southern  Pacific  Railway  has  built  a  line 


through  the  heart  of  the  district,  eighteen  miles  north  and  south,  and  there 
are  several  grain  warehouses  and  vegetable  packing  houses  built  along  this 
line.  Roads  from  all  parts  of  the  district  afford  ample  connection  between 
the  farming  lands  and  the  railroad. 

The  soil  is  an  alluvial  deposit,  commonly  known  as  river  bottom,  the 
result  of  ages  of  silt-wash  from  the  Sacramento  and  Feather  Rivers.  The 
crops  that  have  been  grown  there  are  indicated  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 
The  climate  is  the  good  growing  climate,  with  a  long  growing  season,  which 
characterizes  the  Sacramento  Valley. 


A  list  of  Sutter  County's  crops  would  read  like  an  index  to  a  nursery 
catalogue,  with  a  few  extras  thrown  in  for  good  measure.  Experience  seems 
to  show  that  peaches,  prunes,  cherries,  almonds,  grapes  (seedless  for  drying 
and  for  the  table),  plums,  figs,  beans,  grain,  and  rice  hold  the  most  important 
places  in  public  favor. 

Other  products,  of  lesser  prominence,  are  pears,  oranges,  lemons,  pome- 
granates, apples,  walnuts,  olives,  corn,  and  vegetables  of  all  kinds. 

Dairying  and  poultry-raising  are  conducted  on  an  extensive  scale  and 
yield  large  returns.  Dairy  cows,  poultry  and  hogs  run  on  green  feed  the  entire 
year,  the  mild  and  snowless  winters  being  ideal  for  stock  of  all  kinds.  When 
the  ground  is  too  wet,  during  the  rainy  season,  to  permit  stock  to  be  pas- 
tured on  alfalfa,  they  are  fed  from  open  racks  in  the  corrals. 

Creameries  are  within  easy  reach  of  the  dairymen.  Auto  trucks  are  sent 
out  to  the  principal  dairy  sections  to  pick  up  the  cream  and  milk  right  at 
the  dairyman's  door.  Large  quantities  of  cream  are  also  shipped  by  fast 
electric  trains  and  steam  trains  to  creameries  at  Marysville,  Sacramento,  and 
other  near-by  cities.  Sutter  County  offers  unusual  opportunities  to  dairymen, 
and  because  of  this  opportunity  this  industry  has  increased  several-fold  dur- 
ing the  last  few  years. 


Frequent,  rapid  and  convenient  transportation  is  a  live  issue  in  any 
progressive  and  hustling  community.  Here,  again — and  literally  speaking — 
Sutter  County  "delivers  the  goods."  Exceptional  land  and  water  transporta- 
tion facilities  keep  every  corner  of  the  county  in  intimate  touch  with  the 
world  and  its  markets.  Two  steam  railroads,  the  Southern  Pacific  and 
Western  Pacific,  pass  through  the  county;  one  electric  railway,  the  Sacra- 
mento Northern,  connects  with  boats  and  another  electric  line  at  Sacramento 
for  San  Francisco ;  and  the  Sacramento  River,  which  bounds  Sutter  County 
on  one  side  for  some  fifty  miles,  while  having  practically  no  passenger  busi- 
ness, yet  conveys  millions  of  dollars'  worth  of  farm  products  to  Sacramento 
and  San  Francisco.  Street-car  service  between  Yuba  City,  the  county  seat 
of  Sutter  County,  and  Marysville,  the  county  seat  of  Yuba  County,  a  mile 
away,  across  the  Feather  River,  is  maintained  by  the  Sacramento  Northern 
Railroad.  In  order  to  convey  an  idea  of  the  present  splendid  transportation 
facilities  of  the  county,  it  is  only  necessary  to  say  that  there  are  about 
forty  steam  and  electric  trains  passing  through  the  county  daily. 

In  addition  to  its  present  road  system,  the  county  has  been  engaged, 
since  1922,  in  building  a  complete  system  of  concrete  highways,  such  as  will 
give  to  every  part  of  the  county  the  best  roads  that  money  and  engineering 
skill  are  able  to  produce. 

Early  Ferries  and  Toll  Bridges 
As  a  contrast  to  modern-day  methods  of  transit,  an  account  of  across- 
river  transportation  in   the  early  days   may  be  of  interest  here.     The   first 
ferry  in  Sutter  County  was  established  in  1843  by  Captain  Sutter  and  Nico- 


laus  Allgeier,  at  the  crossing  of  the  Feather  River,  near  the  town  of  Nicolaus. 
This  ferry  was  on  the  route  from  Sutter  Fort  to  Hock  Farm.  In  1849  All- 
geier had'  a  man  named  Ljntner  to  operate  the  ferry,  during  which  year  a 
new  and  large  boat  was  .constructed. 

The  first  ferry  license  was  granted  by  the  Court  of  Sessions,  on  June  11, 
1850.  It  was  a  license  granting  Samuel  S.  Bayless  and  Sarshel  Woods  the 
privilege  for  one  year  of  keeping  a  ferry  across  Feather  River,  immediately 
above  the  mouth  of  the  Yuba,  and  establishing  the  following  rates  of  toll: 
For  one  wagon,  empty,  $2;  freight,  per  cwt.,  12^4  cents;  mules,  cattle  and 
horses,  per  head,  50  cents ;  foot  passengers,  25  cents  ;  man  and  horse,  75  cents. 

The  same  day,  a  license  was  granted  to  F.  Hereford  and  J.  P.  Jones 
to  operate  a  ferry  for  one  year  across  Sacramento  River  between  the  towns 
of  Vernon  and  Freemont,  with  the  same  rates. 

On  November  19,  1850,  the  license  to  S.  S.  Bayless  and  S.  Woods  for  a 
ferry  at  Yuba  City  was  cancelled,  and  a  new  one  was  issued  to  Elias  Bay- 
less and  James  Irving. 

On  June  18,  1851,  the  licenses  for  ferries  at  Nicolaus,  Vernon  and  Yuba 
City  were  renewed,  with  a  change  in  the  rates  of  toll.  There  appears  to 
have  been  no  settled  rate  for  all  places,  as  these  three,  all  granted  the  same 
day,  varied  considerably,  with  the  difference  chiefly  in  favor  of  Vernon. 

On  April  12,  1852,  James  G.  Morehead  was  granted  a  license  to  operate 
a  ferry  across  Sacramento  River  opposite  Knight's  Landing ;  and  on  June  7, 
C.  D.  Semple  was  given  a  license  for  one  across  Sacramento  River  from 
the  town  of  Colusa  to  a  point  in  Sutter  County. 

On  December  6,  1852,  J.  L.  Burtis  and  Claude  Chana  were  granted  a 
license  for  the  construction  and  operation  of  a  ferry  across  Bear  River  at  the 
place  known  as  Burtis,  or  Chana's  Ranch. 

Stephen  H.  Winter  received  a  license,  August  1,  1853,  for  a  ferry  across 
Sacramento  River,  at  a  point  two  miles  below  Butte  Creek.  He  had  run  it 
without  a  license  since  the  previous  October,  for  which  he  was  fined  $30. 

Before  the  county  was  able  to  go  into  the  bridge-building  business,  a 
dozen  other  ferries  were  established  by  private  parties,  including  one  to 
accommodate  the  Marysville-Colusa  stage  line. 

Toll  bridges  were  the  next  means  used  for  crossing  the  streams.  These 
took  the  place  of  the  ferry  boats,  except  where  they  would  be  an  obstruc- 
tion to  navigation,  until  they  in  turn  gave  way  to  free  bridges  built  at  the 
expense  of  the  county.  The  first  license  for  a  toll  bridge  was  granted  on 
August  1,  1851,  to  John  Barham  at  Barham's  Crossing.  The  rates  of  toll 
were  fixed  as  follows:  Six-horse,  -ox  or  -mule  team,  $1.50;  ditto,  empty,  $1.00; 
four-horse,  -ox  or  -mule  team,  $1.00;  ditto,  empty,  75  cents;  two-horse,  -ox  or 
-mule  team,  75  cents;  same,  empty,  50  cents;  horse  and  buggy,  50  cents; 
pack  animal,  25  cents;  foot  passenger,  \2y2  cents ;  loose  stock,  per  head,  \2y2- 
cents ;  hogs,  sheep  and  goats,  per  head,  6j4  cents. 

On  October  6,  1851,  J.  L.  Burtis  and  W.  B.  Campbell  received  a  license 
to  keep  a  bridge  across  Bear  River  at  the  town  of  Kearney,  or  Johnson's 

On  December  9,  1854,  Samuel  Crawford  was  granted  a  license  to  keep 
a  toll  bridge  across  Bear  River  at  Kempton's  Crossing.  The  bridge  was  built 
the  year  before. 

The  only  chartered  toll  bridge  across  Feather  River  was  erected  by 
George  M.  Hanson  from  Yuba  City  to  Marysville  in  1853,  being  completed 
in  September.  It  was  a  cheap  truss  bridge,  about  350  feet  in  length,  and  cost 
$20,000.  In  1854,  one  span  broke  down  under  the  weight  of  a  drove  of  cattle, 
but  was  soon  repaired.  At  this  time  John  C.  Fall  became  one  of  the  proprie- 
tors.  The  next  year  W.  S.  Webb,  proprietor  of  an  opposition  ferry  line,  be- 


came  a  part-owner  of  the  bridge.  It  was  reconstructed  in  1859.  During  the 
flood  of  1861,  the  bridge  was  carried  away  while  two  teams  were  crossing, 
injuring  one  man  slightly. 

For  many  years  thereafter,  Marysville  and  Yuba  City  people  were  accom- 
modated by  a  strongly  built  covered  bridge  across  Feather  River,  which  struc- 
ture was  removed  in  the  year  1905  to  make  way  for  the  combination  wagon 
and  railroad  bridge  erected  by  the  Northern  Electric  Company  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  counties  of  Yuba  and  Sutter. 


Sutter  County  has  the  honor  of  having  been  the  first  "no-saloon"  county 
in  the  State  of  California ;  and  its  communities  are  correspondingly  law- 
abiding.  It  has  fewer  criminal  cases  than  any  other  county  in  the  State.  It 
is  the  home  and  nursery  of  the  famous  Thompson  Seedless  Grape  industry.  It 
is  likewise  the  home  and  nursery  of  the  famous  Phillips  Cling  Peach,  and 
the  largest  cling-peach-growing  section  in  the  State.  It  is  the  county  where 
oranges  and  lemons  ripen  six  weeks  earlier  than  hundreds  of  miles  farther 
south ;  the  county  where  from  four  to  six  crops  of  alfalfa  are  produced  annu- 
ally ;  and  the  county  where  the  soil  responds  more  readily  to  your  efforts, 
and  returns  larger  profits  for  the  money  expended. 

Fish,  and  Wild  Game 

Aside  from  the  purely  commercial  side  of  the  Sacramento  and  Feather 
Rivers,  these  two  great  waterways  give  ample  opportunity  for  hunting, 
fishing  and  boating.  Salmon,  catfish  and  carp  are  plentiful  in  these  streams, 
and  furnish  sport,  in  season,  for  those  who  are  devoted  to  the  rod  and  reel. 
The  sloughs,  running  off  from  the  main  rivers,  are  famed  for  their  excellent 
bass-fishing ;  and  not  far  away  are  the  mountain  streams  and  lakes,  which 
are  among  the  finest  trout-fishing  spots  in  all  the  world.  These  same  moun- 
tains abound  in  all  manner  of  wild  game,  ranging  from  doves,  quail  and 
rabbits  in  the  lower  foothills,  to  deer  in  the  higher  altitudes. 

Wild  ducks  and  geese  make  the  rivers  and  sloughs  their  winter  feeding 
grounds.  In  the  fall  great  flocks  of  these  migratory  birds  sail  down  from 
the  North  and  feed  upon  the  abundant  growth  in  the  waterways.  As  the  time 
approaches  when  the  law  will  permit  the  shooting  of  these  birds,  hunters 
come  from  hundreds  of  miles,  and  take  part  in  one  of  the  greatest  sporting 
events  of  the  year.  Many  hunting  clubs  own  their  own  grounds  at  West 
Butte  and  other  points  in  the  county. 




Before  the  founding  of  Yuba  City  by  the  white  man,  the  very  earth  upon 
which  stand  today  some  of  the  town's  most  beautiful  residences,  and  its  busi- 
ness houses  and  civic  buildings,  was  the  setting  for  an  Indian  village.  The 
Indians  who  had  their  habitation  where  Yuba  City  now  stands  were  known 
as  the  Yubas.  Remains  of  their  homes,  and  of  their  personal  adornments  and 
weapons,  have  been  unearthed  by  workmen  while  they  were  excavating  for 
modern  buildings  in  Yuba  City. 

Like  all  the  aborigines  of  California,  the  Yubas  have  melted  away  at 
the  advent  of  civilization,  until  now  the  sight  of  one  of  their  race  on  the 
streets  of  the  towns  and  cities  that  have  risen  where  their  villages  were,  is  a 
rarity,  and  indeed  a  curiosity. 

The  Yubas  at  the  site  of  Yuba  City  consisted  of  about  125  Indians.  Lo- 
cated in  Shanghai  Bend,  on  the  Feather  River  between  Yuba  City  and  Hock 
Farm,  was  another  Indian  village,  that  of  the  Seshums.  The  largest  village 
in  what  is  now  Sutter  County  was  that  of  the  Hocks,  near  John  Sutter's  resi- 
dence. From  this  tribe  has  been  derived  the  name  Hock  Farm.  The  com- 
munity of  Yokulemnes  was  three  miles  south  of  Hock  Farm,  while  the 
Olashes  lived  one  mile  above  Nicolaus. 

On  the  site  of  Marysville  were  the  Memals,  who  moved  to  the  east  bank 
of  the  Yuba  River  when  Cordua  settled  near  their  village.  North  of  the  pres- 
ent city  of  Marysville  were  the  Tomchats. 

The  ruins  of  an  iron  structure,  known  as  Sutter's  Fort,  now  lie  on  Hock 
Farm.  It  was  originally  built  by  Sutter  as  a  workhouse,  but  was  used  as  a 
fortification  at  times  against  Indian'  attacks  upon  the  white  settlers. 

One  of  the  first  white  men  to  travel  the  Sacramento  Valley,  in  an  account 
of  his  journey,  told  how,  in  the  early  part  of  the  year  1833,  the  banks  of  the 
Sacramento  River  and  the  contiguous  territory  swarmed  with  Indian  life. 
On  his  return,  late  in  the  year,  the  villages  were  found  deserted.  A  plague, 
which  was  thought  by  the  traveler  to  be  smallpox,  had  attacked  the  natives, 
and  their  bodies  and  skeletons  lay  on  the  ground  in  great  numbers.  An  inter- 
mittent fever  that  the  "medicine  man"  could  not  combat  also  claimed  many  of 
the  Indians,  the  ancestors  of  whom  can  be  traced  back  to  1832  and  1833. 

Ethnologists  have  written  and  theorized  with  reference  to  the  California 
Indians,  but  have  as  yet  come  to  no  satisfactory  conclusion  regarding  either 
the  place  whence  they  immigrated  or  the  date  of  their  actual  settlement  on 
the  Pacific  Coast.  It  is  perhaps  sufficient  to  know  that  when  the  first  white 
man  passed  through  the  Sacramento  Valley,  he  found  the  Indian  villages 
swarming  with  the  rude  barbarians. 

Bancroft,  in  his  "Native  Races  of  the  Pacific  States,"  divides  the  Indians 
of  the  Coast  into  seven,  distinct  groups.  The  Californians  comprised  one  of 
the  important  branches,  occupying  the  territory  between  latitudes  43  degrees 
and  32  degrees  30  minutes  north,  and  extending  east  into  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains. This  group  is  subdivided  into  geographical  divisions ;  namely :  the 
Northern  Californians,  the  Central  Californians,  and  the  Southern  Califor- 
nians. The  early  inhabitants  of  this  region  belonged  to  the  central  division, 
which  occupied  all  of  California  and  extended  from  about  latitude  35  degrees 
to  latitude  40  degrees  30  minutes  north.    The  races  in  this  region  were  sepa- 


rated  into  numerous  small  tribes,  whose  system  of  nomenclature  was  exceed- 
ingly primitive.  The  segregation  of  these  Indians  was  not  properly  a  segrega- 
tion into  tribes,  but  into  villages,  each  having  its  own  name  and  head.  Some- 
times one  chief  would  be  more  powerful  than  other  neighboring  chiefs  in 
physical  strength,  number  of  warriors,  or  hereditary  influence,  and  hence  had 
authority  over  villages  near  his,  as  in  the  case  of  the  ruler  of  the  Hocks. 

From  the  report  of  Adam  Johnson,  Indian  sub-agent,  to  the  Department 
of  the  Interior  in  1850,  we  cull  the  following:  "I  could  discover  no  distinction 
in  their  customs,  habits  of  life,  or  their  general  language,  which  could  induce 
me  to  think  they  were  not  originally  the  same  people.  Indeed,  their  customs 
and  manners  of  living  are,  in  many  respects,  almost  identical." 

Johnson's  List  of  the  Tribes 

From  June  to  the  middle  of  September,  1850,  Johnson,  as  the  govern- 
ment's agent,  traveled  more  than  800  miles  through  the  Sacramento  Valley, 
and  along  the  banks  of  the  rivers.  He  visited  ten  distinct  tribes  of  Indians, 
besides  meeting  many  wandering  families  or  communities.  The  following  is 
a  list  of  the  tribes  visited  in  the  valley  and  the  neighboring  mountains : 

The  Hocks :  Located  upon  Hock  Farm,  near  the  old  residence  of  Captain 
Sutter,  numbering  from  eighty  to  100. 

The  Yubas :  At  or  near  the  junction  of  the  Yuba  and  Feather  Rivers, 
numbering  about  180. 

The  O-Lip-Pas :  On  Feather  River,  about  thirty-two  miles  above  its 
mouth,  comprising  about  ninety  or  100  people. 

The  Bogas :  A  short  distance  above  the  O-Lip-Pas,  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  river,  including  about  seventy  persons. 

The  Ho-Lil-Li-Pahs :  .  At  the  base  of  the  mountains  near  the  Feather 
River,  about  150  in  number. 

The  Erskins :  On  Butte  Creek,  near  Neal's  Rancho,  comprising  about 
eighty  Indians. 

The  Ma-Chuck-Nas  :  In  the  valley  near  Potter's  Rancho,  including  about 
ninety  people. 

The  Cush-Nas :  Dwelling  in  the  mountains  on  the  south  Yuba,  and 
numbering  about  600  Indians. 

The  Tagus :  Also  in  the  mountains,  above  the  headwaters  of  Butte 
Creek,  the  number  being  unknown. 

The  Nim-Sus  :  Also  living  in  the  mountains,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Tagus 
tribe;  number  unknown. 

Locations  of  Tribes  According  to  Bidwell 

General  Bidwell  located  the  villages  of  the  native  tribes  in  what  is  now 
Sutter  County,  as  follows  : 

Yubas:    Where  Yuba  City  is  now  situated,  numbering  from  100  to  125. 

The  Seshums:  Located  in  Shanghai  Bend,  on  the  Feather  River,  be- 
tween Yuba  City  and  Hock  Farm. 

The  Hocks:  Located  near  Sutter's  residence;  this  was  the  largest  vil- 
lage in  what  is  now  Sutter  County. 

The  Yokulemnes :    Situated  three  miles  below  Hock  Farm. 

The  Olashes :    Located  about  one  mile  above  Nicolaus,  on  the  west  bank. 

No  permanent  villages  were  located  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Sacra- 
mento River,  on  account  of  the  lands  being  subject  to  overflow.    There  were 
no  other  tribes  in  Sutter  County,  although  the  Colusi,   Coptis,  Willys  and 
Kymatins  ranged  through  the  country  around  the  Buttes. 
Location  and  Description  of  Other  Tribes 

In  Yuba  County,  on  the  site  of  Marysville,  was  a  village  of  Indians  called 
the  Memals.     It  was  of  good  size,  being  populated  by  about   100  Indians. 


When  Cordua  settled  there,  some  of  these  Indians  located  on  the  south  side 
of  the  Yuba  (in  1843). 

The  Tomchats  were  located  a  little  above,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Feather 
River,  but  not  immediately  upon  the  banks.  The  distance  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Yuba  River  was  about  two  miles,  and  from  the  banks  of  Feather  River 
about  a  half  mile ;  they  numbered  about  fifty  souls. 

The  Honcuts  were  located  on  the  east  bank  of  Feather  River,  just  below 
the  mouth  of  Honcut  Creek,  and  comprised  about  150  persons.  On  the  south 
branch  of  the  Honcut,  and  scattered  through  the  Browns  Valley  region,  in 
little  villages  and  one  principal  village,  were  a  large  number  of  Indians  with 
no  particular  tribal  name. 

There  were  several  small  tribes  of  Indians  living  between  the  Bear  and 
Yuba  Rivers,  and  one  large  tribe  who  occupied  the  country  from  the  foothills 
to  Nevada.  These  Indians  spoke  a  different  language  from  the  Marysville  In- 
dians, and  were  more  warlike.  Their  chief  stole  some  of  General  Sutter's 
cattle  in  1841.  Sutter  pursued  him  and  retook  them  after  a  fight  in  which  no 
one  was  killed.  The  scene  of  the  bloodless  conflict  was  on  the  bank  of  the 
Yuba  River,  a  few  miles  above  Marysville. 

A  historian  named  Taylor,  in  referring  to  the  Cush-Nas  on  the  south 
bank  of  the  Yuba,  and  their  fellow  tribesmen,  says :  "The  physique  of  these 
natives  did  not  correspond  at  all  with  that  of  the  'noble'  warriors  east  of  the 
mountains.  Strongly,  though  not  symmetrically  built,  their  height  rarely  ex- 
ceeded five  feet  and  eight  inches.  A  low,  retreating  forehead ;  black,  deep-set 
eyes ;  thick,  bushy  eyebrows ;  salient  cheekbones ;  a  nose  depressed  at  the 
roots,  and  somewhat  wide-spreading  at  the  nostrils ;  a  large  mouth ;  thick, 
prominent  lips ;  teeth  large  and  white,  but  not  always  regular ;  and  rather 
large  ears,  is  a  prevailing  type." 

It  was  only  in  winter  that  a  dwelling  was  needed,  and  this  was  by  no 
means  pretentious.  The  general  method  was  to  dig  a  hole  in  the  ground  three 
or  four  feet  in  depth,  with  a  diameter  of  from  ten  to  thirty  feet.  The  ends  of 
pliable  willow  poles  were  sunk  into  the  ground  around  the  excavation,  and 
the  tops  were  brought  together,  the  same  poles  serving  for  walls  and  roof. 
If  the  poles  were  sufficiently  long,  the  two  ends  were  driven  into  the  ground 
on  opposite  sides  of  the  hole,  the  curve  of  the  willow  forming  the  roof.  Mud 
or  sod  was  then  placed  over  the  frame.  The  more  pretentious  residences  had 
bushes  interwoven  between  the  willow  poles,  and  an  outside  covering  of  tule 
grass.  The  smoke  from  the  fire  in  the  hut  found  an  outlet  through  a  hole 
in  the  roof.  The  doorway  consisted  of  a  small  hole  in  the  side,  barely  large 
enough  for  a  person  to  crawl  through. 


Sutter  County  was  not  without  its  Indian  troubles  in  the  early  days.  So 
unreliable  became  the  roving  bands  of  reds,  that  Major-General  Thomas  J. 
Green,  First  Division,  California  Militia,  was  sent  into  this  section  to  protect 
the  whites.  These  early  troubles,  and  measures  taken  for  their  settlement, 
are  thus  described  in  the  Placer  Times  of  May  20,  1850: 

"Brigadier-General  A.  M.  Winn  has  received  a  letter  from  Major-Gen- 
eral Thomas  J.  Green,  First  Division,  California  Militia,  forwarded  by  Brig- 
adier-General Eastland,  and  enclosing  one  to  His  Excellency,  Peter  H.  Bur- 
nett, Governor  of  California.  The  letters  are  dated  at  Oro,  the  headquarters 
at  present  of  General  Green.  Serious  Indian  troubles  are  announcd  on  that 
frontier.  A  volunteer  company,  under  the  command  of  Capt.  Nicolaus  All- 
geier,  had  prepared  to  march  against  the  savages,  and  other  parties  were  being 
formed.  The  Indians  are  reported  to  number  several  hundred  and  to  be 
headed  by  white  men  and  some  Chilians.  An  engagement  is  said  to  have  taken 
place  on  Deer  Creek,  a  few  days  before,  in  which  four  whites  and  fifteen  In- 


dians  were  killed.  General  Green  has  very  wisely  determined  to  take  the 
field,  both  for  the  protection  of  the  citizens  and  to  prevent  excesses  on  their 
part.  He  recommends  that  the  Adjutant-General  should  be  ordered  to  his 
headquarters,  with  instructions  and  authority  to  make  a  further  call  upon  the 
militia,  and  U.  S.  troops,  should  the  emergencies  require  it. 

"We  are  further  advised  that  some  two  hundred  Indians  were  seen  near 
Johnson's  ranch,  on  Friday.  A  party  of  thirty  went  out  from  Nicolaus,  and 
killed  four  of  them,  one  of  the  party  being  slightly  wounded  in  the  forehead. 
A  teamster  from  Nicolaus  was  found  dead  in  the  neighborhood,  with  four- 
teen arrows  in  him.  His  wagon  and  merchandise  had  been  burnt  up  and  four 
pair  of-  oxen  killed.  The  repeated  outrages  in  every  direction  will  induce  a 
more  general  militia  organization  throughout  this  part  of  the  State.  We  learn 
that  a  volunteer  company  of  young  men  is  being  now  formed  in  Sacramento. 
They  will  be  the  first  to  tender  their  aid,  should  future  developments  require 
a  further  call  upon  the  militia,  which  is  anticipated  in  the  above  corre- 

General  Green's  Report 
General  Green  arrived  in  Sacramento  Tuesday,  May  28,  1850,  and  was 
to  leave  immediately  for  Washington  to  represent  the  state  of  Indian  affairs 
to  the  President.    He  made  the  following  report  to  the  Governor : 

"Oro,  May  25,  1850. 
"To  His  Excellency,  Peter  H.  Burnett, 

"Governor  and  Commander  in  Chief,  California  Militia : 
"Sir :  After  my  despatch  to  you  on  the  16th  instant,  I  moved  with  Cap- 
tain Allgeier's  and  Capt.  Charles  Hoyt's  mounted  volunteers,  on  the  17th, 
upon  Bear  River.  On  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day,  Lieutenant  Bell  of  Cap- 
tain Allgeier's  company,  with  ten  men,  being  out  upon  a  scout,  encountered 
a  large  number  of  Indians,  killing  five  and  bringing  in  six  prisoners. 

"On  the  18th,  I  moved  in  the  direction,  of  Deer  Creek,  and  scoured  the 
country,  for  a  number  of  Indian  depredations  had  been  committed.  We  found 
the  Indian  villages  newly  deserted,  and  their  trails  leading  south,  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Bear  River. 

"On  the  19th,  pursued  said  trails  in  the  direction  of  Wolf  Creek,  to  where 
Colonel  Hoyt  was  murdered  and  burned  in  his  mill ;  found  the  Indian  villages 
in  this  neighborhood  deserted,  and  the  white  settlements  abandoned ; 
trails  still  leading  south,  which  we  followed  to  Bear  River,  and  encamped 
upon  the  same. 

"On  the  20th,  leaving  a  camp  guard  with  the  horses,  we  crossed  the  river 
on  foot  to  visit  a  large  village  on  the  south  of  said  river,  which  we  found 
deserted,  and  the  trail  recrossing  the  river.  Upon  our  return  I  was  informed 
that  a  large  number  of  Indians,  between  two  and  three  hundred,  had  assem- 
bled upon  an  elevated  conical  hill  within  two  miles,  a  position  evidently 
taken  to  give  battle. 

"After  examining  their  position,  I  ordered  Captain  Hoyt,  with  twenty 
men,  to  take  station  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  upon  the  left,  and  with  Captain 
Allgeier,  Lieutenant  Bell  and  the  balance  of  the  men,  in  all  thirty,  I  charged 
up  the  most  accessible  side  of  the  hill  upon  their  right  into  the  camp,  and 
drove  the  Indians  upon  Captain  Hoyt's  position,  where  a  smart  skirmish  en- 
sued. We  pursued  them  for  several  miles  in  the  hills  and  ravines,  killing  and 
wounding  a  number,  and  took  eight  prisoners.  Their  Chiefs  report  eleven  of 
their  men  killed,  besides  wounded.  We  had  none  killed.  Wounded,  Captain 
Hoyt,  Lieutenant  Lewis  and  private  Russell.  My  Aid,  Major  Frederick  Em- 
ory, was  accidentally  shot  through  the  thigh  by  the  accidental  discharge  of  a 
rifle.   All  doing  well. 


"The  day  previous,  in  attempting  to  capture  one  of  their  spies,  his  de- 
termined resistance  caused  him  to  be  shot,  and  in  camp  we  found  his  remains 
upon  a  funeral  pyre,  nearly  consumed.  Here  we  found  a  large  amount  of  sup- 
plies, consisting  of  beef,  sugar,  tea  and  other  articles  robbed  from  the  wagons, 
and  the  clothes  of  the  murdered  teamster,  Matty.  On  the  afternoon  of  the 
same  day  I  sent  the  following  note,  with  a  flag  of  truce  to  the  Chiefs,  by  an 
old  woman  who  had  been  taken  prisoner : 

"  'Wolf  Creek  Camp,  May  12,  1850. 
"  'To  the  Indian  Chiefs,  Weima,  Buckler,  Poolel,  and  others : 

"  'Your  people,  have  been  murdering  ours,  robbing  their  wagons,  and 
burning  their  houses.  We  have  made  war  upon  you,  killed  your  men  and 
taken  prisoners  your  women  and  children.  We  send  you  this  plain  talk  by 
one  of  your  grandmothers.  When  you  cease  to  rob  and  murder  our  people, 
we  will  cease  to  make  war  upon  you,  and  then  you  can  come  in  and  get  your 
women  and  children,  who  will  be  taken  care  of  in  the  meantime.  If 
you  wish  peace,  come  down  to  Johnson's  old  ranch,  on  Bear  River,  and 
report  yourselves  to  Captain  Charles  Hoyt,  who  will  protect  you  until  your 
Great  Father  shall  speak. 

"  'Thomas  J.  Green, 
"  'Major-General,  First  Division,  California  Militia.' 

"Today  the  Chiefs,  with  a  number  of  men,  met  me  at  Kearney,  and  en- 
tered into  the  following  treaty.  It  is  my  opinion,  as  well  as  the  opinion  of  oth- 
ers better  acquainted  with  these  Indians,  that  they  will  observe  the  treaty  in 
good  faith.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  no  acts  of  aggression  will  be  commenced  up- 
on them  by  the  whites.  These  Indians  can  be  made  very  useful  to  the  miners 
if  they  have  even  a  small  portion  of  justice  extended  to  them.  Heretofore  a 
few  persons  have  monopolized  much  of  their  labor,  by  giving  them  a  calico 
shirt  per  week  and  the  most  indifferent  food.  This  is  not  only  wrong,  but 
highly  disgraceful,  when  they  would  be  content  with  the  pay  of  one-fourth 
of  the  wages  of  the  white  men. 

"I  have  sent  these  Chiefs  over  on  the  north  fork  of  the  American  River 
to  bring  others,  now  hostile,  to  Brigadier-General  Eastland,  on  Bear  River, 
who  will,  in  the  absence  of  other  instructions  from  your  Excellency,  endeavor 
to  bring  them  to  terms.    I  have  the  honor  to  be, 
"Very  respectfully, 

"Your  obedient  servant, 

"Signed  :   Thomas  J.  Green, 
"Major-General,  First  Division,  California  Militia." 

Copy  of  the  Treaty 

"Whereas,  numerous  depredations  and  murders  have  been  committed 
upon  the  persons  and  property  of  the  American  citizens  in  this  vicinity  by 
native  Indians  belonging  to  tribes  of  the  undersigned  Chiefs ;  and  whereas, 
it  became  the  duty  of  the  undersigned  Thomas  J.  Green,  Major-General  of  the 
First  Division  of  the  California  Militia,  to  pursue  and  punish  said  depredators 
and  murderers;  now,  therefore,  in  the  absence  of  higher  authority,  I,  Thomas 
J.  Green,  as  aforesaid,  on  behalf  of  the  People  of  California  and  the  govern- 
ment of  the  United  States,  on  one  part,  and  the  head  Indian  Chiefs,  Weima 
and  Buckler,  and  sub-chief,  Poolel,  on  the  other  part,  representing  fully  and 
completely  their  several  tribes,  do  enter  into  the  following  solemn  treaty  of 
peace  and  friendship,  to  wit : 

"Article  1. — Henceforth  and  forever  the  American  citizens  and  the  Amer- 
ican tribes  aforementioned  shall  live  in  peace  and  friendship. 

"Article  2. — Should  any  Indian  belonging  to  either  of  the  before-men- 
tioned tribes  commit  any  murder,  robbery  or  other  offense  against  the  persons 


or  property  of  the  American  citizens,  the  offender,  or  offenders,  shall  be 
promptly  delivered  up  to  the  proper  authorities  for  punishment. 

"Article  3.- — Should  any  American  citizen  or  foreigner  commit  any  wrong 
upon  the  persons  or  property  of  the  before-mentioned  tribes,  they  shall  be 
punished  therefor  as  the  law  directs. 

"Article  4. — To  prevent  any  hostile  feeling  arising  between  the  whites 
and  Indians,  as  well  as  to  prevent  the  friendly  Indians  from  being  mistaken 
for  those  unfriendly,  it  is  hereby  stipulated,  that  the  people  of  the  before- 
mentioned  tribes  shall  not  carry  arms  while  in  the  settlements  of  the  whites. 

"Article  5. — To  cultivate  warmer  friendship  and  acquaintance  between 
the  white  people  and  the  Indians,  the  latter  are  guaranteed  the  free  use  of 
the  gold  mines,  and  a  full  value  of  their  labor  in  working  the  same,  without 
charge  or  hindrance ;  and  any  contract  made  between  the  Indians  and  whites, 
before  competent  witnesses,  shall  be  recoverable  before  any  court  of  compe- 
tent jurisdiction. 

"Article  6. — The  Indian  prisoners  shall  be  delivered  up  with  the  signing 
of  this  treaty. 

"Article  7. — The  government  of  the  United  States  shall  have  six  months 
from  this  date  to  confirm,  amend,  or  annul  the  treaty ;  and  should  said  gov- 
ernment of  the  United  States  confirm  the  same,  it  is  hereby  stipulated  that 
each  of  the  before-mentioned  tribes  shall  receive  a  semiannual  annuity 
of  $1000,  to  be  paid  to  them  respectively  for  the  term  of  ten  years  from 
the  date  hereof. 

"In  witness  whereof,  the  undersigned  parties  before-mentioned  have 
signed,  sealed  and  delivered  this  treaty,  each  to  the  other,  in  the  presence  of 
Captain  Nicolaus  Allgeier,  Captain  Charles  H.  Hoyt,  Colonel  James 
Bell,  J.  S.  Christy,  Edwin  P.  Linck,  J.  B.  Fairchild,  Joseph  Foster, 
subscribing  witnesses. 

"May  25,  1850.  "Thos.    J.    Green,    Maj.-General. 

"Weima,  his  X  mark. 
"Buckler,   his   X  mark. 
"Poolel,  his  X  mark." 




Proverbially  peaceful  and  law-abiding,  Sutter  County  has  been  the  scene 
in  all  the  years  of  but  few  of  the  exciting  incidents  that  have  characterized 
the  history  of  surrounding  counties,  especially  in  the  earlier  period.  A  few 
murders  have  been  committed  in  its  history,  the  details  of  which  it  is  not 
necessary  to  recite.  Only  two  persons  suffered  the  extreme  penalty  of  the 
law  at  the  hands  of  the  public  executioner  in  the  days  when  it  was  the  custom 
to  hang  in  the  county  jail  yard.  An  Italian  was  hanged  in  October,  1857,  by 
Sheriff  S.  E.  Kennard ;  and  John  Wright  was  hanged  in  March,  1873,  by 
Sheriff  Samuel  McClure. 

Early-Day  Appeals  to  Mob  Law 

During  the  unorganized  period  of  the  early  days,  appeal  was  made  to  mob 
law  on  a  few  occasions  by  otherwise  law-abiding  citizens.  An  account  of  these 
lynchings  follows  here. 

'And  now  comes  the  mob,  being  impatient  of  delay  (the  jury  not  having 
as  yet  agreed  upon  their  verdict),  being  led  by  one  E.  W.  High,  and  seized 
and  forcibly  took  from  the  custody  of  the  Sheriff  the  said  prisoner,  Washing- 
ton Rideout,  and  having  dragged  him  out  of  the  Court  House,  escorted  him 
to  the  first  convenient  tree,  and  hanged  him  by  the  neck  until  he  was  dead." 

The  above  is  from  the  record  of  the  Court  of  Sessions  of  June  12,  1852, 
upon  which  day  that  body  met  at  Nicolaus  to  try  Washington  Rideout,  a 
negro.  In  May,  1852,  Rideout  stopped  .at  the  Bellevue  House,  kept  by  New- 
bald  &  Hufius,  five  miles  south  of  Nicolaus.  Discovering  Hufius  to  be  alone, 
the  negro  grew  abusive  because  Hufius  did  not  have  the  kind  of  liquor  he  de- 
manded. Hufius  ordered  him  to  leave  the  place,  whereupon  the  negro  drew 
his  revolver  and  shot  him  to  death.  The  murderer  was  quickly  captured  and 
conveyed  to  Nicolaus,  then  the  county  seat,  where  a  mob  took  possession  and 
were  about  to  hang  Rideout,  when  they  were  persuaded  by  cooler  heads  to 
permit  the  law  to  take  its  course.  The  murderer  was  placed  aboard  a  govern- 
ment vessel  lying  in  the  river  and  confined  there  pending  trial.  A  grand 
jury  was  summoned,  an  indictment  returned,  and  the  case  proceeded  to 
trial  within  a  few  days  of  the  commission  of  the  act.  The  records  of  the 
court  in  lull  follow : 

"Saturday,  June  12,  1851,  2  p.  m. 

"The  Grand  Jury  returns  into  Court  and  presents  the  following: 
State  of  California      "1 

vs.  >■  Indictment  for  Murder. 

Washington  RideoutJ 

"Whereupon,  the  defendant  was  brought  into  Court,  and  for  trying  the 
same,  came  the  following  jury,  to  wit:  Ira  Bradshaw,  C.  S.  Tessue,  Joseph 
P.  Dillon,  J.  Lee,  E.  W.  Riker,  Nathaniel  Eaton,  John  Holloway,  Thomas 
Morrison,  J.  Gibson,  A.  L-  Chandler,  H.  Chandler,  and  James  Riker,  and  were 
sworn  and  empanelled.  The  defendant  was  then  arraigned,  and  having  an- 
swered to  his  name,  as  set  forth  in  the  indictment,  pleads  that  he  is  'not 
guilty'  of  the  charge  alleged  therein.  W.  B.  Johnson,  G.  B.  Upham,  S.  B. 
Smith,  and  Dr.  Golder  were  called  and  sworn  on  the  part  of  the  State,  and 


Hugh  McDuffy'  was  sworn  on  the  part  of  the  defendant.  The  jury,  after 
having  heard  the  evidence  and  the  arguments  of  the  counsel,  retired  to  con- 
sider of  their  verdict. 

"And  now  comes  the  mob,  being  impatient  of  delay  (the  jury  not  having 
as  yet  agreed  upon  their  verdict),  being  led  by  one  E.  W.  High,  and  seized 
and  forcibly  took  from  the  custody  of  the  Sheriff  the  said  prisoner,  Washing- 
ton Rideout,  and  having  dragged  him  out  of  the  Court  House,  escorted  him 
to  the  first  convenient  tree,  and  hanged  him  by  the  neck  until  he  was  dead." 

It  had  been  the  watchword  of  the  mob,  "Hang  him  while  the  sun  shines," 
and  the  jury  had  been  out  so  long  that  the  sun  began  to  decline  in  the  west. 
They  went  to  the  court  room,  then  in  the  American  Hotel,  and  High  stepped 
up  to  the  prisoner  as  he  was  seated  between  two  deputies,  and  told  him  that 
his  time  had  come.  No  resistance  was  made,  and  High  took  him  by  the  collar 
and  led  him  from  the  room.  Rideout  was  taken  to  a  large  tree  in  front  of  Jacob 
Vahle's  residence,  a  rope  was  thrown  over  a  limb,  one  end  fastened  around 
the  prisoner's  neck,  and  the  other  end  seized  by  about  fifty  men,  who,  as  the 
last  rays  of  the  setting  sun  shed  their  light  upon  the  scene,  ran  the  murderer 
up  and  fastened  him  there.  The  whole  court,  including  the  jury,  adjourned  to 
witness  the  execution.  Rideout  had  a  Spanish  wife.  She  was  clinging  to  his 
neck  when  through  her  arms  the  body  of  her  husband  was  jerked  aloft.  Thus 
did  they  hang  him  "while  the  sun  was  shining." 

Only  a  few  days  after  the  murder  of  Hufius.  and  before  the  execution  of 
Rideout,  a  cruel  murder  was  committed  by  John  Jackson,  a  Norwegian,  the 
victim  being  Mrs.  Martin  Bader,  who  lived  with  her  husband  on  the  west  side 
of  Feather  River,  in  Sutter  Township.  This  crime,  and  the  hanging  of  Jack- 
son by  a  mob,  have  already  been  described  in  detail  in  a  chapter  on  Crimes 
and  Criminals,  which  will  be  found  in  the  section  of  this  volume  devoted  to 
the  History  of  Yuba  County. 

These  exhibitions  of  mob  law,  coming  so  closely  together,  were  very 
severely  commented  upon  by  the  newspapers  at  the  time ;  but  although  it 
would  have  been  better  to  have  the  law  take  its  course,  yet  there  is  no  doubt 
that  the  two  wretches  richly  deserved  their  fate. 

An  early  historian,  in  explaining  the  necessity  for  occasional  activities 
by  the  mob  in  an  effort  to  discourage  crime  while  it  was  gaining  foothold  in 
the  early  days,  had  this  to  say : 

"The  natural  tendency  of  society,  when  left  uncurbed  by  legal  regula- 
tions, is  towards  lawlessness.  So  it  was  in  the  early  days  of  California.  The 
population  in  the  year  1848  and  the  greater  part  of  1849  was  composed  of  a 
fine  set  of  men,  comprised  of  the  honest  and  intelligent  element  of  the  Eastern 
cities  and  States.  But  the  next  tide  that  flowed  in  threw  upon  our  shores  the 
refuse  material  from  the  larger  cities  on  the  Atlantic  side  of  the  continent, 
and  a  horde  of  discharged  convicts  from  the  Australian  colonies.  The  change 
in  society  was  apparent  immediately ;  murder,  robberies,  highway  robberies 
and  crimes  of  every  description  became  every-day  occurrences.  Before  this, 
the  miner  placed  no  protection  over  his  earnings,  and  could  walk  through 
the  dark  streets,  or  over  the  lonely  plains  and  hills,  feeling  perfectly  safe 
in  his  solitude ;  now  his  gold  dust  must  be  hidden  or  placed  in  some  secure 
retreat,  and  his  pilgrimage  must  be  made  in  the  light  of  day,  or  in  the 
company  of  others.  Eegal  proceedings  were  carried  on  under  the  old  Mexican 
laws,  and  with  the  insufficient  force  of  officers  it  was  difficult  to  apprehend 
and  convict  a  man  of  crime.  The  miners,  realizing  that  fact,  and  knowing 
the  consequences  of  leniency  toward  the  criminal  class,  took  the  law  into 
their  own  hands." 


Joaquin  Murietta  and  Tom  Bell 

The  two  most  noted  highwaymen  that  infested  this  region  were  Joaquin 
Murietta  and  Tom  Bell.  We  have  already  referred  to  the  depredations  and 
final  disposal  of  Bell  in  a  chapter  similar  to  this  in  the  section  devoted  to 
Yuba  County's  history. 

Joaquin  Murietta,  who  for  a  long  time  was  the  terror  of  travelers,  and 
lonely  settlers,  never  operated  to  any  extent  in  this  vicinity.  He  had  a  sister 
living  in  Marysville,  whom  he  frequently  visited.  He  was  there  for  a  con- 
siderable time,  in  1850  and  1851,  and  was  known  as"  a  notorious  character. 
After  the  killing  of  Joaquin,  considerable  doubt  existed  as  to  the  identity  of 
the  dead  robber.  His  head  was  amputated  and,  with  the  hand  of  "Three- 
fingered  Jack,"  was  exhibited  throughout  the  State.  While  in  Marysville, 
Joaquin's  sister  visited  the  exhibition  and,  after  gazing  upon  the  head, 
remarked  in  Spanish  to  a  gentleman,  within  the  hearing  of  Judge  O.  P.  Stid- 
ger,  "That's  not  my  brother."  AVhen  asked  who  it  was,  she  smilingly  replied, 
"It  is  Joaquin  Gonzales."  This  would  seem  to  lend  some  credence  to  the 
rumor  that  the  real  Joaquin  Murietta  had  escaped. 

William  Wells 

On  the  night  of  July  26,  1860,  three  men  escorting  an  escaped  murderer 
from  Nicolaus  to  Sacramento  were  killed  in  cold  blood  by  their  prisoner  in 
an  unusual  manner.  One  of  the  victims  was  William  C.  Stoddard,  farmer  of 
the  Nicolaus  section  and  father  of  W.  S.  Stoddard,  now  employed  in  a  Red 
Bluff  bank.    The  other  two  were  officers,  one  a  friend  of  Stoddard. 

Stoddard  had  started  on  horseback  from  his  farm  near  Nicolaus  for  Sac- 
ramento, on  the  morning  of  July  26,  1860.  Having  to  proceed  by  way  of  Nico- 
laus in  order  to  cross  the  river,  he  met  Tim  Wharton,  deputy  sheriff  of  Sutter 
County,  and  his  personal  friend. 

Here  is  where  the  story  of  William  Wells,. the  desperado,  comes  in.  AVells 
had  murdered  a  man  in  Sacramento,  and  was  apprehended  in  Virginia  City, 
Nev.,  and  brought  in  the  stage  as  far  as  Nicolaus,  where  rumor  said  a  mob 
had  gathered  outside  Sacramento  to  lynch  him.  In  order  to  thwart  the  plan, 
William  Armstrong,  who  had  Wells  in  custody,  hired  a  spring  wagon  at  Nico- 
laus, with  which  he  and  Wharton  were  to  take  the  murderer  into  Sacramento 
under  cover.  Stoddard,  riding  into  Nicolaus  about  the  time  they  were  to  start 
on  the  trip,  was  invited  by  Wharton  to  join  the  party.  When  the  party  arrived 
at  the  American  River  crossing,  late  in  the  night,  all  three  were  murdered  by 
Wells,  who  was  never  apprehended. 

As  to  how  AVells  did  the  deed,  different  theories  were  advanced.  The  pre- 
vailing one  was  that  Armstrong,  being  worn  out  by  travel,  fell  asleep  while 
in  the  back  portion  of  the  wagon  guarding  Wells,  and  that  in  some  manner 
AVells  secured  his  pistol  and  shot  all  three  in  a  flash.  Another  theory  was  that 
AVells  was  given  help  by  outsiders. 

Stoddard  had  practiced  law  as  a  young  man  at  Yreka,  Siskiyou  County. 
He  later  served  as  district  attorney  in  that  county  and  also  in  Sutter  County. 
Still  later  he  returned  to  Ogle  County,  111.,  where  he  was  made  sheriff.  At  the 
expiration  of  his  term  in  that  office  he  returned  to  his  ranch  five  miles  below 
Nicolaus,  crossing  the  plains  as  captain  of  a  wagon  train. 



Seemingly  destined  at  the  present  writing  to  become  one  great  orchard 
and  vineyard,  Sutter  County  was  at  one  time,  not  so  long  ago,  purely  an  agri- 
cultural section,  with  horticulture  and  viticulture  only  in  embryonic  stage. 
Its  present  development  as  a  fruit  and  grape  district  is  almost  unbelievable, 
so  rapid  is  the  stride.  The  story  of  the  early  tilling  of  the  soil,  when  told,  cov- 
ers all  the  earlier  activities  in  that  line  in  Yuba  and  Sutter  Counties. 

The  first  crops  raised  in  this  locality  were  a  small  field  of  wheat  put  in 
.by  Cordua  in  1845,  between  Marysville  and  Yuba  City,  and  one  by  Sicard  on 
his  ranch  on  the  south  bank  of  Bear  River.  Gutierrez,  Johnson,  Kyser  and 
Smith  were  simply  herding  cattle  on  the  plains,  as  was  also  Roether.  This 
was  the  state  of  agriculture  in  1846.  Sicard  had  a  field  of  wheat  of  about  fif- 
teen acres,  which  yielded  about  sixty  bushels  to  the  acre  on  the  average. 
Grain  was  raised  by  Nicolaus  Allgeier  near  Nicolaus,  but  none  was  raised 
this  year  at  Hock  Farm. 

Primitive  Methods  of  Farming 

The  method  of  cultivation  at  that  time  was  exceedingly  primitive.  No 
agricultural  implements  having  been  brought  by  the  foreign  emigrants  or  by 
the  American  settlers,  they  were  obliged  to  use  the  kind  of  tools  and  resort 
to  the  same  practices  that  obtained  among  the  native  Calif ornians.  The 
enterprising  farmer  who  desired  to  raise  a  field  of  wheat  had  first  to  manu- 
facture a  plow.  He  went  into  the  forest  and  examined  the  trees  carefully ; 
and  when  one  was  found  that  had  the  proper-shaped  limbs,  it  was  cut  down, 
its  branches  hewn  off,  and  the  remaining  limbs  trimmed  to  the  proper  length 
and  size.  A  triangular  piece  of  iron  about  eight  inches  broad  at  the  base  was 
then  fastened  to  the  lower  branch,  with  the  apex  of  the  triangle  downward. 
The  other  branch  was  used  as  a  pole  for  the  animal,  and  the  main  stem  served 
as  a  handle.  To  this  were  hitched  two  oxen,  attached  to  the  plow  by  ropes 
fastened  around  their  horns,  no  yoke  being  used.  An  Indian  boy  walked 
ahead  of  the  oxen,  which  were  trained  to  follow  him ;  and  a  man  came  behind 
to  guide  the  plow.  The  furrow  cut  was  eight  inches  wide  and  quite  shal- 
low ;  the  dirt  was  not  turned  over,  but  fell  back  into  its  old  place  when  the 
plow  passed,  being  merely  loosened  by  the  operation.  After  the  field  had  been 
prepared  in  this  manner,  the  grain  was  scattered  by  hand  and  a  brush  was 
drawn  over  the  field  to  harrow  it  and  cover  the  seed. 

When  the  grain  was  ripe,  then  the  services  of  the  Indians  were  called  into 
requisition  to  assist  in  the  harvest.  They  were  provided  with  sickles  and 
butcher-knives,  with  which  they  cut  the  yellow  stalks.  A  large  force  of  these 
assistants  was  employed.  In  1847  Captain  Sutter  had  over  250  in  his  large 
field  near  Sacramento,  diligently  employing  the  sickle  and  butcher-knife. 

The  grain  was  then  bound  and  carried  to  the  place  where  the  threshing 
was  done.  It  was  there  laid  in  a  ring,  and  horses  and  cattle  were  driven  over 
it  to  shell  the  wheat  from  the  head.  The  straw  was  next  removed ;  and  then 
the  grain  was  thrown  up  into  the  air,  that  the  wind  might  carry  away  the  chaff 
and  leave  the  grain  free.  Home-made  wooden  forks  and  shovels  were  used  for 
handling  the  straw  and  grain. 


The  grain,  besides  the  little  needed  for  home  consumption,  was  sold  to 
John  A.  Sutter,  who  had  a  contract  to  supply  the  Russian  colony  in  Alaska. 
To  convey  this  supply,  the  Russians  sent  a  vessel  from  Sitka  to  Sacramento, 
where  it  received  Sutter's  large  crop.  Launches  were  sent  up  the  river  as  far 
as  Nicolaus,  to  which  point  the  grain  raised  in  this  vicinity  was  carried  for 
shipping.     Sutter  supplied  the  Russians  with  wheat  for  several  years. 

Introduction  of  Modern  Methods 

The  primitive  methods  at  first  employed  were  gradually  superseded  by 
the  implements  brought  by  the  American  pioneers,  who  came  here  to  settle 
and  so  came  prepared.  The  first  innovation  made  was  some  American  plows, 
brought  in  1846  by  Claude  Chana  and  others  in  his  party.  The  last  thing  to 
change  was  the  manner  of  threshing,  the  first  machine  for  that  purpose  mak- 
ing its  appearance  in  the  early  fifties,  as  related  in  a  subsequent  paragraph. 

In  1847,  Rouelle,  who  settled  near  Sutter's  orchard,  opposite  Marysville 
on  the  south  bank  of  the  Yuba  River,  raised  some  vegetables — among  other 
things  some  huge  watermelons.  Most  of  the  settlers  raised  crops  of  wheat 
this  year.  The  plowing  for  the  crops  of  1847  was  done  chiefly  with  American 
plows  that  the  emigrants  of  1846  had  brought.  These  emigrants  had  also 
brought  grain  cradles,  and  a  large  portion  of  the  wheat  was  cut  with  these. 
Sutter  had  several  white  men  reaping  with  cradles  in  his  large  field  at  the 
same  time  that  the  250  Indians  were  at  work  with  sickles  and  butcher-knives. 
Johnson  and  Sicard  used  sickles.  As  for  several  years  previously,  the  Rus- 
sians came  for  the  wheat  this  year  also,  but  it  was  the  last  they  could  get. 

We  have  referred  to  the  introduction  of  the  plow  and  cradle.  The  first 
threshing  machine  used  was  one  of  home  manufacture,  and  was  employed  to 
thresh  grain  raised  by  Allgeier  and  Higgins,  in  the  Nicolaus  section,  in  1851. 
The  maker  was  Major  Frothingham,  a  mechanic,  who  was  living  with  Hig- 
gins. Frothingham  worked  for  a  long  time  on  a  perpetual-motion  machine 
that  was  to  be  run  by  weights,  but  quite  naturally  met  with  no  success..  Mow- 
ers and  reapers  were  introduced  in  1854,  and  headers  in  1856.  Threshers, 
reapers  and  mowers  were  soon  used  by  all  the  farmers,  giving  employment 
in  season  to  many  men  who  made  their  headquarters  in  Marysville  and  Yuba 
City.  Not  a  few  of  these  men  later  became  owners  of  tracts  in  either  Yuba 
or  Sutter  County.  The  results  of  their  investments  are  now  apparent,  being 
enjoyed  by  either  themselves  or  their  children. 

Floyd,  Ingraham,  and  McMurtry  made  an  iron  harrow  in  1852,  from 
about  fifty  picks  abandoned  at  French  Crossing  by  a  party  of  Frenchmen. 
It  was  probably  the  first  implement  of  the  kind  in  this  part  of  the  country. 

Other  Crops  and  Further  Development 

During  the  winter  of  1847-1848,  Nye  put  in  his  first  crop.  He  raised  peas, 
barley,  wheat,  watermelons,  muskmelons,  corn  and  lentils.  The  barley  was 
prepared  and  used  for  coffee.  The  wheat  was  ground  into  flour  by  means  of 
small  handmills.  Most  of  the  settlers  had  put  in  crops  of  grain  in  1848 ;  but 
crops,  stock,  orchards,  etc.,  were  all  abandoned,  and  every  one  went  to  the 
mines.  Sicard  was  the  only  man  in  this  locality  near  Bear  River  who  har- 
vested his  wheat. 

In  1849  more  attention  was  given  to  agriculture,  Charles  Covillaud  har- 
vesting 160  acres  east  of  Marysville ;  while  Ramirez,  on  the  Quintay,  put  in 
100  acres,  and  Sampson  about  the  same.  In  1850  Claude  Chana  experimented 
with  a  small  crop  of  Russian  barley. 

After  the  rush  and  excitement  of  1849  and  1850,  caused  by  the  gold  dis- 
covery, agriculture  took  a  new  start.  In  the  latter  year  a  few  people  had  set- 
tled on  the  bottom  lands,  with  the  intention  of  making-  this  their  future  home. 


At  that  time,  a  fine  growth  of  oak  and  sycamore  timber  skirted  the  river 
banks,  and  in  some  places  extended  back  upon  the  plains.  The  first 
industry  engaged  in  was  the  cutting  of  wood,  great  quantities  of  which  were 
used  by  the  steamers  and  by  the  residents  of  the  city.  Another  was  the  cut- 
ting of  hay,  which  grew  wild  on  the  bottom  land  in  great  luxuriance.  Hay  was 
in  great  demand  in  the  mines  and  cities ;  and  the  immense  number  of  pack 
and  stage  animals  required  to  transact  business,  and  transport  goods  and 
passengers,  made  the  price  of  hay  reach  a  high  figure.  Little  had  been  cut  or 
used  in  1849 ;  but  the  following  year  a  great  many  people  located  hay  claims 
on  which  they  remained  long  enough  to  gather  the  abundant  crop,  and  then 
abandoned  them  until  the  next  season.  These,  with  a  few  settlers  who  made 
permanent  locations,  cut  thousands  of  tons,  the  demand  being  even  then  too 
great  to  be  fully  supplied.  The  wild  grass  was  a  species  of  timothy  and  clover 
that  grew  without  any  cutivation,  and  made  a  most  excellent  quality  of  hay. 
Hundreds  of  cords  of  wood  were  cut  and  piled  on  the  river  banks  for  future 
use,  the  dry,  dead  timber  being  used  while  the  other  was  seasoning.  Even 
as  late  as  1858,  the  cutting  of  wood  and  wild  hay  was  the  leading  industry 
among  the  ranchers  along  the  river. 

The  first  broom  corn  was  raised  in  Sutter  County  in  1855  by  one  Mr. 
Ryan  on  his  farm  north  of  Yuba  City,  now  Lomo.  The  next  year  several 
others  planted  it,  and  in  a  few  years  it  had  become  one  of  the  leading  crops  on 
the  bottom  lands  of  the  county. 

At  one  time  particular  attention  was  paid  to  sugar  cane  and  castor  beans ; 
but  these  were  soon  abandoned  for  products  that  made  better  returns. 

The  earliest  orchards  in  Sutter  County,  so  far  as  is  known,  were  those 
planted  by  Claude  Chana  and  General  Sutter  at  Hock  Farm.  In  1880  the 
orchard  of  John  Briggs  near  Yuba  City  was  well  advanced  and  was  con- 
sidered one  of  the  largest  orchards  in  the  State.  Briggs'  Early  May  peaches 
gained  a  State-wide  reputation  for  lusciousness.  At  the  same  time  Yuba 
County  had  several  orchards  bearing  peaches  in  the  bottom  lands  east  of 
Marysville.  These  were  owned  by  Michael  McAdams,  Grass  Brothers, 
Tremblay  Brothers  and  others,  all  of  whom  engaged  in  grape-growing  and 
wine-making  later.  Further  mention  of  the  early  orchards  of  Sutter  County 
is  made  in  the  chapter  on  Horticulture  and  Viticulture. 

Importation  and  Exportation  of  Wheat 

Until  the  fact  was  demonstrated  that  wheat  could  be  raised  in  sufficient 
quantities  and  of  satisfactory  quality,  flour  was  brought  from  Chile,  Aus- 
tralia, and  the  celebrated  Gallego  and  Haxhall  mills  of  Virginia.  Even  after 
mills  were  built,  wheat  was  imported,  both  because  a  sufficient  quantity  was 
not  raised  at  home,  and  because  that  raised  was  not  believed  to  be  of  good 
quality.  By  about  1856,  however,  enough  wheat  was  produced  to  supply  the 
demand,  and  the  mills  ceased  to  import  wheat,  and  the  merchants,  flour. 

Having  accomplished  this,  the  farmers  and  grain  dealers  could  see  noth- 
ing further  ahead,  and  agricultural  progress  was  for  a  time  at  a  standstill. 
The  idea  of  exporting  did  not  enter  their  minds,  for  they  thought  the  attempt 
would  be  futile.  The  wheat,  they  reasoned,  would  not  stand  the  journey  East 
or  to  Liverpool,  twice  through  the  tropics  and  around  Cape/  Horn.  The  ex- 
tremes of  heat  and  cold  would  cause  "sweating"  and  destruction.  Conse- 
quently no  attempt  was  made  to  export  until  about  1861,  when  astute  dealers 
sent  a  cargo  to  Liverpool,  taking  the  chances  of  losing,  but  determined  to  try 
the  experiment.  The  cargo  arrived  safely  and  in  excellent  condition ;  a  sec- 
ond was  sent,  and  that  also  arrived  in  the  best  of  order.  This  established  the 
fact  that  wheat  could  be  shipped  from  California ;  and  as  a  result  an  immedi- 
ate impetus  was  given  to  grain-exportation,  and  also  to  its  production. 


The  Farmers'  Cooperative  Union  of  Sutter  County 

As  early  as  1869,  the  farmers  throughout  the  State  began  to  complain  of 
the  hardships  wrought  by  the  rings  and  speculators  who  dealt  in  agricultural 
products.  Combinations  of  speculators  had  been  formed  that  kept  down  the 
price  of  grain  at  home,  so  that  the  farmer,  notwithstanding  a  good  market 
abroad,  could  obtain  but  little  for  his  produce.  Combinations  also  kept  trans- 
portation rates  at  a  high  figure,  and  rings  kept  the  price  of  bags  far  above 
their  legitimate  value.  After  a  few  years  of  complaining,  the  farmers  set 
themselves  to  work  to  rectify  their  grievances.  In  1872  a  great  many  "Farm- 
ers' Clubs"  were  formed,  where  the  farmers  meti  together  to  discuss  the  situ- 
ation and  ascertain  what  was  best  to  be  done.  One  of  these  clubs  was  formed 
in  Yuba  City.  After  much  futile  discussion,  the  members  began  to  realize 
the  need  of  some  legal  organization,  and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  inves- 
tigate the  matter.  The  club  decided  to  incorporate,  and  didi  so  on  March  29, 
1873.  The  name  given  the  organization  was  "The  Farmers'  Cooperative  Union 
of  Sutter  County."  The  capital  stock  was  fixed  at  $50,000,  divided  into  1000 
shares  of  $50  each.  The  life  of  the  concern  was  placed  at  fifty  years,  and 
Yuba  City  was  made  the  principal  place  of  business.  The  first  board  of 
directors  comprised  the  following:  S.  E.  Wilson,  president;  B.  F,  Walton, 
secretary ;  George  Ohleyer,  treasurer ;  A.  L.  Chandler,  Francis  Hamlin, 
George  E.  Brittan,  and  Henry  Elmer.  In  1873  the  union  purchased  128,000 
grain  bags  at  wholesale  rates,  on  credit,  and  sold  them  to  stockholders  at  cost 
price  ;  and  thus  the  farmers  began  at  once  to  derive  an  actual  benefit  from  the 
union.  In  1874  a  large  brick  warehouse  was  built  in  Yuba  City.  It  had  a  stor- 
age capacity  of  5000  tons,  the  building  at  the  start  being  80  by  200  feet,  with 
a  shed  its  whole  length  27  feet  wide.  The  building  was  not  completed  until 
September,  and  but  2200  tons  were  stored  that  year,  only  enough  to  pay  ex- 
penses. I,n  1875  there  were  5300  tons  stored,  and  in  1876,  5100  tons.  In 
1877  there  was  a  bumper  crop  of  grain,  and  the  warehouse  was  full  by  the 
4th  of  July.  Evidently  more  storage  room  was  required.  The  directors  had 
previously  purchased  four  acres  of  land  on  an  Indian  mound  on  the  river  bank 
for  $6000;  and  they  now  proceeded  to  erect  a  frame  warehouse,  60  by  108  feet, 
with  a  shed  21  by  108  feet;  capacity, "2500  tons.  Grain  was  received  there  on 
August  1,  and  the  building  was  soon  full. 

On  March  31,  1879,  a  cash  dividend  of  $10  per  share  was  declared.  The 
report  of  the  directors  showed  a  plant  worth  $30,000  belonging  to  the  union. 
George  Ohleyer  was  the  business  manager  in  the  years  when  he  and  his  as- 
sociates reaped  the  benefits.  In  1874  there  was  a  change  in  the  directorship, 
George  W.  Carpenter  taking  the  place  of  George  E.  Brittan,  who  resigned. 
George  Ohleyer  became  secretary  in  1876,  and  George  W.  Carpenter,  treas- 
urer. B.  F.  Walton  was  elected  treasurer  in  1878.  By  the  quantity  of  its 
freight,  the  union  materially  assisted  in  maintaining  the  line  of  steamers 
owned  by  the  Marysville  Steamboat  Company,  and  thus  indirectly  was  a 
benefit  to  all  classes  of  shippers,  by  keeping  the  rates  of  transportation  low. 

AVhen  the  river  channel  became  clogged  with  debris  and  prevented  the 
river  steamers  from  reaching  the  two  warehouses  built  on  the  bank  of  the 
stream,  the  organization  erected  on  the  line  of  the  railroad  near  the  Yuba 
City  Flour  Mill  a  large  corrugated-iron  warehouse,  which  at  once  was  in 
demand.  This  building  was  sold  about  1912  to  the  Northern  Electric  Rail- 
road Company,  now  the  Sacramento  Northern  Railroad  Company.  It  is  now 
owned  by  the  Prune  and  Apricot  Growers'  Association. 

Farmers'  Union  Bank 

The  Farmers'  Union  Bank,  now  the  First  National  Bank  of  Yuba  City 
and  Savings  Bank  of  Sutter  County,  was  the  financial  branch  of  the  Farmers' 


Cooperative  Union  during  all  the  years  it  was  in  existence.  Charles  R.  Boyd, 
now  president  of  this  bank,  was  first  connected  with  the  association  as  a 
weigher  in  the  warehouses.  He  has  now  been  with  the  concern  for  over  forty- 
two  years.  In  1908  he  succeeded  the  late  George  W.  Carpenter  as  its  head. 
The  bank  now  occupies  its  own  building  on  Bridge  Street.  It  was 
formerly  located  in  the  quarters  now  occupied  by  the  Van  Arsdale  Mer- 
cantile Company,  next  door. 

Producers'  Bank  of  Yuba  City 

In  March,  1924,  there  was  organized  by  interests  in  Yuba  and  Sutter 
Counties  closely  allied  with  the  Bank  of  Italy  the  Producers'  Bank  of  Yuba 
City.  The  first  meeting  of  stockholders  was  held  Saturday,  March  15,  for 
the  purpose  of  electing  officers  and  discussing  business  matters.  Alvin  Weis, 
Marysville  attorney,  was  chosen  president.  Other  officers  elected  were: 
Trusten  P.  Coats,  Jr.,  secretary  and  cashier ;  Dunning  Rideout,  Marysville 
manager  of  the  Bank  of  Italy,  first  vice-president ;  and  C.  B.  Harter,  second 
vice-president.  A  week  later  an  offer  by  Schneider  Brothers  of  Marysville 
of  a  free  site  was  accepted  by  the  directors ;  and  decision  was  made  next  day 
to  erect  a  building,  at  a  cost  of  at  least  $10,000,  on  the  east  side  of  Plumas 
Street,  near  the  intersection  of  Scott  Street,  in  Yuba  City. 

The  following  were  the  stockholders  of  the  new  bank  at  its  establish- 
ment: A.  W.  Graves,  F.  W.  Cooper,  Alvin  Weis,  C.  B.  Harter,  Albert 
Andross,  Kenyon  T.  Gregg,  George  F.  Otis,  Dunning  Rideout,  George  Wal- 
ton, Gerald  F.  Raub,  N.  J.  Weber,  Jr.,  Howard  H.  Harter,  A.  W.  Gluckman, 
H.  H.  Wolfskill,  Charles  Beaver,  Glen  Onstott,  E.  E.  Bryan,  C.  J.  Harter, 
Orlin  C.  Harter,  L.  J.  Harter,  Harry  E.  Meyers,  P.  A.  Reische,  Josephine 
Steiner,  J.  H.  Backus,  V.  H.  Triplett,  Frank  Brandstatt,  C.  H.  Stohlman, 
Samuel  H.  Hogeboom,  Wallace  Williams,  Rollin  Williams,  Cyrus  Graffis, 
R.  G.  Smith,  Fred  H.  Heiken,  Carayl  Kenyon,  Eva  K.  Gregg,  Thomas  Brad)', 
Howard  F.  Brady,  E.  H.  Meyer,  John  Pohle,  L.  C.  Stohlman,  Lillie  Stohlman, 
Clara  Stohlman,  S.  E.  Reische,  John  Joaquin,  Hazel  Hoke,  Thomas  T.  Joaquin, 
Dalton  Z.  Look,  C.  E.  Sullivan,  Frank  R.  Close,  E.  W.  Hixson,  J.  R.  Howlett, 
William  H.  Street,  George  N.  Schneider,  Seymour  N.  Schneider,  Stockholders' 
Auxiliary  Corporation. 

Nicolaus  Farmers'  Grain  Warehouse 

In  the  southern  part  of  the  county  farmers  also  united  to  protect  their 
interests.  The  Nicolaus  Farmers'  Grain  Warehouse  was  formed  in  1873,  with 
a  paid-up  capital  of  $4900,  in  shares  of  $100.  A  frame  warehouse  with  a 
capacity  of  2500  tons  was  built  the  same  year.  It  was  erected  on  the  river 
bank  at  Nicolaus  in  the  shape  of  a  trapezoid.  The  shipment  of  grain  the 
first  year  was  4000  tons.  The  officers,  from  its  organization,  were :  A.  L. 
Chandler,  president ;  J.  D.  Barbee,  secretary ;  and  John  Peters,  treasurer. 

Early-Day  Growers  of  Grain 

Among  those  who  pioneered  in  the  days  when  grain  was  the  chief  prod- 
uct of  Sutter  County's  vast  acreage,  and  whose  descendants  are  now  reap- 
ing the  benefits  of  the  splendid  commonwealth  they  created  in  this  wonderful 
section,  are :  W.  W.  Ashford,  A.  F.  Abbott,  Richard  Barnett,  Thomas 
Brophy,  W.  Y.  Blevin,  I.  N.  Brock,  Stephen  Bokman,  W.  H.  Boulware,  Cyrus 
Briggs,  Henry  Best,  M.  C.  Barney,  J.  S.  Boyd,  Thomas  Boyd,  Robert 
Boyd,  Francis  Berk,  J.  H.  Brockman,  C.  P.  Berry,  R.  C.  Berry,  John  Burns, 
George  E.  Brittan,  Boyd  &  Wilcoxon,  M.  T.  Buchanan,  Z.  Best,  M.  Boul- 
ware, Henry  Berg  and  brothers,  Boyd  &  Cockerill,  P.  L.  Bunce,  C.  G. 
Bockius,  J.  W.  Carpenter,  S.  R.  Chandler,  Thomas  Christopherson,  Y.  S. 
Clyma,    Otis   Clark,    Patrick   Corcoran,   J.    M.    Cope,    Frank    Clyma,    W.   A. 


Coats,  John  Carroll,  J.  C.  Donohoe,  Fred  Dahling,  Eli  Davis,  J.  F.  C.  DeAYitt, 
William  G.  DeWitt,  M.  C.  Ellis,  J.  H.  Erich,  S.  R.  Fortna,  D.  C.  Fortna,  John 
Fortna,  E.  P.  Farmer,  B.  F.  Frisbie,  Charles  A.  Glidden,  Maragaret  Giblin, 
J.  Guidery,  Timothy  Guidery,  George  W.  Gray,  B.  C.  Gray,  Joseph  Girdner, 
Moore  Getty,  Evan  Griffith,  Konrad  Gottwals,  John  Gelzhauser,  Jesse  O. 
Goodwin,  John  Haugh,  Daniel  Hogan,  Barney  Hippert,  G.  Heidoting,  B.  F. 
Henderson,  E.  J.  Howard,  C.  D.  Herrick,  Francis  Hamlin,  F.  Hoke,  T.  B. 
Hull,  Suel  Harris,  Henry  Johnson,  Robert  Keck,  Michael  Kerns,  T.  D.  Kirk, 
Barney  Krehe,  Peter  Kerrigan,  Henry  Krehe,  Caspar  Euckehe,  A.  H.  Lamme, 
Fred  Lauber,  AY.  P.  Lipp,  William  McMurtry,  Charles  Myers,  Adam  Michel, 
T.  S.  Metteer,  C.  H.  Metteer,  William  Manaugh,  James  Murray,  Mrs.  E.  E. 
Moore,  A.  C.  and  G.  A.  Morehead,  N.  D.  Monger,  J.  Monger,  William  Moore, 
Marcuse  Brothers,  R.  McRae,  J.  T.  McMurtry,  John  McNamara,  Peter 
McAuslan,  T.  F.  McVey,  Phil  McCune,  R.  W.  McLaughlin,  John  McAlpine, 
W.  H.  McPherrin,  David  McAuslan,  Samuel  McClure,  Martha  McPhetridge, 
J.  C.  Newkom,  A.  S.  Noyes,  Matthew  Nail,  Frank  Nau,  P.  M.  Neisen,  Eric 
Nelson,  Peter  Nelson,  J.  Y.  Newman,  D.  A.  Ostrom,  D.  O'Banion,  William 
O'Banion.  George  Ohleyer,  Joseph  O'Connor,  Michael  O'Connor,  J.  A. 
Onstott,  J.  P.  Onstott  Dennis  O'Neil,  Patrick  O'Connor,  Eli  Porter,  J.  C. 
Porter,  William  Peters,  Phil  Prather,  David  Powell.  Richard  Powell,  A.  J. 
Percy,  G.  A.  Putnam,  E.  Proper,  Peter  Peters,  Claus  Peters,  Sumner  Paine, 
Packard  &  Woodruff,  William  Powell.  J.  A,  Peters,  Parks  &  Brother,  W.  H. 
Perdue,  Parks  &  AVilcoxon,  J.  Rackerby,  William  Rackerby,  I.  N.  Ramsdell, 
Hanora  Ryan,  Elizabeth  Ramey,  G.  F.  Starr,  H.  Stohlman,  J.  &  M.  Schwall, 
C.  Stolp,  H.  Sankey,  Toseph  Schwall,  F.  Sankey,  Paul  Schillig,  James  Strip- 
lin,  B.  R.  Spillman,  W.  T.  Spillman,  W.  E.  Striplin,  F.  M.  Striplin,  J.  W. 
Snowball,  Mrs.  Annie  Stewart,  Mrs.  C.  E.  Sanborn,  William  Sanders,  S.  J. 
Stabler,  G.  M.  Saye,  Jackson  Simpson,  H.  H.  Scheussler,  Adam  Scheussler, 
Fred  Sulzberger,  fohn  Spangler,  John  Soderlund,  G.  R.  Summy,  John  Schlag, 
B.  F.  Stoker,  R:  AY.  Tharp,  William  Trevathan,  Fred  Tarke,  E.  F.  Thorn- 
brough,  Eli  Teegarden,  John  Ury,  P.  V.  Veeder,  Fred  Vahle.  A.  Van  Arsdale, 
M.  P.  E.  Vivian,  Jacob  Vahle.  J.X.  Wilbur,  John  Wilkie,  A.  H.  Wilbur,  Jacob 
Weis,  Mary  Weber,  B.  F.  Walton,  George  Walton,  W.  J.  Walton,  R.  H. 
Walton,  H.  A.  Walton,  I.  A.  Winship,  Walter  Woodworih,  E.  K  Wilson, 
E.  Wilder,  Conrad  Weigers,  Valentine  Witt,  J.  A.  Wilkinson,  T-  E.  Whitlock, 
I.  Whyler,  William  Whyler,  Edward  Whyler,  O.  A.  Wilbur,  David  Wilkie, 
William  Wadsworth,  M.  C.  Woods,  J.  B.  Wadsworth,  S.  E.  Wilson,  C.  E. 
Wilcoxon,  J.  W.  Woods,  AY.  AY.  Wilbur,  Justus  A.  AArilkinson,  Jack  AVilcoxon, 
Steve  AA^eigers,  Bethel  Way,  Conrad  Walthers.  AY  J.  Yates,  Solomon  Zeigler, 
John  Zimmerman,  and  George  Zins. 

Rice  a  New  Crop  in  Sutter  County 
No  other  single  crop  and  related  industry  have  ever  developed  so  rapidly, 
and  attained  to  such  tremendous  proportions  in  only  a  few  years,  as  have 
the  rice  crop  and  rice  industry  in  California.  It  was  early  found  that  certain 
lands,  known  as  "goose  lands,"  and  lying  in  different  portions  of  Sutter 
County,  were  adapted  to  rice.  One  of  the  first  crops  of  rice  raised  yielded 
to  the  combined  owners  over  $1,000,000.  In  that  year  rice  brought  from 
six  and  one-half  to  eight  cents  per  pound. 

Beans  and  the  Full  Dinner  Pail 
As  many  as  30,000  acres  of  Sutter  County  land  have  been  planted  to 
beans  in  a  single  year.  This  means  row  upon  row,  and  land  following  land, 
almost  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach.  Small  white,  large  white,  pink  and  bayo 
are  the  four  varieties  most  generally  grown,  although  the  black-eye  is  in 
some  localities  grown   to  a  considerable   extent. 



Marvelous  indeed  is  the  transformation  that  has  come  to  Sutter  County 
since  the  days  described  in  the  previous  chapter.  From  a  great  and  vast 
acreage  of  grain  and  hay,  with  here  and  there  a  home,  to  a  panorama  of 
orchards  and  vineyards,  each  a  home-place  added  to  the  thickly  dotted  land- 
scape, is  a  change  scarce  dreamed  of  by  the  men  and  women  who  blazed 
the  way  to  the  present  stage  in  the  county's  agricultural  development. 

Sutter  County  of  today  is  the  result  of  a  combination  nowhere  equalled — 
a  combination  of  soil  and  water  in  alliance  with  a  climate  that  does  more 
than  any  other  on  the  face  of  old  Mother  Earth,  to  make  plant  life  thrive 
and  do  its  best.  The  fruitful  results  of  this  three-fold  union  of  earth's  great- 
est riches  are  everywhere  in  evidence  in  Sutter  County. 

For  countless  centuries,  what  is  now  Sutter  County,  like  the  Valley  of 
the  Nile,  was  annually  flooded  with  the  waters  that  flowed  down  the  Sacra- 
mento and  Feather  Rivers  from  the  Coast  Range  and  Sierra  Nevada  Moun- 
tains that  border,  on  each  side,  the  great  interior  valley  of  California.  By 
far  the  greater  portion  of  the  county  lies  between  the  Sacramento  and  Feather 
Rivers,  while  the  remaining  portion  stretches  along  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Sacramento  and  south  of  the  Bear.  Year  after  year  the  mountain  silt  was 
washed  down  by  these  streams  and  spread  out  like  a  blanket  over  what 
is  now  Sutter  County.  This  silt-like  loam,  thus  finally  brought  to  the 
level  of  the  adjacent  lands,  is  deeper  than  the  roots  of  trees  or  vines  ever  go, 
and  the  three  rivers  furnish  ample  liquid  nourishment  for  the  successful 
carrying  on  of  every  kind  of  agricultural  enterprise. 


Away  back,  somewhere  about  1850.  the  first  orchard  in  Northern  Cali- 
fornia was  planted  at  Hock  Farm  on  the  Feather  River,  about  nine  miles 
south  of  Yuba  City,  by  Gen.  John  A.  Sutter,  one  of  the  West's  most  con- 
spicuous pioneers.  This  first  orchard  soon  became  famous,  and  marked  the 
simple  beginning  of  an  industry  that  is  still  a  baby  in  arms  in  comparison 
with  the  possibilities  of  its  ultimate  development.  Sutter  County  is  surely 
destined  to  become,  at  no  distant  day,  one  great  orchard  and  vineyard. 

County  Horticultural  Commissioner  H.  P.  Stabler,  in  1922,  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  first  annual  Peach  Day  Celebration,  thus  wrote  of  Sutter  County's 
claim  to  the  title  of  "Home  of  the  Cling  Peach" : 

"Gen.  John  A.  Sutter,  soon  after  the  discovery  of  gold,  left  Sut- 
ter's Fort  at  Sacramento  and  built  a  home  on  Hock  Farm  on  the  Feather 
River,  nine  miles  south  of  Yuba  City.  Here  he  planted  a  peach  orchard,  the 
first  peach  orchard  in  Sutter  County.  In  1860  John  Briggs,  P.  L.  Bunce, 
Dr.  A.  L.  Chandler,  and  Dr.  Eli  Teegarden  planted  peach  orchards  in  Sutter 
County.  A.  F.  Abbott  and  Joseph  Phillips  planted  fifty-five  acres  of  cling 
peaches  in  1882,  about  nine  miles  south  of  Yuba  City.  This  orchard  was 
extended  in  a  few  years  to  425  acres,  and  in  this  orchard  the  famous  Phillips 
cling,  a  chance  seedling,  was  found  in  1888. 

"B.  F.  Walton,  now  deceased,  one  of  Sutter  County's  most  progressive 
citizens,    organized    a    cooperative    association    in    1883    and    built    a    fruit- 


canning  factory  in  Yuba  City.  The  building  of  this  plant,  the  Sutter  Can- 
ning &  Packing  Company,  stimulated  the  planting  of  cling  peaches,  so  that 
in  each  year  since,  the  production  has  grown  by  leaps  and  bounds. 

"Joseph  Phillips  imported  some  trees  of  a  cling  peach  from  Augusta, 
Georgia,  about  1885.  This  was  known  as  the  Tuskenia,  the  name  being  grad- 
ually changed  to  Tuscan.  This  cling,  now  grown  in  cling-peach  districts 
all  over  the  State,  was  first  grown  in  California  in  Sutter  County.  The 
Walton,  the  Johnson  and  the  Hauss  clings,  popular  midsummer  varieties, 
ripening  after  the  Tuscan  and  before  the  Phillips,  originated  in  the  orchards 
of  P.  A.  Walton,  J.  Sander  Jphnson,  and  Ferdinand  Hauss." 

Abbott  and  Phillips 

To  A.  F.  Abbott  and  Joseph  Phillips,  both  now  deceased,  those  who 
have  kept  in  close  touch  with  the  history  of  Sutter  County  assign  the  credit 
for  the  great  fruit  industry  of  Sutter  County.  Abbott  is  often  referred  to 
as  the  real  father  of  the  industry.  The  widow,  children  and  grandchildren 
of  Abbott  are  now  residents  of  Marysville.     Phillips  never  married. 

Abbott  was  a  resident  of  Sutter  County  in  pioneer  days,  and  in  his 
youth  was  an  employee  of  Gen.  John  A.  Sutter  at  Hock  Farm,  where  he 
first  saw  the  possibility  of  fruit-culture. 

It  was  in  1882  that  Abbott  associated  himself  with  Joseph  Phillips, 
who  had  grown  fruit  on  Feather  River  below  Marysville.  They  trans- 
formed Abbott's  extensive  grain  ranch  on  Feather  River,  nine  miles  below 
Yuba  City,  into  one  of  the  finest  orchards  in  California.  This  proved  a 
very  fortunate  combination,  as  each  member  of  the  partnership  was  un- 
equalled in  his  way.  Abbott  was  a  very  successful  fruit-grower,  and  owned 
500  acres  of  land  unusually  suited  to  the  business  of  fruit-raising.  He  was 
active,  intelligent,  and  one  of  the  best  business  men  in  the  county. 

On  the  other  hand,  Joseph  Phillips,  from' his  youth,  had  been  engaged 
in  the  nursery  and  fruit  business,  and  at  the  time  of  planting  the  orchard 
was  considered  the  leading  authority  in  California  on  horticultural  matters. 
He  was  a  keen  observer;  a  successful  experimenter,  trying  out  new  varieties 
to  test  their  adaptability  to  California  conditions ;  a  hybridizer,  crossing 
different  fruits  to  produce  new  varieties ;  and  a  close  student  of  all  matters 
pertaining  to  horticulture. 

Phillips  imported  from  P.  J.  Berckmans,  a  nurseryman  of  Augusta, 
Ga.,  a  cling  peach  called  by  Berckmans  the  Tuskenia.  Phillips  was  the 
tirst  to  grow  this  peach  in  California.  It  is  known  now  as  the  Tuscan,  and 
is  one  of  the  leading  canning  peaches  of  the  State.  Several  of  the  most 
valuable  cultivated  fruits  were  brought  to  the  State  by  Phillips. 

In  the  year  1882  Abbott  and  Phillips  planted  fifty-five  acres ;  and  they 
rapidly  added  to  their  orchard  until  they  had  425  acres.  This  move  was 
watched  by  the  farmers,  and  the  success  of  this  enterprise  stimulated  land- 
owners all  over  the  Sacramento  Valley  to  plant  orchards.  In  1883  the 
farmers  and  business  men  of  the  county  were  so  favorably  impressed  with 
the  possibilities  of  fruit-growing  that  the  Sutter  Canning  &  Packing  Com- 
pany was  organized  and  a  canning  factory  built  in  Yuba  City  the  same  year. 
The  first  fruit  canned  in  Sutter  County  was  grown  and  gathered  in  the  Abbott 
&  Phillips  orchard. 

Birth  of  the  Phillips  Cling  Peach 

Phillips  was  always  on  the  alert  for  new  and  desirable  varieties.  In 
1888,  he  discovered  in  the  orchard  a  chance  seedling  peach  with  so  many 
good  qualities  that  he  budded  a  few  trees.  From  that  beginning,  growers 
and  nurserymen  secured  the  now  famous  Phillips  cling  peach,  which  is  now 
grown  in  every   cling-peach   district   of   California. 


The  remains  of  Phillips  now  lie  in  an  unmarked  grave  in  the  Marys- 
ville  cemetery,  a  grave  supplied  by  the  generosity  of  a  few  friends  who 
admired  him  during  his  lifetime  and  mourned  his  death.  It  has  been  sug- 
gested in  recent  years — and  the  movement  promises  to  take  form — that 
those  who  profited  through  the  cling  peach  (and  they  are  numerous),  and 
who  appreciate  the  good  that  Phillips  wrought  for  the  fruit  industry  of  this 
section,  contribute  to  a  fund  for  the  erection  of  a  shaft  to  mark  the  grave  of 
their  benefactor. 

The  full  name  of  the  originator  of  the  Phillips  cling  peach  was  Joseph 
Duke  Phillips. 

Other  Pioneer  Fruit  Growers 

In  another  chapter  we  have  listed  the  men  wrho  pioneered  in  the  grain 
era  of  Sutter  County.  Those  also  who  paved  the  way  to  the  great  fruit  era 
in  which  the  county  is  now  prospering  should  not  be  forgotten.  Sharing 
early  honors  with  A.  F.  Abbott,  Joe  Phillips,  and  Gen.  John  A.  Sutter,  who 
no  doubt  brought  the  first  olive  trees,  fig  trees,  and  vines  to  his  place  at 
Hock  Farm,  presumably  from  the  California  Missions,  are  the  late  P.  L. 
Bunce  and  John  Briggs,  who  had  orchards  south  of  Yuba  City  early  in  the 
sixties.  The  Bunce  properties  are  still  known  as  such,  while  the  Briggs 
orchard  is  now  known  as  the  Dr.  Jackson  place.  Besides  making  a  success 
of  deciduous  fruits,  P.  L.  Bunce  pioneered  in  citrus  fruits  also,  though  not 
on  a  large  scale. 

It  was  about  the  year  1867  that  the  Briggs  orchard  of  100  acres,  then 
considered  a  large  tract  for  fruits,  became  famous  all  over  California,  both  for 
the  quality  of  the  fruit  produced  and  for  the  many  varieties  cultivated. 
Briggs  had  pears,  peaches,  cherries,  apricots,  figs,  prunes,  nectarines,  apples, 
and  nuts  on  the  place.  It  was  from  this  orchard  that  the  first  carload  of 
California  fruit  to  be  shipped  to  the  East  was  picked  in  1876.  The  buyer 
was  Edwin  T.  Earl,  who  later  organized  on  this  coast  the  well-known  Earl 
Fruit  Company.  Notable  in  the  old  Briggs  orchard  at  the  present  time  are  the 
large  and  beautiful  pecan  trees  which  Briggs  planted  fifty-five  years  ago. 
These  trees  still  are  in  bearing,  although  no  one  seems  to  benefit  by  their 
present  efforts.     They  were  the  first  pecans  planted  in  California. 

Dr.  S.  R.  Chandler  also  ranks  as  an  early-day  grower.  As  early  as 
1857,  he  had  a  small  orchard  planted  to  peaches,  pears,  and  some  other  fruits. 

S.  J.  Stabler,  father  of  the  present  horticultural  commissioner,  and  B.  G. 
Stabler,  an  uncle  of  H.  P.  Stabler,  each  put  out  orchards  in  1885.  They  had 
100  acres  each,  and  their  places  were  located  a  short  distance  west  of  Yuba 
City.     In  the  same  year  Dr.  S.  R.  Chandler  added  to  his  plantings. 

C.  F.  Butler  of  Yuba  City,  E.  W.  Hixson  of  Franklin  Corners,  and  T.  B. 
Hull,  "down  the  river,"  became  interested  in  horticulture  about  the  same 
time.  G.  F.  Starr  followed  with  a  large  orchard  planting  on  his  place  north 
of  Yuba  City,  which  tract  now  adjoins  that  of  R.  W.  Skinner  on  the  north 
and,  like  Skinner's,  borders  the  State  Highway. 

In  1886,  the  late  B.  F.  Walton  laid  the  foundation  for  the  fruit  industry 
that  has  spread  widely  in  the  Bogue  section.  He  chose  peaches,  almonds, 
and  prunes.     Walton  organized  the  first  canning  concern  in  Sutter  County. 

The  Cutts  &  Hudson  orchard  of  155  acres,  located  near  Live  Oak,  was 
planted  about  this  same  time. 

About  two  years  later,  the  late  J.  T.  Bogue,  after  whom  Bogue  Station, 
popular  fruit-shipping  point,  was  named,  put  out  forty  acres  of  orchard  and 
established  a  nursery.  He  was  the  first  nurseryman  to  propagate  the  Phillips 
cling  peach  commercially. 


R.  W.  Skinner,  now  regarded  as  the  leading  cherry  expert  in  California, 
first  became  prominent  in  the  horticultural  field  about  this  time.  He  came 
to  this  section  from  San  Jose  about  1887,  and  was  the  founder  of  a  local 
branch  of  the  Golden  Gate  Packing  Company.  He  previously  had  leased 
orchards,  purchased  crops,  and  engaged  as  a  shipper  in  several  sections, 
including  the  orange  belt  of  Palermo,  in  Butte  County.  He  is  now  interested 
in  one  of  the  largest  cherry  orchards  of  Sutter  County,  north  of  Yuba  City. 

Plantings  in  the  early  nineties  included  the  famed  Giblin  Brothers' 
cherry  orchard,  just  south  of  Yuba  City.  Owing  to  the  good  care  given 
to  the  sixty  acres  of  trees  planted  on  wonderful  land  specially  adapted  to  the 
cherry,  tremendous  crops  of  this  fruit  were  produced  for  years,  and  still 
are  being  harvested. 

Herman  Berg,  of  Berg  Brothers,  early  settlers,  put  out  twelve  acres 
of  olives  about  this  time,  north  of  Yuba  City,  and  Marcuse  Brothers  also 
planted  100  acres  to  fruits  on  the  bank  of  Feather  River,  their  place  being 
east  of  Marcuse  Station. 

About  the  same  time,  also,  B.  S.  J.  Hiatt  planted  a  large  acreage  to 
pears  on  the  bank  of  Sacramento  River,  near  Kirksville.  These  plantings 
were  preceded  by  a  few  years  by  one  on  Bear  River,  northeast  of  Nicolaus. 
C.  P.  Berry,  who  later  became  State  Senator  representing  this  district,  was 
the  founder  of  this  orchard  of  peaches  and  pears. 

An  interesting  planting  about  this  time  was  made  by  the  late  E.  F. 
Thornbrough  along  the  Sacramento  River,  south  of  Meridian.  Thornbrough 
chose  the  "Robe  de  Sargent"  prunes,  now  known  as  the  "robe,"  among 
orchardists.  They  were  the  first  of  this  variety  of  prune  to  be  planted  in 
Sutter  County;  and  at.  once  the  fruit  grew  into  popularity.  The  trees 
planted  by  Thornbrough  are  still  bearing  profitably. 

The  oldest  prune  orchard  in  Sutter  County  is  that  planted  in  1890  by 
Wesley  T.  Wilson,  who  showed  foresightedness  by  putting  out  a  large  tract 
to  this  fruit  on  the  bank  of  Feather  River  southeast  of  Tudor.  This  orchard 
still  has  the  record  for  production,  yielding  seven  tons  of  dried  fruit  to  the 
acre.  The  place  is  now  owned  by  H.  Cheim,  of  Marysville,  and  J.  A.  Ben- 
nett, of  Sutter  County. 

G.  F.  Starr  also  pioneered  in  prunes  at  his  place  north  of  Yuba  City. 


To  print  a  list  of  those  now  engaged  in  the  peach  industry  in  Sutter 
County  would  be  to  publish  almost  a  complete  census  of  the  family  heads 
of  the  county.  County  Horticultural  Commissioner  H.  P.  Stabler,  to  whom 
the  compiler  of  this  volume  is  indebted  for  much  data  on  the  history  of 
Sutter  County's  fruit  plantings,  has  iisted  at  the  present  time  637  growers 
of  peaches;  while  of  those  cultivating  fruits,  of  whatever  variety,  Stabler's 
census  shows  the  number  to  be  1034. 

Quality,  and  Tonnage  per  Acre 

Sutter  County's  orchards  are  noted  not  only  for  the  quality  of  the  fruit, 
but  also  for  the  extremely  heavy  tonnage  per  acre.  Miss  Elaine  Wilbur's 
orchard  of  cling  peaches  has  became  famous  throughout  the  country.  For 
two  years  Miss  Wilbur  has  won  the  first  prize  in  the  annual  peach  contest, 
for  quality,  tonnage,  and  condition  of  orchard,  on  Tuscan  and  Phillips  cling 
peaches.  Her  orchard,  when  five  years  old,  had  a  record  of  twenty  tons 
and  two  hundred  forty-two  pounds  per  acre,  on  a  plot  of  thirteen  and  two- 
thirds  acres,  a  record  which  then  stood  unchallenged. 


In  F.  S.  AValton's  orchard  of  Phillips  clings,  one  acre  of  particularly 
fine  trees  produced  twenty-six  tons.  L.  A.  Walton  has  had  trees  of  Phillips 
clings   which   regularly   produced    1000   pounds   per   tree. 

New  Early-fruiting  Midsummer  Peach 

In  the  spring  of  1923,  Roy  Van  Tiger,  a  fruit-grower  of  the  Encinal 
district,  surprised  the  horticultural  world  with  the  announcement  that 
peach  trees  planted  by  him  in  1922  would  produce  early  in  the  summer  of 
1923.  It  proved  to  be  so,  though  the  crop  was  light.  The  newspapers  in- 
vestigated and  found  the  trees  to  be  of  the  new  midsummer  variety  known 
as  the  Palora,  which  had  originated  at  Gridley,  Butte  County,  by  chance. 
The  limbs  were  found  to  be  showing  an  average  of  thirty-five  peaches  to 
the  tree.     Van  Tiger  had  ten  acres  in  his  first  planting. 

M.  J.  Newkom  was  the  first  grower  to  plant  this  new  cling  peach  in 
Sutter  County.  He  now  has  eight  acres  in  full  bearing.  The  peach  is  highly 
valued,  as  it  carries  exceptionally  well  to  distant  canneries  and  its  pro- 
duction record  is  notable.  At  two  years  of  age,  Newkom's  trees  produced 
three  tons  to  the  acre,  and  nine  tons  per  acre  at  three  years.  At  four  years 
the  orchard  produced  fifteen  tons  to  the  acre. 

The  Palora  started  from  a  chance  seedling  found  in  the  yard  of  the 
Gridley  cannery  by  a  man  named  Dixon,  who  sent  the  buds  to  Linden, 
San  Joaquin  County,  for  propagation,  where  the  people  by  whom  he  was 
employed  had  headquarters. 

County  Horticultural  Commissioner  H.  P.  Stabler  has  said  that  the 
Palora  is  rapidly  growing  in  favor  with  the  growers,  and  will  soon  rank  with 
any  of  Sutter  County's  midsummer  varieties.  It  is  the  first  to  appear  each 
season   in  that  class. 


Sharing  honors  with  the  peach,  the  Thompson  Seedless  grape  has  done 
much  to  make  Sutter  County  famous.  From  a  few  cuttings  obtained  by  a 
man  named  William  Thompson,  who  lived  near  Sutter  City,  the  growing  of 
this  valuable  grape  has  been  developed  in  a  little  over  a  decade  into  one  of 
California's  leading  industries. 

The  seedless  grape  of  commerce,  known  here  as  the  Thompson  Seedless, 
was  first  grown  in  this  country  in  Sutter  County.  Its  potential  value  was 
instantly  recognized,  and  extensive  plantings  were  made  as  rapidly  as  cut- 
tings could  be  procured.  Other  sections  of  California  have  adopted  this 
grape,  but  Sutter  County  easily  holds  its  position"  as  its  home  and  principal 
producing  district  in  the  State. 

The  Thompson  Seedless  lays  claim  to  several  superior  qualities.  It  is  a 
medium-sized,  oblong  white  grape,  grows  in  large  clusters  or  bunches,  and 
is  entirely  free  from  seeds.  It  has  no  equal  as  a  raisin  grape,  and  is  also 
delicious  when  eaten  fresh.  It  possesses  a  high  sugar  content  and  a  luscious 
flavor,  which  together  make  it  a  favorite  in  any  market. 

The  Thompson  Seedless  is  shipped  as  a  fresh  grape  to  the  cities  of  the 
Pacific  Coast,  and  growers  are  each  year  expectantly  looking  forward  to  the 
day  when  improved  shipping  facilities  will  permit  its  being  sold  in  larger 
quantities  than  now,  and  delivered  fresh  in  the  cities  of  the  East.  Excellent 
prices  are  received  for  both  the  raisins  and  the  green  grapes. 

Many  other  varieties  of  table  and  wine  grapes,  including  the  well- 
known  Zante  currants,  are  grown  in  this  county. 

Almonds  at  Home  in  Sutter  County 

Almonds  are  particular  about  where  they  grow.  California  is  the  only 
State   that   grows   almonds   commercially ;   and    it    is   not   everywhere,    even 


within  California,  that  this  nut  is  at  home.  Sutter  County  is  one  of  the  most 
favored  almond-growing  districts,  and  this  crop  represents  one  of  its  most 
valuable  industries.  The  almond  is  an  inhabitant  of  temperate  climes.  It 
blossoms  the  earliest  of  all  fruit  trees,  and  will  not  stand  much  frost.  One 
great  advantage  to  the  producer  of  the  almond,  as  well  as  of  other  fruits, 
lies  in  the  fact  that  the  growers  of  California  are  well  organized,  and  a 
central  selling  agency  fixes  the  prices  at  which  the  crop  shall  be  sold,  which 
insures  profitable  selling  prices  and  effectually  checkmates  any  possibility 
of  a  combination  en  the  part  of  the  buyers  to  say  how  much  the  grower 
shall  be  paid  for  his  crop. 

Prunes  and  Plums 

Prunes  and  plums  are  valuable  fruit  crops,  although  they  do  not  repre- 
sent quite  the  acreage  of  peaches,  grapes  or  almonds.  The  crops  are  at 
present  harvested  mostly  from  trees  of  comparatively  recent  planting ;  but 
there  are  hundreds  of  acres  of  young  orchards  that  are  soon  to  come  into 
bearing,  and  heavy  plantings  are  being  made  as  a  result  of  the  large  and 
highly  profitable  crops  from  the  older  trees. 

The  prune  has  always  ranked  as  one  of  California's  most  important 
fruits.  Many  fortunes  have  been  made  from  the  much-abused  prune,  be- 
cause it  is  a  highly  dependable  crop,  and  one  that  can  be  relied  upon  to  run 
true  to  form  year  in  and  year  out. 

Present-day  growers  who  specialize  in  prunes  are.  The  Herman  Berg 
Estate,  Frank  Berry,  Mrs.  G.  H.  Taylor,  Thorn  Brothers,  Henry  Van  Tiger, 
Leonard  Walton,  Glenn  Walton,  Eloyd  Wilbur,  Elaine  Wilbur,  E.  A.  Boyn- 
ton,  Lester  Clark,  A.  W.  Cutts,  A.  W.  Hincks,  A.  E.  Bigger,  M.  J.  Newkom, 
Glenn  Onstott,  J.  A.  Onstott,  G.  H.  Stewart,  Charles  F.  Rednall,  C.  C. 
Schell,  T.  H.  Stafford,  E.  W.  Stanton,  and  Rosenberg  Brothers  &  Company. 

Growing  and  Packing  of  Figs 

Figs  are  an  important  product.  One  of  the  large  dried-fruit  packing- 
houses at  Yuba  City  was  built  for  the  purpose  of  packing  figs.  The  busi- 
ness grew  to  such  proportions  that  dried  figs  were  imported  from  surround- 
ing counties  for  packing.  Nearly  every  grocery  in  the  United  States  at 
this  time  sells  figs  packed  in  Yuba  City.  In  Sutter  County  you  can  liter- 
ally "sit  under  your  own  vine  and  fig  tree." 

Fruit  Plantings  in  1923 

During  the  planting  season  of  1923  the  Sutter  County  acreage  planted 
to  trees,  plants,  shrubs,  and  vines  was  5316  acres.  Of  this  area,  the  acreage 
planted  to  cling  peaches  was  3705.  The  season  eclipsed  all  previous  records 
in  Sutter  County.  The  number  of  trees,  vines,  shrubs  and  plants  inspected 
was  1,334,119.  These  figures  are  taken  from  the  report  of  H.  P.  Stabler, 
horticultural    commissioner    of    the    county. 

The  total  of  peach  trees  planted  during  that  season  was  378,764.  The 
Phillips  cling  predominated,  with  168,763  trees ;  the  Palora  was  next,  with, 
68,882;  and  the  Tuscan  variety  was  third,  with  50,438  trees.  Other  leading 
varieties  planted  were:  Peaks,  22,579;  Libbee,  13,905;  Johnson,  12.233; 
and  Sims,  11,157.  Under  the  10,000  mark  were  the  Hauss,  Guame,  Walton, 
Harris,  Selma,  Flint,  Albright,  Muirs,  Lovel,  and  seedlings. 

The  number  of  prune  trees  set  out  during  this  season  was  54,559,  on 
546  acres.  The  French  led,  with  469  acres ;  Imperials  were  next,  with  36 
acres ;  and  the  Robes  were  third,  with  5  acres.  Thirty-six  acres  were 
planted  to  seedling  prunes. 


Other  varieties  of  trees  planted  during  this  remarkable  season  were : 
Apricots.  4487;  almonds,  11,316;  walnuts,  852;  pears,  4290;  plums,  9590; 
and  cherries,  9509. 

There  was  also  a  large  planting  in  grapes,  the  total  of  vines  put  out 
being  233.005,  distributed  between  the  following  varieties :  Alicante  Bou- 
schet.  90,550;  Thompson  Seedless,  95,705:  Zinfandels,  38,950;  Granache. 
6000:  Muscat,  700;  Emperor,  700;  and  Petit  Sirrah,  400. 



Sutter  and  Yuba  Counties  have  seen  days  other  than  care-free.  During 
the  years  when  the  Sacramento  Valley  was  menaced  by  the  hydraulic  mining 
process,  stout  hearts  and  willing  hands  were  required  to  meet  the  exigencies 
brought  about  by  the  actions  of  the  mountaineers.  Strained  relations  grew 
up  between  the  mountain  and  valley  sections,  and  litigation  in  the  courts 
was  long-drawn-out.  Owners  of  mines  evaded,  by  every  hook  and  crook, 
the  court  processes  issued  after  the  valley  watchmen  sent  into  the  moun- 
tains had  secured  the  evidence. 

Work  of  the  Anti-Debris  Associations 

To  give  strength  to  the  cause  of  the  valley  in  defending  the  homes 
of  its  citizens,  the  Anti-Debris  Association  of  the  Sacramento  Valley  was 
formed,  and  later  on  it  became  necessary  to  organize  a  State-wide  bod)'. 
This  latter  was  known  as  the  California  Debris  Association. 

The  complaints  drawn  by  the  attorneys  employed  by  these  associa- 
tions were  voluminous.  Always  they  pointed  out  that  until  the  process  of 
hydraulic  mining  was  begun,  the  rivers  were  clear  streams  of  water  running 
in  well-defined  channels,  between  natural  banks  sufficiently  high  to  confine 
the  waters  and  protect  the  lands  adjacent  thereto  and  upon  the  margin  of 
the  streams  from  overflow  and  from  damage  by  flood  waters.  The  point 
was  stressed  that  the  grade  of  the  rivers  and  their  tributaries  from  the 
dumps  of  the  hydraulic  mines  to  where  the  stream  debouched  into  the  valley 
exceeded  thirty  feet  to  the  mile,  but  that  from  there  to  the  mouth  of  the 
stream  the  grade  was  much  less,  varying  from  one  to  five  feet  to  the  mile. 
The  complaint  also  averred,  with  good  ground,  that  the  greater  part  of  the 
tailings  and  debris  from  hydraulic  mining  operations  was  swept  away  and 
carried  by  the  force  of  the  water  down  through  the  defiles  and  canyons  of 
the  river  into  the  valley,  and  that  the  deposit  of  the  said  mining  tailings  and 
debris  in  the  headwaters  of  the  rivers  increased  the  grade  of  the  stream 
and  made  it  more  uniform,  and  also  made  the  bottom  smoother  by  filling 
deep  holes  therein,  and  thereby  facilitating  the  downward  flow  of  the  tail- 
ings through  the  mountain  courses  of  the  streams. 

It  was  made  plain  in  the  court  papers  that  from  the  place  of  debouch- 
ment of  the  rivers  into  the  valley  down  to  the  mouth  of  the  river,  owing 
to  the  great  reduction  in  the  grade  of  the  stream,  a  large  portion  of  the 
slickens,  sand,  clay,  and  small  stones  from  the  hydraulic  mines,  instead  of 
passing  through  the  channel  of  the  river,  choked  and  filled  its  channels  and 
overflowed  its  banks  and  the  adjacent  lands. 


Hydraulicking  Defined 

Hydraulic  mining  was  defined,  as  then  practiced,  as  a  mode  or  process 
of  mining  for  gold  through  which  high  banks  of  earth  and  gravel,  usually 
composed  of  strata  containing  gold  enough  to  pay  for  the  washing,  and 
strata  which  did  not  contain  gold,  were  washed  and  removed  from  their 
natural  position,  after  being  shaken  up  and  shattered  by  means  of  immense 
blasts  of  powder,  into  sluiceways  and  flumes,